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Full text of "Bulletin - United States National Museum"

National 

Watercraft 

Collection 



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VIA^SHALL BROOKS LIBRARY 

THE PRiNCIPIA COLLEGE 

ELSAH, ILLINOIS 

DEC 1 I960 
GOVERNMENT DEPOSITORY CORK 



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UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 219 




WASHINGTON, D.C. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1960 



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Publications of the United States National Museum 

The sciemific publications of tlic l)nitcd States National Museum include two 
series, Proceedings oj the United Stales .National Museum and United States National Museum 
Bulletin. 

In these series are published original articles and monographs dealing with the 
collections and work of the Museum and setting forth newly acquired facts in the 
(iclds of Anthropology, Biology, History, Geology, and Technology. Copies of each 
publication are distriljuted to libraries and scientific organizations and to specialists 
and others interested in the different subjects. 

The Proceedings, begun in 1878, are intended for the publication, in separate 
form, of shorter papers. These are gathered in volumes, octavo in size, with the 
publication date of each paper recorded in the table of contents of the volume. 

In the Bulletin series, the first of which was issued in 1875, appear longer, separate 
publications consisting of monographs (occasionally in several parts) and volumes in 
which arc collected works on related subjects. Bulletins are either octavo or quarto 
in size, depending on the needs of the presentation. Since 1902 papers relating to 
the botanical collections of the Museum have been published in the Bulletin series 
under the heading Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 

This work forms nimiber 218 of the Bulletin series. 



Remington Kellogg 
Director, United States National Museum 



United States Government Printing Office, Washington, I960 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. • Price $3.50 (cloth) 



Contents 



Page 

Introduction 3 

The Collection 3 

The Models 6 

Merchant Sail 13 

Colonial Craft 14 

Baltimore Clippers 20 

North Atlantic Packets 26 

Clipper Ships 30 

Coasters 37 

Ocean Freighters 47 

Special Types 50 

Catalog of the Collection — Merchant Sail 55 

Ships 55 

Barks 60 

Brigs, Brigantines 63 

Two-Masted Schooners 73 

Three-Masted Schooners 83 

Pilot Schooners, Pilot Sloops, Yachts 88 

Sloops 94 

Small Craft 98 

Merchant Steam 1 07 

A "Practical" Steamboat 1 10 

Ocean Steamers 113 

Inland and Coastal Steamers 115 

Special Types 119 

Engineering and Design 1 20 

Catalog of the Collection — Merchant Steam 121 

Inland and Ocean Steamers, Freighters, Ore Carriers, Liners 129 

Tugs, Lighthouse Tenders, Lightships 148 

Launches, Yachts, Small Craft 154 



Contents (Continued) 



Pagt 

Fishing Craft 161 

Colonial Craft 162 

Chcbacco Boat Pinky, and Schooner Smack 164 

Sharpshooter and Clipper Fisherman 1 66 

Steam Trawlers 1 72 

Whalers and Scalers 174 

Oyster Boats 176 

Alongshore Fishing Craft 176 

Catalog of the Collection — Fishing Craft 178 

Schooners 178 

Steamers, Launches, Trawlers 236 

Whalers, Research Vessels 245 

Small Craft 250 

Eastern Canada 250 

New England Coast 250 

Middle Atlantic Coast 272 

South Atlantic Coast and Bahamas 281 

Gulf Coast, Florida to Texas 287 

Pacific Coast 297 

Great Lakes 302 

Maritime Materials in the Watercraft Collection 303 

Bibliography 305 

Index 311 



VI 



Illustrations 

?age 

Old watercraft hall, U.S. National Museum; photo 2 

Fisheries exhibit during 1880's, U.S. National Museum; photo 5 

Device for taking off lines from half-model; photo 7 

Standard lift half-model, fasteners removed and lifts spread; photo 8 

Semidecorative lift model, and mirror-mounted half-model of clipper ship 

Comet 9 

Privateer Snap Dragon, builder's block model; photo 11 

Hawk's nest, or crow's nest, half-model with keel and deadwood form shown . 1 1 
Nightingale, clipper ship, built at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1851; from a 

lithograph 13 

Dutch shallop, early schooner-type vessel; from a painting 15 

Earliest plans of an American vessel, sloop A/?(/w/or, 1741-42 17 

Reconstructed sail and rigging plans for sloop A/f(//a<or, 1741-42 18 

Lines of unknown American Revolution privateer ship, 1784 20 

Linesof extreme Baltimore clipper schooner, jVcw/)ar«7, 1801 21 

Lines of privateer Prince de Neujchatcl, built by Adam and Noah Brown at 

New York about 1812 23 

Lines of merchant brigantine, built at Baltimore by Flannigan about 1818-28 . 24 

Lines of 8-gun clipper hermaphrodite brigantine . 4/1/"'^'''"^^) 1838-39 .... 25 

Lines of 2-masted clipper schooner, Fa^j/cro, 1852-53 26 

Neptune, packet ship built by William H. Webb at New York, 1855; from a 

painting 27 

Smith & Dimon Shipyard, New York, about 1831; from a painting .... 29 

Queen of Clippers, American medium clipper, 1853; from an engraving ... 30 

Ocean Herald, clipper ship, 1856; from an engraving \ 31 

Lines of extreme clipper Sunny South, 1854 35 

Lines of clipper ship ivar/«5, 1853 35 

Coeur (/^ Z.;on, medium clipper, 1854; from a painting 36 

Lines of medium clipper Co«!/r (/c Z.?o«, 1854 37 

Blanchard Shipyard, Yarmouth, Maine; photo 39 

J. 5. //o.fA:2n.r, 3-masted schooner, 1886; photo 41 

Bertha Louise, 3-masted schooner, 1 890 ; photo 43 

A7n^ P/n/;/), 4-masted coasting schooner, 1886; from a painting 44 

Deck scene on 4-masted schooner, Sam G. Mengel, 1917; photo 45 

Lines of San Francisco 2-masted scow schooner Robbie Hunter, 1870 .... 46 

Hudson River brick schooner, 1890; photo 47 

San Bias, brigantine, about 1890; photo 48 

E. P. Theriault, 3-masted salt-fish carrier, 1919; photo 49 



vu 



Illustrations {Contimmr) 

Page 

^acaflr, merchaiu. ship, 1834; Iroinaa engraving ^^ 

i?flff//ow, clipper bark, 1850; from an engraving 51 

H7//;amZ.««,T«/;f^ ocean freighting ship, 1874; from an engraving 52 

Down-Easter merchant ship in drydock about 1885; photo 53 

Boston Pilot schooner Hespn\ 1884; photo ■ 54 

Clipper ship ro««? .■Im<77(V7, mirror-mounted half-model, 1853 58 

Linesofcoflce-clipper bark /Irtcmm/f, 1876 ^' ' ' ' 

LinesofNewEnglandmerchant brigs PoH'Artto/ and /VY//;rw/«.f, 1829-30 ... 64 

6fl&A!/r)', kettle-bottom brig, 1844; from a painting 65 

Lines taken ofT Ijuilder's half-model of Baltimore clipper In'ig, 1845 . . . . 67 
Lines of Baltimore-built brigantines C-orge Latimer and Alexamln hirkland, 

1858 '^^ 

Linesof brigantine J. 11'. /'«//,(r, 1874 73 

Lines of square-topsail coasting schooners .4rmt',uV and ffl^/c, 1847 74 

Lines of square-topsail coasting schooner A/arcM Tn7)o;/, 1847 75 

Linesof2-masted coasting schooner, .A'or//i5/flr, 1856 76 

Lines of coasting and packet schooner, /?./?. .S';w;Hcr, 1858 77 

Linesof packet schooner CAonwr, 1860 78 

Coasting schooner Bloomer, 1855; photo °1 

Lines of 2-mastcd coasting schooner Hunter, 1876 82 

Lines of 3-masted ccnterboard coasting schooner Xellie S. Pickering, 1870 . . 84 

Lines of 3-iuasted coasdng schooner I) ';7//<2W F. Fr«(f«r/d-, 1873-74 85 

Cactus, 3-masted schooner, 1890; photo 87 

Lines of Boston pilot schooner L;7//>, 1876 91 

Lines of pilot schooner and yacht O/fl/fl, 1853 93 

Afwn«^(7/Y;, Inland Lake racing scow, 1900, rigged model 97 

Inland Lake racing scow, class A, 1959, rigged model 97 

Egg Harbor melon-seed gunning skifT, rigged model 100 

Lines of Piscataqua River gundalow F(3«/;)' .^/., 1886 103 

Sail plan of Piscataqua River gundalow Fflw?/)' A/ 104 

Oriziba, side-wheel steamer, built at New York by Jacob W'estervelt, 1854; 

from a lithograph 107 

Patent granted to John Fitch by Louis XVI of France, 1791 ; photo of original . 109 
Patent drawing submitted by John Fitch and Henry Voight to New Jersey State 

patent office 110 

Contemporary view of Fulton's steamboat Nortii River; from a lithograph . . Ill 

Reconstruction of A or//(/?«v7; rigged model 112 

Paragon, steamer built for Livingston and Fulton, 1811; from a print .... 113 

Lines of small Hudson River steamer about 1838 115 

Savannah, first steamship to cross Atlantic, 1819; from a drawing by Marestier . 116 

Fulton, side-paddle-wheel steamer, 1856; from a print 117 

Shipyard of New England Shipbuilding Company, Bath, Maine, 1890; photo . 118 

Reconstruction of Fitch's first steamboat, 1786, rigged model 120 

Reconstruction of James Rumscy's steamboat, 1787, rigged model .... 122 

Scale drawing of Stevens' multitubular boiler, 1804 123 

Reconstruction of Stevens' twin-screw steamboat, 1804, rigged model ... 124 

Engine and boiler used in Stevens' first steamboat; photo 125 

Reconstruction of Fulton's steamboat A'or//i /?«rr; rigged model 126 



Vlll 



Illustrations {Continued') 



Page 

Contemporary view of Fulton's steamboat North River; from a watercolor . . 127 

Francis Skiddy, Hudson River steamer, rigged model 130 

A/^'^Mr, steam screw clipper, 1864; from a painting 131 

CwAa, iron screw steamer, 1878, rigged model 132 

j'awM //owara', Mississippi River packet steamer, 1871, rigged model .... 134 

Grey Eagle, Ohio River mail and passenger packet, 1892, rigged model ... 134 

Gr^y isa^/^, river packet, topside detail of rigged model 135 

Hendrick Hudson, steel side-wheel Hudson River steamer, 1 906, rigged model . 1 36 
Thomas A. Edison, wooden stern-wheel river steamer, built at Apalachicola, 

Florida, 1901; photo 136 

Z-ouiV/ana, coastwise packet steamship, 1880; from a painting 140 

Mauretania, trans-Atlantic liner, 1907, rigged model 141 

William G. Mather, single-screw Great Lakes ore and bulk carrier, 1925, rigged 

model 143 

American merchant ship, class Cl-B, modified; photo 144 

American merchant ship, class C-2, modified; photo 145 

Liberty Ship, class EC2-S-C1, fitted for war service; photo 147 

Victory Ship, class VC2-S-AP-2, fitted for war service; photo 147 

William Baxter, Erie Canal steam barge and tug, 1872, rigged model .... 149 

Rattler, iron steam tug, 1879, rigged model 150 

Conestoga, seagoing tug, 1904, rigged model 151 

Thomas E. Moran, modern steel diesel harbor tug, 1938, rigged niodel ... 153 

Seagoing tug and salvage vessel, class \'-4, fitted for war service; photo ... 154 

Motor garvey, low-cost fishing craft, 1950, rigged model 160 

Schooner Mary D. Dyer, built at East Boston by Donald D. McKay, 1860; 

from a painting 161 

Lines of Marblehead-type schooners Sir Edward Hawke and Earl nj Egmont, 

built at New York, 1767 163 

Small Chebacco boat, 1790-95, rigged model 164 

Measured perspective drawing of Chebacco boat about 1795-1805 .... 165 

New England pinky, 1825-45, rigged model 166 

Old fashioned Grand Banks codfishing schooner, 1825; from a drawing . . 167 

Sail plan for fishing schooner, 1836 167 

New England well-smack used for halibut fishery, 1836-47; from a drawing . 168 

Sail plan for sharpshooter fishing schooner i?o/«/), 1847 168 

Sail plan for fishing schooner of clipper model, late 1850's 168 

Halibut-fishing schooner being tripped by heavy sea; from a drawing ... 169 

Inboard profile and deck layout of halibut-fishing schooner, 1880 170 

Z)a«?«/ Afarc)', clipper mackerel seiner, 1882; photo 171 

Crew members of fishing schooner Gc;7;> iT. Fo.fto, 1890; photo 172 

Clara M. Littlefield, Gloucester fishing schooner, 1892; photo 173 

Roh Roy, fishing schooner, 1900, rigged model 173 

Grand Banks fishing schooner converted to whaler, 1899; photo 175 

Lines reconstructed from model of small Chebacco boat, 1790 179 

Square-sterned Chebacco boat, or dogbody, 1800-10, rigged model .... 181 

Lines of Massachusetts fishing pinky iTwe.v, 1821 182 

New England pinky from Friendship, Maine; photo 183 

Sail plan for pinky, 1840 183 



472846—60- 



IX 



Illustrations {Continued') 

Page 

Sail plan for pinky Lowi^oi*. ^'orj', al'oiit 1842 184 

Lines of Gloucester well-smack 67/c?^, 1836 185 

Sail plan of fishing schooner Con^rm, about 1845 186 

Hand-lining under riding sail on Ck-orgcs Bank halilnit schooner, 1840-45; 

from a drawing 

Linesof Chesapeake Bay centcrhoard fishing schooner C. Ctef, 1846 . ... 189 

Dauntless typical schooner at time sharpshooter was merging into clipper, 

1855, rigged model '^- 

Linesof typical Chesapeake Bay pungy schooner about 1885 193 

Lines of Chesapeake Bay pungy schooner /I wflWa F. Z-wotV, 1884 194 

Lines of New England sharpshooter market boat, 1856 195 

Etta G. Fogg, New England clipper fishing schooner, built at Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, 1857, rigged model 196 

Sail plan for Grand Banker 5rM^- O'Dfl)', 1859 ■ 201 

Oasis, small mackerel seiner, 1868; photo 202 

Sail plan for fishing .schooner !/.;<:;> F. C'/;o(7/!(?, 1866 203 

Lines of extreme clipper New England fishing schooner JV/wiiW, 1872 . . . . 207 

Deck plan of codfishing schooner Cratom/fl/, 1876 209 

A/(2r)'F^rn(7W, fishing schooner, 1875, rigged model 210 

Lines of fi.shing schooner A/nn' FcrnflW 211 

Sail plan of fishing schooner A/<7n' F«-«aW 212 

Lines of Key West schooner smack, Noank model. City nf Havana, 1877 ... 213 

Schooner crew baiting trawls, 1880's; photo 214 

Mfli«/ DiV/owa)', mackerel seiner, 1882; photo 215 

Deck plan of mackerel seining schooner about 1885 216 

Tarr & James Shipyard at Essex, Massachu.setts, about 1885; photo .... 217 

Gloucester Harbor in the 1880's; photo 218 

Laura SaywaifJ, medium-sized Gloucester fishing schooner, 1882; photo ... 219 

Gloucester Harbor in 1882; photo 220 

Nannie C. Bolilin. famous racing fisherman, 1890; photo 221 

Fishing schooner on marine railway, 1880's; photo 222 

Schooner Belle Franklin under construction at Willard A. Burnham's Yard in 

Essex, Massachusetts, 1882; photo 225 

Fishing schooner F??a'onM, 1889, rigged model 226 

Lines of fishing schooner F/^(;a'o;?/«, 1889 227 

Sail plan of fishing schooner Frerfon/a, 1889 228 

^7o/'« j'. F/«/;(7<)', codfishing schooner, 1899, rigged model 230 

Rob Roy, fishing .schooner, built at Essex, Massachusetts, 1900, rigged model . 231 
Oxner and Story Shipyard, Essex, Massachusetts, 1902, with first knock- 
about fisherman Helen B. Thomas ready to launch; photo 233 

/. //<'?'rffn//«m, Biloxi fishing schooner under sail, 1921; photo 237 

Camille, paddle-wheel fishing steamer used on North Carolina sounds, 1885; 

photo 238 

Novelty, steam mackerel schooner built at Kcnnebunkport, Maine, 1885; 

photo 239 

Lines of steam mackerel schooner .Voi'c//)', 1885 240 

Royal, Alaskan salmon-fishery schooner, built at Benicia, California, 1891, 

rigged model 241 



Illustrations (Continued^ 

Page 
Alice M. Jacobs, steam mackerel schooner, built at Essex, Massachusetts, 1902, 

rigged model 242 

Storm, dicsel steel trawler, built at Bath, Maine, 1936, rigged model .... 243 

Lines of whaling ship Reindeer, built at Rochester, Massachusetts, 1853 . . . 246 

Orca, whaling steamer, built at San Francisco, 1882, rigged model 248 

Albatross, U.S. Fish Commission iron twin-screw steamer, 1882, rigged model . 249 

Quoddy boat, sardine carrier in use at Eastport, Maine, 1880's, rigged model . 250 

Yankee Hero, quoddy boat, 1889, rigged model 251 

Lines of quoddy boat Yankee Hero, built at Lubec, Maine, 1889 252 

Muscongus Bay sloop, 1880, rigged model 254 

Lines of Maine Hampton boat, 1879 255 

Maine Hampton boat under sail, about 1890; photo 256 

Aqua Pur a, Gloucester waterboat, 1883, rigged model 258 

New England sailing-rowing dory, 1880-83, rigged model 259 

New England shore fishery scene, 1862; photo 261 

Eastern catboats and Block Island boats in harbor, about 1900; photo . . . 263 

No Man's Land boat under sail; photos 264 

Fishing catboat used on Massachusetts and Rhode Island coast, 1875-80; 

rigged model 265 

Lines of Noank well-smack sloop A/a«/;aWan, 1854 267 

Centerboard Noank sloop used in lobster fishery on Long Island Sound, 

1875-1900, rigged model 269 

Centerboard sloop used as carry-away boat in Menhaden fishery on Long 

Island Sound, 1870's, rigged model 271 

Schooner-rigged Chesapeake Bay bugeye, 1865-75, rigged model 273 

Lines of Chesapeake Bay bugeye Lillie Sterling, built at Pocomoke City, 

Maryland, 1885 '. 274 

Jess Willard, Chesapeake Bay skipjack, built near Deal Island, Maryland, 

1915, rigged model 277 

Lines of racing V-bottom motor boat Fff/Virtw^j- JVb. 2, 1902 278 

Rowing galley used for shad fishing on Potomac River, 1880, rigged model . . 279 

Croatan fishing boat, 1880-90, rigged model 280 

Albemarle Sound shad boats being built at Roanoke Island, North Carolina, 

in the 1890's; photo 281 

Sharpie schooner used in Middle and South Atlantic coast fisheries, 1885; 

from a drawing 282 

Key West sponge sloops and smackees about 1892; photo 284 

Key West sponge sloop, rigged model 285 

Lines of Key West smackee Jef Brown, built at Key West, Florida, 1883 . . 287 

Lines of Florida sharpie schooner, built at Tampa, Florida, 1891-92 .... 288 

Lines of sharpie fishing schooner, built at West Palm Beach, Florida, 1899 . . 289 

Greek sponge boat from Tarpon Springs, Florida, about 1920; photo . . . 291 

Columbia River salmon boat, about 1885, rigged model 296 

Columbia River salmon boats, unrigged, about 1914; photo 297 

Small San Francisco Italian fishing boat, late 1880's; photo 298 

San Francisco fishing boat, 1876, rigged model 299 

Italian fishing boats at pier in San Francisco, late 1880's; photo 300 

San Francisco Italian fishing boat sailing on wind, late 1880's; photo . . . 301 

Great Lakes pound-net sharpie imder sail, 1890; photo 302 



XI 



INTRODUCTION 








Old Watercrakt Hall ln the U.S. National Museum, showing a portion of the half-model collection and 
many of the rigged models of fishing boats. The picture was taken before 1930. (Smithsoruan photo aSooS-a.) 



THE VVatercraft Collection in the United States 
National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, was 
estabUshed in 1884 as the "Section of American Naval 
Architecture" by Captain Joseph William Collins, 
who served as unofFicial curator for the first years of its 
existence. Captain Collins was 
a former Gloucester fishing- 
schooner master employed by 
the U.S. Fish Commission, and 
he had been responsible in some 
measure for setting up the Amer- 
ican fishery exhibits at two inter- 
national fisheries expositions, at 
Berlin in 1880 and London in 
1883, and a world's exposition 
at New Orleans in 1884-85. 
Later he formed the fisheries 
exhibits at the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition at Chicago in 

1892, and the American exhibit at the International 
Fisheries Exposition at Bergen in 1898. 

The "Section of American Naval Architecture" 
serv^ed as the repository for the models being used in 
the American exhibits at these international exposi- 
tions, and many of the early models became damaged 
or lost during the years they were being shipped to 
and from expositions. 

The Collection 

The basic collection consisted of a large number of 
builder's half-models used in the construction of ves- 
sels, and was almost entirely of New England fishing 
schooners. Most of the models were identified and 
were cataloged by the name or names of the vessels 
built on the individual model. In addition to the 
half-models were many rigged models of noted fishing 
schooners and of small American fishing craft from 
nearly all fishing areas of the United States. Some 
models of foreign fishing boats were in the collection; 
many of these were obtained at the Centennial Ex- 
position of 1876 and this collection was later enlarged 
by models obtained from foreign exhibits at the New 
Orleans, Chicago, and Bergen expositions. 

The fishery models had been collected with three 
distinct objectives. To show the historical develop- 
ment of the New England fishing schooner, to show 
all important types of American fishing craft, and to 
show superior or improved designs of fishing vessels, 




particularly of fishing schooners, some of which were 
donated by notable designers. Historical develop- 
ment of the fishing schooner was illustrated by both 
half-models and rigged models; thus the collection 
included representations of old vessels as well as those 
of the then modern types. The 
rigged models of small craft were 
typical examples of their individ- 
ual types, hence there were rare- 
ly two models of the same type. 
A few half-models of small craft 
were collected, apparently as 
examples. Improved vessel de- 
signs were represented by build- 
er's half-models and by a few 
rigged models; one of the latter 
and one of the half-models had 
received awards at an exposi- 
tion. 
The rigged models of fishing schooners, distinguished 
by surprising accuracy, were the result of the pride 
New England fishermen were taking in their schooners 
at the time the collection was being formed. It had 
become the fashion, particularly in Gloucester and 
Boston, for schooner owners and vessel-managing firms 
to order a scale model of each new vessel built, 
particularly if she were considered fast and handsome. 
This interest in scale models was perhaps created by 
the numerous international fisheries expositions and 
world's expositions that followed the Centennial Ex- 
position of 1876. Exhibited at one of these exposi- 
tions, a good model might attract favorable comment 
or be awarded a medal of excellence and thus bring 
desirable publicity to the builder and to the owner 
or managing firm. Models were exhibited in the 
offices of owners or managers, just as scale models to- 
day are exhibited in steamship and airline agencies. 

The rigged models of fishing schooners were usually 
built by a very few skilled ship carpenters, each a 
master builder, at Gloucester and Rockport, Massa- 
chusetts, of whom Thomas Ir\ing and Lawrence 
Jensen were perhaps the most important. The models 
were carefully made; the hull form was obtained from 
the half-model, mould-loft takeoff, or lines plans; the 
rig was based upon the rigger's draught, or the sail- 
maker's plan. The deck arrangement was usually 
obtained by measurement of the finished vessel. 
Accuracy was necessary, as the completed model had 
to pass the critical inspection of the owner and skipper 



and, perhaps of the shipljuilder, none of whom would 
have much patience with inaccuracies in form, rig, or 
important detail. Then, of course the model could 
have been compared with the vessel it represented; 
now this can be done, and this only in a few instances, 
by comparing it with a photograph of the full-sized 

vessel. 

However, there is one deficiency in these models; 
the model makers were not metal workers, and much 
of the spar ironwork is "faked" or even omitted en- 
tirely. Also, among the rigged models are some that 
were reconstrucUons of ancient types not in existence 
at the time the model was made. These are com- 
monly inaccurate; the model builder had no plan or 
half-model to work from and resorted to ima2;ination. 
These "historical models," invariably tubby and awk- 
ward, are examples of the himian vanity that requires 
anything old to be represented as poor in design, so as 
to illustrate the greater intellect of the current 
generation. 

The rigged models of small fishing craft were often 
made to the order of Claptain Collins, who in some 
instances may have been able to furnish plans for 
them. Some were donated by boatlmildcrs and 
fishermen, others were purchased. While the average 
in workmanship in these models is not quite as high 
as in the fishing schooner models, on the whole they 
are reliable representations of their individual types. 

After the "Section of American Naval Architecture" 
was established. Captain Collins, with the same ob- 
jectives as for the fishing-craft models, made an in- 
tensive efTort to collect models of commercial craft. 
In this he was only partly successful. The resulting 
collection was almost entirely of half-models, as com- 
mercial vessel owners did not have scale models 
btiilt as a rule. Furthermore, such was the state of 
American shipbuilding at the time he undertook to 
assemble this collection that only a limited number of 
vessel types were being built and these \vere pre- 
dominantly wooden sailing craft. Shipbuilding was 
then most active in New England, in the Middle 
Atlantic States, on the Great Lakes, and on the Pacific 
Coast, with some steamboat construction on the inland 
rivers. Hence, the original collection obtained a fine 
selection of half-models showing the development of 
the 2-mast coasting schooner, the trading brigantine, 
and of bark- and ship-rigged ocean freighters. 
Steamers, however, were rather poorly represented. 
The great sailing packets and clipper ships were no 
longer being built, so the collection showed only two 
models of the clipper ships of the 1850's and no 



]5acket-ship model, although some packet schooners 
were represented among the half-models. Pilot 
schooners were quite well represented by half-models, 
but there were very few river steamers. The boat and 
shipbuilding of the South Atlantic States, the Gulf 
Coast, the Great Lakes, and the Pacific Coast were 
represented mainly by fishing craft. 

By the early 1900's the Watercraft Collection, as it 
came to be called, had become recognized as one of 
the major collections in the U. S. National Museum. 
After the first World War the great interest in ship 
models and the numerous inquiries regarding models 
in the collection led, in 1923, to the compilation of 
National Museum Bulletin 127, Catalogue of the Water- 
craft Collection, by Carl W. Mitman, then Curator of 
Mineral and Mechanical Technology, employing as 
far as possible the manuscript notes left by Captain 
Collins. This catalog became a standard reference 
and remained in print for many years. 

In the early 1930's, a Works Progress Administra- 
tion project was set up under the direction of Eric V. 
Steinlein to carry out a program of marine historical 
research. This project, active for nearly 2 years, 
acquired for the Watercraft Collection many half- 
models as well as numerous plans, photographs, and 
drawings, all now part of the Historic American 
Merchant Marine Survey material. In the period 
just before the second World War a number of fine 
steamship models were presented to the collection 
and after that war the U. S. Maritime Commission 
donated a large number of models of standard mer- 
chant vessel types. Individual donors, of course, have 
added substantially to the acquisitions over the years. 

As the Catalogue of the Watercraft Collection has long 
been out of print and the collection has grown so 
markedly since 1923, it has now become necessary to 
prepare a completely new catalog. At the same time, 
recent progress in marine historical research requires 
that the older models in the collection be re-examined 
as to identification, description, and dimensions, and 
the historical information contained in it re-assessed 
in the light of this research. In doing this it is 
necessary to acknowledge the work of the founder of 
the Watercraft Collection. 

Captain Collins 

Joseph William Collins was born at Isleboro, Maine, 
August 8, 1839, the son of David and Eliza B. (Sawyer) 
Collins. He received only a primary education in 
country schools, and when ten years old shipped as a 




Fisheries Exhibit in the U.S. National Museum During the i88o's, when Captain J. \\ . (idllins was serving 
the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. The Commission was estabHshed in 1871 through the efl'oris of 
Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and it was lieaded by him until his death in 1887. 
{Smithsonian photo 46^97-) 



hand on a fishing \-e,ssel. By home study and much 
reading he succeeded in echicating himseh'; at 23 he 
became master of a fishing schooner; and in the 1860"s 
he moved to Gloucester, where he was a very successful 
master of fishing schooners, particularly in the sum- 
mer mackerel fishery. Among his commands were 
the schooners Lizzie F- Choate and the Alice G. Wim.son. 
He married Pauline Coombs in 1861 and after her 
death, in 1884, he married Sallie Atkinson. 



In the 1870"s the Gloucester fishing fleet suffered 
tremendous losses in vessel property and in li\"es during 
a number of severe gales. These disasters so horrified 
C'ollins that he began to write articles for the news- 
papers, recommending an improved type of schooner 
to give greater safety. He also began to study half- 
model making, obtaining aid from the noted Boston 
shipbuilder and designer Dennsion J. Lawlor. Col- 
lins' newspaper articles attracted wide attention and 



led indirectly to his being employed liy the Conunis- 
sion of Fish and Fisheries, during 1879 80, to prepare 
a statistical report on the New England fisheries. 

The Commission of Fish and Fisheries had Ix-en 
established in 1871 largely through the eflorls of 
Spencer Fullerton Baird, then Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, who until his death in 1887 held 
the post of Commissioner. (Popularly known as the 
U.S. Fish Commission, the Commission of Fish and 
Fisheries i)ecame in 1903 the Bureau of Fisheries, 
and in 1940 was consolidated with the Biueau of 
Biological Survey to form the Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Department of the Interior. During a 
minor reorganization in 1956 the official name 
became the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.) 

Between 1880 and 1892, Captain Collins served 
the U. S. Fish Commission in numerous capacities, 
acting as captain of the fisheries research schooner 
Grampus in 1886-87 and holding administrative posi- 
tions, mostly concerned with actual fishing methods 
and statistics. He wrote prolifically. In addition to 
79 papers in the Fish Connnission Reports, he wrote 
numerous magazine and newspaper articles, all deal- 
ing with the fisheries or with fishing craft. He also 
acted in a resjionsible position in the preparation of 
exhibits at the numerous International Fisheries 
Exposition and the \Vorld's Expositions that marked 
the last quarter of the 19th century. He was soon 
accepted, in Europe as well as in the United States, 
as an authority on fishing vessels and boats, and also 
on fi.shing gear. In the years 1880-85, when the Com- 
mission was considering construction of a fisheries 
research schooner. Captain Collins made models and 
designs for a niunber of proposals; finally the Grampus 
was built from one of his models. After his resigna- 
tion from the Fish Commission in 1892, he became 
editor of The Fishing Gazelle and later, president of the 
Commercial Fisheries .Association. He was appointed 
U. S. Connnissioner for the International Fisheries 
Exposition at Bergen, Norway, in 1898, and pre- 
pared a valuable but litde known catalog of that 
Exposition. He became chairman of the Massa- 
chusetts Fish and Game Commission in 1899 and held 
this appointment at the time of his death in 1904. 

The Models 

Identification of old models, particularly of the 
builder's half-models, is often difficult. The donor 
usually had established the identification when these 



models were acquired, and normally this identification 
has proved reliable, but it has become obvious that 
errors have been made with respect to some models, 
for these either had the appearance of being of a far 
different date than that of the assigned ves.sel, or the 
Customhou.se register dimensions could not be brought 
into a reasonable comparison \vith the scaled dimen- 
sions of the half-model. 

The use of Ciustomhouse register dimensions in the 
identification of half-models is not very satisfactory, 
particularly when the vessel in question was built in 
the United States before 1865. The old tonnage 
measurement u.sed relatively few precise hull measure- 
ments; after 1865 greater precision was required, and 
a standard method of taking the measiu-ements was 
employed that apparently had not existed earlier. 
In addition, improved measuring equipment, such as 
steel tapes, became available in the 1880's. 

In any case, the registered dimensions of a vessel 
can seldom be made to comply precisely with the 
true dimensions of the hull as built or as designed. 
Indeed, it is difficult to establish any fixed proportion 
in the variation fjetween the two; even in New 
England coasting and fishing schooners built after 
1865 this variation often amounts to as much as 12 
inches in each 100 feet of length. The registered 
length was taken from the stem rabbet to the center 
of the rudder post at deck level after this date. The 
registered beam was the greatest width over the plank. 
The depth was taken from the ceiling alongside the 
keelson to the underside of the deck plank of the upper, 
or tonnage, deck. The latter measurement is useless 
as an aid in identification unless there are very com- 
plete structural plans of the vessel available. In 
vessels built before 1865 identification by use of 
register dimensions is very difficult, not only because 
of the variations noted Ijut because there were also 
some variations in the inethods of measurement em- 
ployed in various sections of the country. As a result, 
it is particularly difficult lo identify the half-model of 
a clipper ship of the 1850"s by the register dimensions, 
for the scaled dimensions of the half-inodel not infre- 
quently depart from the register dimensions by 4 or 5 
feet of length and by a foot or more in beam. This 
may be due partly to the indefinite position of the 
point of measurement at the bow, which under the 
old measurement law, was, "the forepart of the main 
stem above deck." 

The variations in the real and register dimensions 
are, and were, due in part to the practical difficulties 
in taking the external registered length and beam 



Device For Taking Off Lines 
From Half-Model. A piece of 
pencil lead projects through the 
small, spring-loaded block under 
the forefinger of the user'sleft hand. 
The vertical bar is held against the 
model by a slight pressure from the 
forefinger of the user's right hand. 
As he slides the frame across the top 
of the rack, the pencil point traces 
a line on the paper e.xactly parallel 
to the vertical sliding bar point rest- 
ing on the model. The photograph 
shows one section completed and 
another being drawn. {Smithsonian 
photo 46597-a.) 




when it is necessary to measure with staffs or foot 
rules over or around deck structures and where 
measurement points must be plumbed. The diffi- 
culty in identification is made greater by the rather 
common practice of wooden-ship builders of adding 
frames amidships in order to lengthen a hull over the 
designed length. This was particularly common 
among New England builders. In some models the 
process of adding length by inserting frames required 
refairing the middle body, with the result that the 
beam might also be slightly increased in real measure- 
ment. Hence one cannot be sure whether the varia- 
tion betw^een dimensions scaled from the half-model 
and those of the register require allowance for in- 
serted frames or merely represent inaccuracy in the 
latter. 

A practical example of the difference between real 
and register dimensions can be shown in the case of 



the American clipper ship Challenge, built at New 
York in 1951 by William H. Webb. The mould-loft 
offsets of this vessel exist and also a plan made with 
great care in England, while the vessel was in dry- 
dock. The registered length of the ship, by the old 
method in force when she was built, was 230 feet 
6 inches and the beam 43 feet 2 inches. The loft 
dimensions and takeoff drawing show that the length 
of the \essel by the measurement system used at New 
York in 1857, had it been possible to measure accu- 
rately, was actually 227 feet and the beam 42 feet 10 
inches. 

Note should be made that another method of length- 
ening hulls under construction was sometimes used; 
the frame spacing was increased to give the desired 
increase over the design length. It seems possible that 
this was used in a few ships, fishing schooners, and 
coasters. 




Standard Lii-r Half-Model With Fasteners Removed and the Lifts Slightly Spread. A quarter deck 
rail lifl is shown. This model, in the author's collection, is of a Connecticut schooner, name unknown, of the 
pilot-boat type, built at VVestbrook, Connecticut, about 1825-30. {Smithsonian photo 4^6o8~t.). 



The identification of rigs^cd models has caused little 
difficulty for the few in the collection that are in 
question are usually the result of attempts to "recon- 
struct" some vessel without plans or precise knowledge 
of the ship whose name was assigned to the model. 

Builder's half-models in the collection represent, in 
many cases, very useful evidence of the trend of design 
and the hull-form in certain classes of vessels. Since 
photographs of such models are of little value, scale 
drawings have been prepared of the more important 
of these; the lines have been taken off by a simple 
pantograph device that gives great accuracy if the 
half-model is well made, and plans have been pre- 
pared in the traditional manner, as though to be used 
in building. In some cases the existence of rigged 
models of these vessels has allowed much reconstruc- 
tion in the plans, in others, paintings or photos have 
been used for this purpose. Occasionally the deck 
arrangement is marked on a model. 

Half-models were the common means used to design 
American sailing vessels and boats, and are, in fact, 
still is u.se in many boatbuilding centers. There are 
three basic types of half-model: The lift model, the 
block model, and the hawk's nest, or crow's nest, 
model. 

LIFT MODELS 

The most common model in the Watercraft Collec- 
tion is the lift model, which was also the last form of 
builder's model to be developed as a practical aid to 



boat and vessel design. This form of model is made 
up of horizontal planks or layers, each known as a 
■"lift"; these are temporarily fastened together to form 
a solid block. The model was shaped from the block 
so formed. Two New England cities, Salem and New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, are claimed as the birthplace 
of the lift model, which came into use about 1790- 
95. The Salem claim is based on the half-model made 
by Enos Briggs, about 1795, for the ketch Eliza; that 
of Newburyport is based on a half-model, supposed 
to have been made liefore 1796 by its noted ship- 
builder Orlando Merrill, now in the collection of the 
New York Historical Society. How'ever, it is possible 
that the lift model was employed much earlier than 
1795-96 and it may have been the result of a 
gradual e\oluiion from a solid block model sawn 
into vertical sections. Isaac Webb is reputed to have 
introduced the lift model at New York. In early mod- 
els the lifts were held together with wooden toggles 
passed through holes and secured under and on top of 
the model by small wedges, or the lifts were pegged 
together with tapered dowels. After about 1820-25 
the lifts were secured by iron screws, each lift being 
fastened in turn to the one below. As a result, to 
take the lifts apart it is commonly necessary to begin 
with the uppermost lift. 

Various refinements in the lift model were employed; 
for example thin veneer was sometimes inserted be- 
tween each pair of lifts and shaped with the block. 
Another refinement was to use alternate lifts of white 



pine and walnut, or mahogany, to make sharp con- 
trasts in the change of lines exhibited in the half- 
model. Most of the half-models in the VVatercraft 
Collection are of white pine, but white cedar and 
other easily worked woods were sometimes used; in 
the South yellow pine models were employed, but 
models of juniper and cypress were perhaps more 
common. 

As a rule the "working" half-model is made without 
a backboard and without any decoration; after the 
model has been "taken off" and the lines "laid down" 
in the mould loft the model might be mounted and 
decorated to represent the appearance of the finished 
vessel or boat. Such models were often hung in the 
shipyard office and some yards had rather large col- 
lections. A model might be used by a number of 
yards in succession and the models in possession of a 
yard might therefore include some not made in that 
yard, or by its employees. 

The half-model was usually made to the "moulded 
dimensions" of the vessel or boat; in other words, the 



model represented the shape of the hull at inside of 
plank or at the outside of the frames and to the under- 
side of the decking and rail cap. Very few models 
were made to represent the hull at outside of plank; 
such models were usually made from a lines drawing 
and arc decorative rather than working models. Ex- 
hibition models, highly decorated and well finished, 
were sometimes made to outside of plank, though a 
model was not employed in the actual design of a 
vessel or boat; such models are sometimes seen in 
yacht designers' offices. 

The spacing of the lifts is usually at some single 
fixed measurement throughout the depth of the model; 
usually the lifts are of such a thickness that the distance 
between the seams separating them are of some even 
measurement at the scale of the model — say 6, 12, 18, 
or 24 inches. The larger the vessel represented by 
the model the greater the lift spacing, as a rule, but 
skilled designers commonly employed closely spaced 
lift seams, or lines, so as to obtain great precision in 
taking off for lofting. The upper, or sheer, lift was 




Se,\iidecor.\tive Lift Model (Top) and Mirror-Mounted H.\Lr-MuDLL itioinjM;. .Nhnkl.s cxhibilcd in 
shipyard offices commonly received the simple decorative treatment illustrated by the top model (USNM 
315852; .see p. 88). The stem, keel, post and rudder were usually secured to the back board, and masts and 
bowsprit stubs were sometimes attached. Occasionally a model was mounted on a mirror to give the illusion 
of a complete deck arrangement, as illustrated (bottom) by the half-model (USXM 76072; see p. 57) of the 
clipper ship Comet. {Smithsonian photos — top, 4^6oy-d; bottom, 4^608.) 



sometimes made of a thick plank cut to the sheer on 
top and bottom and equal in depth to the height of 
bulwarks from the deck, or from top of the waterway 
in large ships. As an alternate, the depth of the bul- 
warks might be formed of laminated, thin lifts sprung 
to the sheer of the deck; the upper lift being cut to 
the deck sheer and made of a thick plank in each case. 

The scales used by shipbviilders in making hall- 
models varied with the size of the vessel. Large ships 
were modeled on Yt-, ]i-, or %-inch scales. Many of 
the clipper-ship models that have survived are on 
i^-inch scale. Fishing schooners and coasting vessels 
were usually on %- or ^-inch scale. Small craft are 
commonly on %- or 1-inch scale. Occasionally some 
odd scale is encountered— ^(e, %, or Vie inch to the foot. 
A }^-inch scale was commonly considered too small to 
give sufficient accuracy; a few models on this scale 
have been found, but they were not practical so far 
as precision in taking ofT was concerned. Bulwark 
depths arc often important in determining scale of a 
model; fishing .schooners as a rule have from 18- to 26- 
inch bulwarks (moulded depth), those of coasters 
are from 3 to 4 feet, and of ships, 4 to 6 feet. The 
depth of the ships' bulwarks is usually to the main 
sheer; many had "monkey rails" also called "fancy 
rails," or false hammock rails, above the main sheer, 
thus higher bulwarks were obtained in fact than the 
model usually shows. 

The half-model was shaped by eye to suit the judg- 
ment and artistic skill of its maker. The shipbuilder 
or his master carpenter, whichever made the model, 
ho^vever, had to satisfy the skipper of the new vessel 
as well as the owner that the model represented a 
vessel of the requisite qualities of seaworthiness, 
capacity, and speed. The tools used in making the 
model were various sizes of hollow gouges and chisels, 
a drawknife and spokeshave, small planes, scrapers, 
and sandpaper. Hollow- and round-sole planes were 
required. 

Model-building practices varied somewhat; in the 
early development of the lift model, before 1815, it 
appears that models were usually shaped to the 
"height of breadth line" (that is, to the heights of the 
greatest beam at each frame). This was usually below 
the deck, and only the builder knew what to add to 
obtain the depth of hold and height of bulwarks. 
Ahcr 1815, models were usually made to the rail line 
but even as late as the early years of the 20th century 
schooner models were being made to the deck line, 
instead of to the rail line. In the 1850's duplicate 
models were made rather often, one by which to build 



the ship and a more elaborate one to decorate the 
owner's office. 

Taking off, or "lifting," the lines of the half-model, 
the first step in the construction of a ship or boat, 
required first that a large piece of paper on which to 
draw the model's lines, or, more commonly, that a 
smooth pine or spruce board, be prepared. The 
model was laid on the board or paper and its outline 
traced, the intersections of the top and bottom of each 
lift with bow and stern profiles were ticked off, and 
the model was then removed and the lift lines drawn 
as straight, horizontal lines on the profile drawing. 
Perpendicular to the lift lines, the builder then laid 
off lines representing frames at the scale dimension 
of their spacing. Sometimes he laid the model back 
on the drawing and transferred these frame spacings 
to the top of the model by ticking and then, by means 
of a trysquare, squared these across the top of the 
model from the back. 

Next, the model was taken apart. The lowest lift 
was placed topside down on the profile drawing, its 
back coinciding exactly with its lift line in the profile 
plan and its ends coinciding exactly with the inter- 
sections of the lift line with bow and stern, and its 
outline was carefully traced. Each lift in turn was 
treated this way, until the top lift was reached. On 
this the topside outline was required. It was not 
feasible to attempt to treat this lift as the others were, 
since the sheer of the top would make tracing the 
outline inaccurate, at least amidships. Therefore it 
was usual to measure on the model with a compass the 
half breadth of each frame line and to transfer these 
measurements to the profile plan, using as a centerline 
either a straight line above the profile and parallel 
to the lifts below, or a lift line with ends projected 
enough outboard of the bow and stern to allow the 
ends of the top, or sheer line of the model to be 
squared down. Some builders applied the upper lift 
in the usual way and ticked off the top outline with a 
square and pencU, and sometimes, if the shape of the 
lift permitted and if it was thin enough, the top lift 
was pressed flat over each station in turn. 

Now the builder was ready to make the full-size 
drawing of the hull form; an operation called "loft- 
ing," or "laying down." A large, smooth floor, the 
mould loft, was required or, as an alternate, a "scrieve 
board," or platform was constructed. If there were 
a large enough floor, the \\hole model profile would 
be drawn full size by scaling it from the drawing of 
the model. Usually in old yards if the keel was 
straight, only the frame shapes and the profiles of the 



10 



Builder's Block Model (USNM 316628) of the Privateer 6«a/; ZJra^on (see p. 88). Made before 181 2 
and the oldest half-model in the collection, it was shaped from a solid block of wood. To raise the deck level 
and thus alter the depth, a thin plank, or lift, was added to the top. Lines were probably taken off with a lead 
bar by the builder. (Smitlisonian photo 4j)6o8-m.) 



extreme bow and stern were drawn full size, but if 
the keel was curved this was not a desirable method. 
If the frames and ends of the hull were laid down, the 
scrieve board would suffice. The frames were lifted 
from the model drawing by scaling off in succession, 
at each frame line, the half breadth of each lift, and 
by then laying these off full size in the loft or on the 
scrieve board at the corresponding location, the lift 
lines, centerline, and profile having first been laid off, 
of course. 

When all the half breadths of a frame had been 
transferred to the full-size drawing, the frame shape 
was swept in on the floor or platform by means of a 
batten (tacked down) and a pencil or chalk. This 
required a certain "eye," or skill, on the part of the 
man making the full-size drawings, for often he had to 
interpret the frame shape between measurement 
points, so that the frames would fair when being 
planked. Some yards having a large enough floor 
space in the mould loft laid off vertical sections 



through the frame shapes (properly called "buttocks" 
in the afterbody and "bow lines" in the forcbody, but 
usually called buttocks only) and also added "di- 
agonals" and faired these as long sweeping curv-es 
running the length of the hull (see lines plans in this 
catalog) to "prove" the frame shapes, that is to make 
sure they were fair and could be planked. Some 
models in the collection are so carefully made that 
the lines can be lifted with great precision; others are 
crudely made and much interpretation is required to 
reproduce their lines, particularly at the forefoot and 
at the stern post, where the model was not properly 
faired to the half breadth of the rabbet or of the keel, 
post, and stem. 

BLOCK MODELS 

The oldest form of half model is the block model, 
made of a single block of wood shaped to represent 
half the hull of the proposed ves.sel or boat. This style 




Hawk's Nest, or Crow's Nest, Half-Model, With Keel and Deadwood Form Shown. Mould-sections 
were at alternate frames, and sheer and deck lines were indicated by the use of battens tacked to moulds. The 
keel detail shown is unusual. One of the older forms of builder's half-models, this one, in the author's collec- 
tion, is of the 3-masted Baltimore schooner F/jing Fish of about 1806. {Smithsonia?i photo 45607-c.) 



11 



of half model was in use in England and in tlie colonies 
at least as early as 1715. The lines \vere taken off in 
various ways; the most usual was to trace tlie profile 
on a board and then to draw perix-ndiculars to the 
keel to represent frames. Next the model was fas- 
tened to this board so that its profile coincided with 
that on the backboard and saw cuts were made at 
each frame line in the model, care being taken that the 
saw cuts were \-ertical to the backlioard and coincided 
exactly with the frame lines at the top and Iwttom of 
the model. By in.serting note paper or cardboard in 
each .saw cut the frame shape could be traced and. 
with suitable ordinates drawn, could be measured and 
transferred to the mould loft. .Some builders took 
off the frame shapes with soft lead bars about ^(e inch 
square, but this required much |)ractice to oljtain 
rcasonal)lc accuracy. Others used a laborious tem- 
plate-cutting operation or had a form of pantograph 
that allowed a pencil point on a drawing board to 
move exactly parallel to the surface of the model at 
each station. The solid block model remained in u.se 
until the end of the I'Hh century on some sections of 
the .\merican coast. 

HAWK'S NEST MODELS 

The third type of half-model was called the "hawk's 
nest,"' or "crow's nest," model and was particularly 
popular from 1780 to 1820 on the Atlantic seaboard. 
This model was made up of a plank backljonrd. or 
sawn-out profile of the hull, with plank sections 
mounted on it to represent mould frames. These 
were usually fastened to the profile, or backboard, by 
nailing from the back of the latter and were held 
rigid and vertical to the backboard by battens bent 
around the plank sections or by a deck or sheer piece. 
Lines were taken off by removing any battens that 
would interfere and then tracing the outline of each 
frame section on cardboard or paper. The earliest 
use of the hawk's nest model yet established is 1752, 
in England, but the model type was probably used in 
the late 17th century, along with the solid block model. 
This style of model was used in some isolated American 
areas as late as 1880 but, being quite difficult to shape, 
it was never as widely used as the block and lift 
models. 

Using the Models 

A vessel or boat may l)e as well shaped, or designed, 
by use of the half-model as by use of lines drawings, 
so far as form of hull is concerned. Methods were 



developed in the early 19th century by which the 
necessary basic calculations of naval architecture 
could be made from half-models.' Undoubtedly the 
half-model gives a more complete and precise impres- 
sion of the hull form than does a lines drawing. The 
half model produces the same 3-dimensional effect as 
the finished vessel, something a lines drawing will 
not do. Hence a lines drawing may produce in the 
finished hull form an undesiraiile feature that would 
be discovered at once in a half-model. In general, 
the ability to design fcd judge hull form is more 
readily acquired by use of the half-model than by use 
of lines plans and other drawings. Many boatbuilders, 
ship carpenters, and even fishermen can quickly 
develop a good judgment of hull form through use 
of the half-model, whereas some well educated naval 
architects, using only drawings, never acquire sound 
judgment of form. 

The accuracy witii which a designer may convey 
his ideas to the loft and to the builder is as about as 
great with the half-model as with plans, if both are 
equally well made, and, of course, where builders 
are poorly trained, the half-model conveys more 
than do plans. The efficiency of the half-model in 
hull design is the reason why it still sur\ives, in spite 
cf the increased use of plans. 

There were many other variations in model con- 
struction: one form combining horizontal with vertical 
lifts; the latter glued; to make what some call the 
"checkerboard" model, for the lifts were of various 
natural wood colors. This was a decorati\e model 
having no particular practical value, except to show 
the skill of its maker. In a more common form, the 
block with every frame, square, and cant was care- 
fully cut, the whole mounted was on a backboard 
and fitted with planked wales and topsides after the 
lines had been taken off. This, too, was highly 
decorative, but it had practical advantages. Hawk's 
nest models completely planked after the lines were 
taken off are also sometimes found; these were very 
popular in England in the last half of the 19th cen- 
tury. 

Historical note 

The introductions that precede each section of 
this work cover much ground not illustrated by the 
models, but which should be known in order to 
appreciate the value of the collection, as well as 
its shortcomings. By treating as units in these 
introductions the important vessel types, a more 
detailed account of their development is possible. 



12 



Clipper Ship Nighti/igale, Built at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, in 1 85 1. {Smithsonian t>hoto 447 41 .) 



! ^- 



*«>. 




MERCHANT SAIL 



13 



^ ^ QURVIVING COLONIAL rCC- 

>»■ "''<:ls in America show 

that the vessels and boats 
* * Ijiiik in the individual col- 

onies during the 16th and 
4. ^ 1 7lh centuries were of the 

national types of their 
* * mother countries. As 

* ♦ would be expected, the 

Spanish were the first to 
establish extensive shipbuilding; operations in the New 
World. By 1570 they had constructed dockyards m 
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Campeche which were al- 
ready well known for their ability to turn out fast- 
sailing ships of the frigata type; a long, low-waisted, 
narrow galley-ship fitted to carry her guns on a single 
deck and to row fast as well as to sail. Drake ob- 
tained some of these ships in the 1580's and after- 
ward reported that two of them ran from Cape Florida 
to the Scilly islands in 23 days. The Spanish also 
built galleons in the American colonies; these were 
not all of the lofty sided type that were in the Armada, 
for the American-built galleons were intended to sail 
fast and were employed in carrying treasure to Spain. 
They were larger than the frigatas and many carried 
guns on two decks. 

Small craft built in the Spanish colonies included 
many "brigantines" ; this name did not refer to a rig 
as it did later; the Spanish "brigantines" were small 
craft of the shallop or pinnace type, often without 
decks and rigged with two lateen sails. They were 
fast under sail and oars. A variety of small galleys 
were also built in the Spanish American colonies to 
guard the coast; these were of the Mediterranean type, 
with one or two lateen sails. These reputedly well 
built Spanish vessels were of cedar, mahogany, and 
tropical hardwoods. Practically all the ship and boat 
building in the Spanish colonies was by the govern- 
ment or by government-sponsored expeditions, and 
no attempt was made to establish private yards and 
a colonial shipbuilding industry. 

Colonial Craft 

In the English colonies, ship and boat building did 
not become particularly active industries until after 
the middle of the 17th century, when the civil war in 
England had interrupted trade with the mother 
country. As a result, the colonies, forced to create a 
seaboard trade of their own, set about exploiting sea 
fisheries in order to produce trade goods, and this 



made boat building necessary as a supporting in- 
dustry. English colonial ship and boat building were 
under private ownership; the government made no 
real attempt to establish naval dockyards. In the 
17th and early 18th centuries the boats and ships 
built in the English colonies were also all of national 
types, except for canoes and boat-canoes; these were 
dugouts that could be built by unskilled hands from 
the large, easily worked timber available. 

At the end of the 17th century colonial-built craft 
included such types as shallop, pinnace, sloop, ketch 
or catch, pink, galley, and skiff. From English 
somxes it is possible to obtain some idea of what these 
types were, although type names of vessels and boats 
were then rather loosely applied. 

A shallop thus might be anything from a small 
open ship's boat fitted to row and perhaps to sail, to a 
sizable decked coasting craft or fishing boat. Large 
shallops sometimes had one mast fitted to carry a jib 
and a gaff or sprit mainsail, but gradually the typical 
shallop rig became a 2-masted one having two gaff 
sails, the fore the smaller, and no jib. Most shallops 
were square sterned; those having sharp sterns were 
commonly called double shallops. The lateen rig, 
it is believed, was also used in the shallops, but rarely 
in boats working in unprotected waters. 

The pinnace was either a ship's boat, long and nar- 
row and built to row fast, or a decked craft designed 
to sail and row and often fitted with the 2-masted 
shallop rig. The pinnaces were sometimes the Eng- 
lish equivalent of the Spanish "brigantine." The 
name pinnace was also applied to galley-ships in the 
16th and early 17th centuries, but by the beginning 
of the 18th century this application of the name 
ceased. 

At the end of the 17th century colonial shipbuilders 
were constructing for the North Atlantic run between 
the New England colonies and England galley-ships 
and galley-brigantine-rigged vessels both called "gal- 
lies" or "galleys." These vessels were required in 
the unprotected colonial trade, the British Navy then 
being unable to furnish adequate cruisers for convoy 
guards. These galleys were flush-decked ships armed 
for war on one deck and with a rowing deck below; 
they were sometimes called "runners." 

The pink was a sharp-sterned vessel with bulwarks 
carried abaft the sternpost, rigged as a ship, brigan- 
tine, or sloop. It was the forerunner of the later, 
schooner rigged American pinky. 

The ketch was a square-sterned sailing vessel having 
two masts; the type was used for trading and in the 



14 




A Dutch Shallop, an Early Schooner-Tvpe Vessel, Appears in the Foreground of this early view of the 
capture of Loki, Ceram, by Arnold de Vlamingh van Outshoorn, June 27, 1652. From the Secret Atlas of the 
East India Company, published about 1670, this view appears as plate 1 18 in Monumenta Cartographica, edited by 
Dr. F. C. Wieder the Hague, M. Nijhoff, 1925-. 



Banks fisheries. Colonial records indicate that these 
vessels had very small crews, so they could not have 
been very large. It is very doubtful that they ever 
carried a square rig similar to that of the naval bomb 
ketch, since their crews would have beeii inadequate 
to handle such rigs; probably they were fore-and-aft 
rigged, with fore and main gaff sails of approximately 
equal size and with one or more jibs. This supposition 
is supported by the fact that, early in the 18th century 
the ketch or "catch," previously very numerous, sud- 
denly disappeared almost completely from colonial 
records, being replaced by large numbers of "scoon- 
ers." This suggests that there was merely a change 
of type name rather than that the "scooner" was a 
new rig or hull-type. It is noticeable that the 
"scooner" appeared all along the coast within a very 
short time. 

Sloops were commonly employed in coasting or in 
the West Indian trade and were usually craft of some 
size, up to 60 feet length, having one mast, a gaff 
mainsail, and two or more jibs. The larger sloops 
were decked and fitted with bulwarks. Large-size 
sloops, 60 to 65 feet long were being built in the West 



Indies by the last half of the 17th century and the 
fast sailing "Jamaica sloops"' produced at Jamaica 
were popular with the buccaneers and piratical 
gentry in those waters. 

The small craft constructed in the colonies included 
"boat-canoes," dugouts shaped to resemble ships' 
boats and usually square sterned, "canoes" being 
commonly sharp sterned. Except in eastern Maine 
and in the Canadian Maritime Provinces, the birch- 
bark Indian canoe was seldom employed on salt 
water. 

"Skiffs" appear to be merely small rowing craft and 
were not usually fitted to sail. 

The rigs of colonial boats in the 1 7th century were 
those employed in England and included the leg-of- 
mutton, a triangular sail fitted with a boom; the 
shoulder-of-mutton, which was similar but with a 
very short gaff, or club, at its head; the spritsail; 
the gaff-sail with a rather short gaff; the hoy sail, 
which was a gaff-sail with a long gaff, rarely lowered; 
and the lateen sail. These rigs and sail forms %verc 
quite well developed in Britain by the middle of the 
centiuy when colonial ship and boatbuilding became 



15 



very acti\-c. Large vessels were rigged as ships or 
briganlincs, in the Enghsh manner, of course. 

The timber employed in colonial ship and boat 
Ixiilding offered many prol)Iems to the early builders, 
for while there ivas apparently suitable timber avail- 
able, some of it was then unfamiliar to English 
builders. Gradually the colonial builders found 
woods that were useful to their purposes. In the 
northern colonies native oak, cedar, white pine, 
spruce, elm, maple, and juniper (or hackmatack) were 
commonly employed. In New England spruce top 
timbers were used in the framing of many ships to save 
topside weight; sometimes hackmatack or cedar was 
used for this purpose. In the Chesapeake Bay region 
frames were made of mulberry, cedar, laurel, or oak; 
planking was oak or southern pine. On the Chesa- 
peake and northward to southern New England 
chestnut was used also for framing and for general 
structural purposes; farther south cypress and li\-e 
oak were employed; there, too, long-leaf yellow pine, 
e\-entually to become one of the most important 
American shipbuilding timbers, was found %-ery 
suitable for both planking and structure. Due to 
lack of capital, the colonial ship and boat builders 
were usually unable to maintain a stock of well 
seasoned timber and this led to many colonial-built 
\-esscls ha\-ing a rather short life, as the green timber 
often employed rotted very rapidly, particularly if 
the vessel were sent south to the West Indies in the 
first few years of her life. 

The tools employed by the colonial builders were 
the common hand tools of the period — the axe, 
hatchet, hand saw (rip and crosscut), a pit saw for 
shaping frames and getting out plank, hand planes, 
adze, maul, hammer, chi.sels, scrapers, and scpiares, 
and measuring devices. Water-powered sawmills of 
the jigsaw type were established in the northern 
colonies at an early date, but the location of most 
shipyards and boatbuilding areas prevented the use 
of sawmills until other forms of power were available. 
In fact, steam-powered sawmills were not commonly 
used in shipyards until after 1840. 

The 18th century saw a great increase in American 
ship and boat building. Increasing wealth and 
trade created demands for additional types of small 
boat such as the wherry, whaleboat, barge, cutter, 
yawl boat, moses boat, longb(jat (or launch as it %vas 
later known), dory, periagua, and cutter. Of these, 
the moses boat and dory may ha\'e been of American 
design. The moses boat was a square-stcrned rowing 
boat having marked rocker in the keel and great 



sheer, used originally in the West Indian trade as a 
ship's lighter to handle casks. These boats were also 
used in the Maryland and Virginia tobacco trade. 
The dory was a flat-bottomed skiff, as it is today, and 
may have developed from the flat-bottomed skiff or 
plank canoe of the colonial lumbermen, that later 
became known as drive boats, or bateaux. The other 
types were of European origin and most of them were 
ships' boats. 

The name periagua, it is thought, was of West 
Indian origin and was originally applied to a large 
dugout canoe with the sides raised by plank and fitted 
to sail. Later the name became applied to a form of 
shallop having the foremast raked forward and the 
mainmast raked aft; these were often craft of some 
size and were usually decked wholly or in part. In 
this century the name shallop became less popular 
and the type, often called a 2-mast boat, gradually 
cle\-eloped into the famed Chebacco boat of New 
England and into large 2-masted, decked, river trad- 
ers, the last survival of which was probably to be found 
in the St. John River woodboats in New Brimswick, 
Canada. Vessels of this class were in use on the 
Hudson River at least as late as 1845. 

.Ships built by colonial builders increased in size 
and na\-al shipbuilding began; the first Royal Navy 
ship built in the colonies was the 4th Rate Falkland, 
built by contract at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
in 1690. This ship was followed by three or four 
others and by numerous sloops, brigs, snows, and 
schooners intended for service in America, either on 
the Lakes or on the coast. Merchant ships were all 
of English types, apparently. 

In the early years of the 18th century the construc- 
tion of fast sailing v^essels became profitable. This 
^vas largely due to profitable but illegal trades open 
to colonial traders in the ^Vest Indies, as well as to the 
unstable international conditions that made the seas 
unsafe for slow-sailing vessels. The American "gal- 
lies," first built late in the 17th century, remained 
popular; and small, swift sloops, schooners and brigan- 
tincs were also constructed. On the Chesapeake, in 
particular, the construction of small, fast vessels 
became common. The type chosen \vas the old West 
Indian sloop, or Jamaica sloop which, by this time, 
had been transplanted to Bermuda and was now 
connnonly called the Bermuda sloop. 

This was a keel sloop of some size, up to 65 feet in 
length, having a straight, rising floor, well rounded 
bilge, and rather upright topside, giving it a rather 
"heart-shaped" midsection in extreme cases. The 



16 




ffi///^ /f Virefinrii 

*>f/ A- JewTf^f 4* ff' 
fffp/h Jn /fc/tt 9 *' 

^tfre/nf Sfam of &et>r ff'r' 

' J/>ter -" 






Earliest Plans of an American-Built Vessel the sloop Mediator (see below), built on the Chesapeake, 
1741-42. Redrawn from original British Admiralty draught. {Courtesy of Trustees of the National Maritime 
Museum, Greemvich, England.) 



Stem was usually well rounded in profile and the hull 
drew much more water aft than forward. The free- 
board to the main deck was low, but these vessels 
usually had high bulwarks pierced for carriage guns 
and a high, short quarterdeck or a stern cabin with 
its roof strongly arched athwartships. The main deck 
of these sloops was coinmonly heavily cro\vned, or 
arched. The mast raked a good deal and the sloops 
carried two or more headsails, large gaff mainsail 
fitted with a boom, square course, topsail, and top- 
gallant sail. 

Through the early trade to Bermuda, as well as to 
the colonial West Indies, this type became well known 
on the Chesapeake. During the first half of the 18th 
century a great many sloops of this type were built on 
the Eastern Shore of Maryland and \"irginia, in ports 
oa the western side of the Bay, and on the Delaware. 
The earliest plan of an American built vessel, that 
has yet been found, is of a sloop of this class, the 
Mediator, purchased for the Royal Navy in 1745 and 
built in "Virginia" about 1741. This sloop was 



bought in the West Indies and sailed to England 
where she was measured and drawings made, shortly 
before she was lost at Dunkirk. 

These large sloops apparently created a problem of 
manning, particularly when o\Nned in a small village, 
for the rig in such large hulls required big crews. 
Hence, it was not long before the more easily man- 
aged schooner rig was applied to the type. 

In \-iew of a rather old American tradition that the 
fast-sailing American model was de\eloped from 
French lugsjers and vessels that visited America and 
that had their lines taken off by colonial shipwrights 
during the Revolution, it should be made clear that 
no evidence has been found to support such a tradi- 
tion. On the contrary, there is clear evidence in 
Maryland records of the construction of the Bermuda 
sloop type there, as the plan of the Mediator beare 
witness. The hull form of the Bermuda sloop, more- 
over, was employed to construct a British 24-gun 
ship in 1739 at London, and this vessel, the Lynu, is 
represented by her building plans in the Admiralty 



17 



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a* 


Mm// /vuiar^* 












S«.,^.f 












tf»yy 








e ft 






o /f 




Crtt//oti rStr^ 








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Sail and Ricc.ing Plan, Reconstructed From Spar Dimensions and Prints of contemporary sloops, of the 
sloop Mediator, built on the Chesapeake, 1741-42 (see p. 17). 



Collection of Draughts in The National Maritime 
Museum, at Greenwich, England. It is obvious, then, 
that this model for fast-sailing hulls was known in 
the colonies and in England long before the American 
Revolution. The plan of the schooners built for the 
Royal Navy at New York beibre the Revolution (see 
p. 163) also shows a fast-sailing hull form. 

Other evidence points to the same conclusion. 
Contracts for building merchant vessels in the colonies 
during the 18th century have survived and these give 
very complete descriptions of the vessel in many cases. 
In addition, just before the Re\olution, schooners and 
ships were purchased into the Royal Navy in America 
and a few plans of these survive. During the Revo- 
lution a number of American-built privateers and 
American merchant ships were captured; some of 
these were taken into the Royal Navy and plans, which 
have also survived, were made. There are, in addi- 
tion, plans of American Revolutionary Navy siiips 
that were captured by the British. All these plans 
and building contracts, many of which were for ships 
built before French intervention in the Revolution, 
show clearly that there were two basic classes of 
American vessels: one represented by the usual mer- 
chant vessel, similar in burdensome hull-form, size, 
and appearance to its British counterpart; the second 



is represented by the privateer, a rather sharp vessel 
designed to sail fast. 

The development of fast-sailing ships in America 
during the 18th century did not occur in a single loca- 
tion, but the Chesapeake region probably was the one 
most active in the building of swift vessels due to its 
nearness to and interest in the West Indies. In this 
area two classes of vessels appeared. One was the 
small pilot-boat schooner having a small-boat hull 
form with a moderate rise in the floor, rather marked 
bilges, and flaring topsides; these boats drew markedly 
more water aft than forward, and the stem profile was 
well rounded and unadorned by a knee or by mould- 
ings and carvings; they were often flush decked and 
were low sided; and they had no bulwarks but rather 
a mere plank-on-edge, or log rail. Their two masts 
were long and raking, and unsupported by standing 
rigging, as was a short bowsprit. They set a large jib, 
a loosefooted and overlapping gaff-foresail, a boomed 
gaff-mainsail, and a large main-topmast staysail be- 
tween the masts. Their accommodations were very 
limited and quite primitive, as they did not cruise far. 
The type was very numerous at the Virginia Capes 
and became known in the late 18th century as the 
"Virginia pilot boat"; the model and rig were gradu- 



18 



ally adopted at other American colonial ports, partic- 
ularly at New York and in Delaware waters. At this 
period pilot boats were rarely over 55 feet long, 35 to 
45 feet being the average. 

The other was the seagoing schooner produced on 
the Chesapeake and in the vicinity. This vessel also 
drew much more water aft than forward and the main 
deck was but little above the waterline. It had a 
strongly rising floor, well rounded bilge, and some 
tumble-home in the topside amidships, giving it a 
characteristic heart-shaped midsection. These vessels 
usually had a rounded stem profile, sometimes with a 
small gammon-knee head and, very rarely, mouldings 
or car\ings. They had high main-deck bulwarks 
pierced for carriage guns; many of those built before 
1780 had high, short quarterdecks. They were rela- 
tiV'Cly sharp ended and, like the small pilot boats, were 
built to sail very fast and carried a large spread of sail 
in the square-topsail schooner rig of the period, con- 
sisting of two or more headsails, fore and main sails, 
main-topmast staysail, fore course, square topsail, 
topgallant and, occasionally square main topsails 
with light sails in addition. As early as 1757 some of 
these schooners were 80 feet long, and capable of car- 
rying 14 carriage guns. This class came to be popular 
during the Revolution; the number of schooners be- 
tween 75 and 80 feet on deck became very great, and 
brigs and brigantines were also built on this model at 
that time, if not before. 

In New England this "sharp" vessel was represented 
by the Marblehcad schooner class, a type of fast-sailing 
Banks fisherman. These had more capacity for their 
size than the average Chesapeake schooner and com- 
monly had rather upright stems, sometimes with a 
small gammon head and a little carving. The mid- 
section resembled that of the Chesapeake model and 
they had short, high quarterdecks fitted with bul- 
warks. Some had bulwarks on the main deck pierced 
for guns, but many had no more than a log rail there. 
The masts had much rake and the schooners carried a 
rig somewhat similar to the Virginia pilot boat, but 
with masts supported by standing rigging. At times 
these schooners were fitted with the rig of a square- 
topsail schooner, particularly for trading voyages. 
The first vessels fitted out as cruisers by the American 
Revolutionary authorities were of this type. 

The surviving plans of these three classes of schooners 
show that the southern seagoing, or pilot-boat, schoon- 
ers and the Marblehead type retained the basic form 
of the old Bermuda, or Jamaica, sloop but with differ- 
ent proportions. 



It would be natural for the colonial shipbuilders to 
apply the Bermuda sloop-Chesapeake schooner hull 
form to large ships, when a fast-sailing merchantman 
or privateer was required. It is not yet possible to state 
when this was first done in America, but it has already 
been shown (p. 17) that the model was applied in 
England in at least one instance in 1739 and there is, 
therefore, no sound reason to doubt that the sharp- 
model full-rigged ship existed in the colonies, as well 
as in Britain, long before the Revolution. During the 
Revolution the construction of privateer ships pro- 
duced such vessels, and plans of a number have been 
found; these were made after their capture by the 
British. 

One such vessel was the Rattlesnake of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, said to have been built at Plymouth and 
designed by the first American naval architect known, 
John Peck. This ship was quite sharp ended and had 
the heart-shaped midsection of a schooner; she was 89 
feet 3 inches on deck, 22 feet 4 inches beam, and 8 
feet 10)^ inches depth in the hold. Another such ves- 
sel was bought for the Royal Navy as the Barbadoes in 
1784; she was also quite sharp in section and had 
rather fine lines, and was 97 feet 7 inches on deck, 24 
feet 11 'finches beam, and 10 feet 7 inches depth in 
hold. Her place of building and her original name 
have not been determined, though she was described 
in her naval papers as "American built," and her plan 
is so marked. Comparison of the plans of this vessel 
with those of the full-model American and British 
ships of the same period show that the Barbadoes was 
large for her time and the application of the sharp- 
model to a ship of such size indica tes that there was an 
extensive background of experience with merchant 
vessels of this form and approximate size. 

The sharp-model colonial vessel is likewise repre- 
sented by plans of the fine American-built 2-master 
Swift, originally a schooner but rerigged as a brig 
when taken into the British Navy in 1783, having been 
captured in 1779. She was a sharp model, with short 
quarterdeck, measuring 75 feet 6 inches on deck, 20 
feet 10 inches beam, and 7 feet 9 inches depth. An- 
other example was a large American schooner taken 
into the Royal Navy in 1780 as the Berbice, a very 
sharp vessel having a short, high quarterdeck and 
measuring 72 feet 9 inches on deck, and 20 feet 8 
inches beam, and 8 feet depth. It will be seen that 
there are too many plans of American-built vessels of 
the Revolutionary period in existence to permit ac- 
ceptance of the tradition of French influence on early 
American shij) design. 



19 



' JJ» IT*/ ^n Mr^trr^^v Ov// l*if/ 




_:^*^_ ■'' 









SI. 


■^^ 


iyi 


%',■■; 




It" 


"■^1 






s-'i? 











American Privateer Ship of the Revolution, Original Name Unknown, taken inlo the British Navy in 
1784 as the Barbadoes. This plan, redrawn from original British Admiralty draught, shows an early "sharp- 
model" vessel built for fast sailing, one of the ancestors of the clipper ship. {Courtesy oj Trustees of the National 
Maritime Miiseuiii, Greenwich, Englaiirl.) 



A number of vessel types for special service were 
also developed by Americans during the last half of 
the 18th century. One of -these was the gundalo, a 
double-ended, shoal-draft hull having a fiat bottom 
fore-and-aft and athwartships, chine (angular) bilges, 
and vertically curved side timbers. Intended for 
commercial use in protected waters, on ri\ers, and on 
lakes, vessels of this type were also btiilt for naval pur- 
poses during the Revolution. The gundalo was some- 
times rigged with a single square sail, but more often 
it was sloop or schooner rigged. Others were the sail- 
ing scow, some of which were of large size, the large 
2-masted shallop, which was developed into a service- 
able river packet and freighter, and the river schooner. 

Baltimore Clippers 

During the last two decades of the 18th century, the 
most important development in American ship design 
was, for a number of reasons, the rise in popularity of 
the sharp-model, fast-sailing Chesapeake schooner 
and brig, or brigantine. The type, of course, had be- 
come well known on the American coasts during the 
Revolution and had obtained a great reputation for 
speed; even the British had come to recognize it as 
being one of the leading types of seagoing vessel, and 



had taken a number of the fast-sailing schooners and 
brigs into naval .service. Then, too, the state of na- 
tional affairs after the war made the protection of 
the gradually increasing American merchant inarine 
impossible; for many years there was no naval protec- 
tion and the states were impotent in foreign diplo- 
macy. As a result, the infant American merchant 
marine soon became the prey of every freebooter, and 
of many European naval cruisers as well and it was 
soon found that speed was the best insurance an 
American ship could have. The American ports 
could produce only small cargoes in iTiost cases and 
this permitted the economic use of small vessels. 
Hence, it was natural that a great many shipowners 
turned to the Chesapeake model of schooner or brig. 
Furthermore, the widespread use of these vessels 
by Americans engaged in commerce, particularly in 
the West Indies, brought the type to the continuous 
attention of most of the European naval powers. The 
French, in particular, at the beginning of the War of 
the French Revolution began purchasing Chesapeake 
schooners in great number for use as privateers 
and cruisers. So active were the French purchasers 
that the British complained and the newly established 
Federal government was forced to intervene. This 
interference and the strongly pro-revolutionist sym- 



20 




Example of the Extreme Model Baltimore Clipper Schooner of the First Decade of the 19TH Cen- 
tury, the Nonpareil, built on the Chesapeake in 1801 and taken into the Royal Navy in 1808. Plan was made 
from a half-model in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England. 



pathy abroad in the Chesapeake region led a few 
shipbuilders to France, where they took part in the 
building of French privateers. 

The history of this incident is obscure, but British 
intelligence and naval reports do indicate that some 
Americans entered into partnership with French 
builders and constructed privateers on the Chesa- 
peake model in France, and that this activity con- 
tinued until, late in the 1790's, the deteriorating 
relations between France and the United States 
which led to the so-called "cjuasi-war" put a stop to 
the cooperation. In this connection it is worthy of 
notice that soon after 1794 the Royal Navy began to 
capture from the French large, flush-decked ship- 
privateers of an entirely new model suspiciously 
resembling the Chesapeake schooner hull; nothing 
like these vessels had been taken from the French in 
previous wars and the new type gradually disappeared 
after 1800, to be replaced by ships of the usual and 
distinctive French hull form. 

Plans of some of the captured French privateer 
ships of the new model, taken off by the British, 
show that there was indeed a very inarked similarity 
between them and the American schooner model. 
One of the largest of these captured "sharp-model" 
privateer ships was about 140 feet long, an unusual 
length for the period. One or two privateer frigates 
appear to have been built on this model, as well as 
some large flush-decked ships, and a number of brigs. 
Most of the schooners used by the French, however, 
were purchased American-built v'essels, as were a 
few naval brigs. The British also purchased some 
post-Revolutionary American schooners and took 



into service many of those captured from the French 
or condemned in their courts for illegal trading. 
Plans of these, made by the British Admiralty, have 
given the most complete record of the development 
of the type, prior and during the War of 1812. 

An example of a large American-built sharp-model 
schooner at the beginning of the 19th century is the 
J\onpareil, built in 1801 on the Chesapeake. This 
vessel was taken by the British in 1807 or 1808, 
apparently for illegal trading. Some accounts state 
she was found at Montevideo when that city was 
captured by the British, but other official records 
indicate that she was taken at sea. At any rate, she 
was taken into the Royal Navy in 1 808 and remained 
in naval service until 1813, being sold in the Tagus. 
The Nonpareil was a square-fore-topsail schooner 
94 feet 1 inch at the rail, 89 feet 6 inches on deck, 
22 feet 10 inches moulded beain, and drawing 13 feet 
9 inches aft. The model was sharp in all respects 
and the vessel was a very fast sailer. 

By 1794 the raised quarterdeck of the earlier Chesa- 
peake schooners had gone out of fashion and nearly 
all schooners and brigs were flush decked fore and aft. 
It was about 1795 that the 3-masted schooner rig 
appeared in Chesapeake schooners; some of these were 
sold to the French. These schooners were not very 
large and were usually of the Norfolk, or Virginia, pilot 
boat model; the use of the rig appears to result from 
an effort to increase sail area on a small hull, rather 
than from the desire for economy in crew require- 
ments. One such schooner, the Poisson Volant, 78 feet 
8 inches long on deck, 21 feet 7 inches beam, and 
7 feet 10 inches depth of hold, was taken from the 



472846—60- 



21 



French. She was of the regular i)ilot boat model 
but her rails had been raised to form bulwarks and 
the vessel had been fitted to carry 10 guns. Plans 
were made of the schooner, and from these six dupli- 
cates were built at Bermuda, by contract in 1808, for 
the British Navy. 

Reversing the process that had taken place in 
colonial times; when the Chesapeake Bay builders 
had copied the Bermuda sloop; in the last years of 
the 18th century and early years of the 19th, Bermuda 
builders copied the American schooners and pro- 
duced a modification that was called the "Bermudian 
schooner." It was somewhat like the Chesapeake 
pilot boat, but was usually fitted with a long, low 
quarterdeck and without high bulwarks. As a result 
of the building of the 3-masted schooners in 1808, 
perhaps, the Bermudians also adopted the 3-masted 
rig and built schooners of this masting; soon some of 
these were fitted with three leg-of-mutton sails 
instead of the gaff sails of the American schooner 
and the new 3-masted Bermudian schooner type 
became noted for its speed. 

When the U. S. Navy was established in the 1790's, 
two sharp-model schooners were obtained, the Enter- 
prise and Experiment. These were followed by a few 
other schooners, though the rig was never very popular 
with American naval officers. The U. S. Revenue 
Service was also equipped with sharp-model schoon- 
ers, although the vessels, following British usage, were 
always called "cutters." It may be mentioned in 
passing that the British Revenue Service employed 
two American-built sharp-model schooners in the 
period between 1790 and 1820, and of twelve large 
schooners in the Royal Navy in 1808, all but three 
were American-built. 

There was only a moderate change in the design of 
the Chesapeake schooner between 1800 and 1812. 
The average size of seagoing schooners increased 
somewhat and the sheer of the vessels gradually be- 
came somewhat straighter. Extremes in sharpness 
had been reached by 1806 and radical designs were 
quite common in this respect long before the beginning 
of the War of 1812. When the war began, the Chesa- 
peake Bay builders were soon forced to recognize that 
small privateers were not wholly effective and they 
began to build some schooners and brigantines of 
over 100 feet length on deck; the largest built on the 
Bay during the war were 115 to 116 feet on deck; 
perhaps 120 feet at the rail. Although many of these 
large vessels were built as schooners, most of them 
were soon rerigged as brigantines or brigs. As was 



learned later with regard to New England coasting 
and fishing schooners, 2-masted schooners above 120 
feet in length required a large crew and hence were 
not economical in trading. The majority of the noted 
privateer schooners of the War of 1812 ranged from 
90 to 100 feet in length. Many of the larger priva- 
teers, such as the General Armstrong and Prince de 
Neujchatel, were built in New York. 

Until shortly after the War of 1812, the Chesapeake 
model schooner was usually described as being "pilot- 
boat construction," or "Virginia model," or "pilot- 
boat model"; during the war "Baltimore built" or 
"Baltimore model," was sometimes employed. Other 
names were "sharp model" and "Chesapeake model." 
The name "Baltimore clipper" became popular in 
the 1820's and remained in use from then on. 

By 1815 the use of the Chesapeake hull form had 
spread all along the coast, and schooners and brigs of 
"pilot-boat construction" had been built at New 
Orleans, Savannah, Charleston, Norfolk. Philadel- 
phia, New York, and in New England from Con- 
necticut to Maine. The New England-built vessels 
varied from the others, as a rule, in having less rake 
in the ends. Like the old Marblehead schooners, the 
New England-built privateers of 1812-15 were more 
burdensome than their southern sisters. At the end 
of the war, and for some years after, the fastest sailer 
in the American Navy was the brig Spark, a vessel 
built at Sag Harbor, on Long Island, New York, as 
a privateer, on a model brought from the Chesapeake. 
Pilot boats all along the coast were very similar in 
form, if not in appearance, to those at Norfolk and 
Baltimore, and the most common length was 50 to 
60 feet on deck. 

During the War of 1812 Baltimore shipowners had 
carried the bulk of the small American seaborne 
trade simply because they had a large number of 
small, swift vessels suited to running the blockade 
and avoiding enemy cruisers. The trade was very 
profitable, and at the end of the war Maryland ship- 
owners would have liked to retain their advantageous 
position. Some ex-privateers were put into peace- 
time trade; the famous ex-schooner-brigantine Chas- 
seur, for example, went into the China trade where 
she almost immediately set a record for the run that 
stood for many years, being finally broken by a much 
larger vessel. 

It was soon found, however, that the sharp and often 
very deep ex-privateer was not very profitable in 
trade. The Chesapeake builders were soon under 
pressure to produce a good, small, trading vessel. 



22 




'-» »— *^^«-» 



Plan of a Privateer Built by Adam and Noah Brown, New York, During the War of i8i2. The Prince 
de Neufchatd, after a successful career as a privateer, was captured by the British and plans were made of her. 
She was noted for her speed, and was probably similar to the General Armstrong. Redrawn from the original 
British Admii-alty draught. 



With their hard-earned reputation for fast sailing so 
well established, they tried to produce a model that 
would sail well and carry more with less draft, than 
the old model. Within a few years of the war an 
improved trading model had been developed. Com- 
pared with the earlier model, the great rake of the 
ends, particularly at the stem, was somewhat reduced, 
as was the rise of the floor amidships; the difference 
in draft fore-and-aft was less marked and the hull 
was less deep and rather wider than before. The 
schooner rig of the resUess periods before 1815 was 
no longer needed in ocean trade; the brig and brigan- 
tine were now considered more suitable for general 
trade. A few sharp-model ships were built but, after 
the war, there was little local demand for these large 
craft. Most of them were built under contract for 
Mexico, and the numerous nations being formed of 
the Spanish colonies in South and Central America, 
and were intended as men-of-war or privateers. 

The use of the heavy spars of the brigantine and brig 
rigs on the foremast made a basic change necessary 
in the old schooner model; this consisted not only of 
reducing the drag and making the draft much deeper 



at the bow than before, but also of making the entrance 
somewhat less fine, since the extreme draft was made 
less than before, to carry the weight forward. As a 
result the midsection was rather large in area; it 
had only a slight rise of floor, a low and rather easy 
bilge, and nearly upright topsides. The entrance was 
short and fairly sharp; the run was usually quite long 
and very fine; and the bow sections had marked flare. 
It is probable that this form had some influence in the 
design of the large packet ships that were built after 
1830, yet it was not greatly different from that of 
some of the Bay-built ships of 1812. 

An example of one of the trading brigantines built 
in Maryland is one designed and constructed at 
Baltimore by Flannigan, a builder who had modeled 
some notable schooners during the War of 1812 and 
who had been a partner in the firm of Flannigan and 
Parsons, builders of the U. S. frigate Java at Baltimore 
during that war. This brigantine, built sometime 
between 1818 and 1828, was a small vessel for her 
time, of 88 feet 10 inches length on deck, 22 feet 1^ 
inches moulded beam, and drawing about 9 feet 10 
inches, loaded. Vessels of this type were employed 



23 




Merchant Brigantine of About 1818-28, Built at Baltimore, Maryland, by Flannigan. Redrawn from 
a plan, by Hillman, formerly in the Webb Institute of Naval Architecture. 



in the coffee trade to Brazil and in the West Indian 
trade, both of which the Bakimore shipowners were 
able to retain, in a lartjc measure, diirins; the first half 
of the f 9th century. 

\'essels with the old sharp hull form continued to 
be used, however, as the model proffered to John N. 
Cushing, Sr., in 1845 by a Baltimore builder, now in 
the Watercraft Collection (see p. 67), bears witness. 

In 1832 the ship Aiiii McKim was fiuilt at Baltimore, 
a vessel on the old sharp schooner model, 143 feet 
between perpendiculars, 31 feet beam, and 15 feet 
moulded depth; and she attracted very little attention 
when launched, the local references to the event show- 
ing that she was not viewed as anything particularly 
unusual. Indeed, she was not, for ship-rigged vessels 
of even more extreme designs had been built years 
before, not only at Baltimore but elsewhere. Some 4 
years earlier, for exaaiple, the very extretne ship 
United States had been built by Eckford at New York 
for his own account; and of course, sharp-model ships 
had been built as early as the Revolution. However, 
because the lines of the builder's model of the Ann 
Mchim had been published, and because the vessel 
had been sold to New York, where she won a reptita- 
tion for speed, some modern historians, lacking access 
to the lines of earlier sharp-model ships and basing 
their argument on the existence of the lines of the 
ship and her ownership in New York, have been led to 
assume the Ann McKim either to have been the "first 
clipper ship" or to have influenced the demand for 
such ships or, at least, to have Ijeen an innovation in 
some respect. 

Modifications of the Baltimore clipper models were 
very popular at Philadelphia, New York, and Boston 
in the early 19th century. At New York, in particu- 
lar, there were active shipyards operating, with con- 
tracts for small \-essels requiring fast sailing. These 



yards turned out schooners, brigantines and brigs that, 
while resembling the Chesapeake Bay vessels, were of 
a local character. The New York built clippers were 
admired for their fine workmanship and finish; their 
hull form was characterized by a very high bilge and 
rather more depth of keel outside the rabbet than 
would be average in the southern vessels. The her- 
maphrodite Apprentice, built at New York in 1839. is 
typical of these New York vessels. Though rather 
wide she is sharp ended and well formed; Ijy the date 
of her building the position of the greatest sectional 
area, the midsection, was being slowly moved aft. 
She was 80 feet 6 inches at rail, 23 feet 10 inches 
moulded beam, and drew about 10 feet 5 inches 
loaded. The first vessel built by William H. Webb, 
the noted New York clipper ship builder, on his own 
account was the small brig Malek-Adhel, for the Pacific 
Ocean trade. This brig was a New York clipper 
model of the size of the Apprentice and of somewhat 
similar proportions; she was a v'ery fast sailer. 

It may appear strange that Baltimore and the Chesa- 
peake region, because of the great reputation of the 
Baltimore clipper, did not become the building center 
when the great boom in clipper-ship construction be- 
gan. That it did not was due to the basic structure of 
the shipbuilding industry there. Baltimore was never 
the chief building area on the Chesapeake; the indus- 
try was carried on along the shores of the Bay, in small 
towns and villages, partictilarly on the Eastern Shore 
of Marsland and Mrginia. These country yards were 
all relati\ely small, with small crews, a factor that 
limited the size of vessels they could readily build. 
The Baltimore yards were larger and could build 
larger vessels but they often suffered for lack of suffi- 
cient labor. The Maryland and Virginia shipwrights 
preferred to work in their villages, where they could 
engage in part-time farming, fishing, or hunting. 



24 




Eight-Gun Clipper Hermaphrodite Brigantine Apprentice, built at New York City for a foreign account, 1838-39. 



rather than take the risks of industrial, urban employ- 
ment. During the Revolution, for example, when the 
frigate Virginia was building at Baltimore, there was 
very great difficulty in getting men to finish the ship. 
Again, in the War of 1812 the frigate Java was de- 
layed by the lack of labor in the city, while the con- 
struction of privateer schooners in the country yards 
gave more attractive employment to workmen. Thus, 
local conditions limited the Chesapeake Bay ship- 
builders to the production of small vessels, and since, at 
least to 1857, there was a profitable market for these 
small, fast-sailing vessels, the Bay yards were kept 
busy, with little surplus labor available for Baltimore. 
While a few clipper ships and packets were built on 
the Bay, the whole number was very small compared 
with the output of Boston, New York, or of the New 
England States. It may be said, however, that the 
Chesapeake Bay clipper-ships maintained their great 
reputation for fast sailing, and in spite of the limited 
output of clipper ships on the Chesapeake, some very 
fine small vessels were built for ocean trade, and for 
coasting. 

An example of the small ocean-trading clippers was 
the topsail schooner Vaquero, built at Baltimore, by 
fames M. Foster and Thomas Booz, for Captain 
Josiah D. Nason of Medford, Massachusetts. This 
was a large 2-masted schooner intended to carry 
frrisjht and passengers in the Pacific Ocean trade. 
Built in 1853 at the height of the clipper-ship boom, 
her general hull lines were those of an extreme clipper 
ship. She was about 133 feet 6 inches at rail, 120 feet 
9 inches between perpendiculars, 27 feet 2]i inches 
moulded beam, and drew 13 feet aft, 11 feet 4 inches 
forward, loaded. 

This schooner was as large as many ships and barks 
in her time. She sailed to California and there gained 



the reputation of being the fastest vessel out of the 
port of San Francisco. Described as having very fine 
passenger accommodations and as being a first-class 
vessel in all respects, the Vaquero was the first vessel to 
carry passengers from San Francisco to Melbourne, 
.\ustralia, and for a few years she ran between these 
ports and Honolulu. This big 2-master held the 
record between Melbourne and Honolulu; in 1858 
she made the run in 36 days, and her previous two 
runs were 42 and 41 days. The Vaquero was lost at 
sea on June 9, 1859, after 5 years in the trade. 

By 1850 the original Baltimore clipper model had 
nearly gone out of fashion, except in small schooners 
and in a few brigantines. Most fast vessels built on 
the Chesapeake, brigs, brigantines, 3-inast schooners, 
barks and ships, had been on models very similar to 
those used at New York and in New England, except 
that the Bay-built vessels commonly had somewhat 
sharper ends. The last Baltimore clipper type built 
on the Bay was the "pungy," a shallow-keel schooner 
used in the Bay trade and in fishing. Some pungies 
were employed as coastal packets and a few were in 
the Bahama-Baltimore fruit trade until late in the 
19th century. The type finally disappeared about 
1940 on the Bay. However, the basic principles of 
the Baltimore clipper model were sound and, 
throughout the last half of the f9th century, pilot 
schooners and some yachts continued to show much 
resemblance to the old model. 

One of the trades in which Baltimore clippers en- 
gaged was slaving. A few were actually built for the 
trade, often very extreme models — brigs, brigantines, 
and schooners. Few ships, or ver\' large vessels, en- 
gaged in slaving, though occasionally one was found 
with slaves aljoard. The slaver was commonly, how- 
ever, a cheaply built or secondhand vessel and most 



25 




Lines of the Large 2-Masted Clipper Schooner Vaquero, built as a packet at Baltimore, Maryland, 1852-53. 
Until lost at sea, she was employed in the Pacific between San Francisco, Melbourne, and Honolulu. 



were not armed, or they were very lightly armed, for 
they usually depended upon speed to evade capture. 
Brigs and brigantines were much favored m the trade 
and any schooners employed in the trade carried large 
square sails on the foremast, at least, being usually 
fore-topsail schooner rigged. The slavers were flush 
decked, with a low trunk on the deck aft in schooners, 
brigantines, and brigs. 

Sometime about 1820-25 a few Chesapeake Bay 
builders went to Cuba to build slavers that were 
operated under the Spanish flag. Later many of the 
South American flags were employed by slavers, 
since these countries permitted slave trading long after 
England, United States, and the nations having colo- 
nies in the West Indies had forbidden it. From one 
of the few slavers taken by or purchased for the British 
Navy, plans of a topsail schooner were made, and the 
plans of two brigs and two other schooners also survive. 
Usually captured slavers were hauled up and cither 
burned or broken up by the British, to avoid the 
slavers purchasing them and putting them back into 
the trade. The American Navy engaged in suppres- 
sion of the trade but political and economic factors 
made it less effective in this than the British Navy. 
The slave trade gradually declined in the first half of 
the 19th century, but it did not cease entirely in Ameri- 
can waters until the 1860's. 

During the period of piracy in the West Indies, that 
occurred after the peace of 1815, freebooters operated 
from shore establishments on the Cuban and Florida 
coasts, from which they made destructive forays upon 
American commerce in the Gulf and in the Caribbean. 
They preferred small craft for their operations and 
had a strong preference for Chesapeake pilot-boat 



schooners that they obtained by purchase or capture. 
These were swift and had the shallow draft required 
to reach the hideouts the pirates employed. Two such 
vessels were captured by the British Navy and taken 
into their service in the 1820's to engage in suppression 
of West Indian piracy. Copies of the Chesapeake Bay 
models built in the West Indies were said to be very 
roughly constructed and inferior to the Chesapeake- 
built schooners. For many years one of the marks of 
these West Indian-built schooners was markedly 
greater rake in the mainmast than the fore; these were 
known as "Ballahou rigged." 

North Atlantic Packets 

In early colonial times, passenger transportation 
between England and her colonies was very irregular, 
since it depended upon the freighting vessels in the 
colonial trade. From old accounts it is plain that 
these ships were very unsatisfactory, for they had very 
primitive accommodations for passengers; they made 
very irregular runs as their departures depended 
upon freight requirements. Government officials pre- 
ferred to travel by men-of-war when that was possible. 
In 1755 the British established a mail packet service; 
the vessels employed were almost entirely fast brig- 
antines of rather small size, and the service was con- 
trolled and operated by the Post Office. The Revolu- 
tion put a stop to this service as far as American ports 
were concerned, but after the war the service was 
resumed, to be broken off again just before the \Var 
of 1812 and continued after the war until 1828, when 
it finally ceased due to the competition of the big 
trans-Atlantic packets. These mail packets carried no 
freight; this sharply reduced their usefulness as aids in 



26 



■i " 



#«1 




Packet Ship, Built IN 1 855 at New York Cn \ i;-. Wiiiiwi II, Webb for the Black B\i 1 l.i\i:, [he .\eptune. 
She was wrecked about 1877. Her register dimensions were 191' x 40' x 28', 1,406 tons. From a painting 
(USNM 310852) in the Watercraft Collection. (Smithsonian photo 44691.) 



the foreign trade, and limited their value to American 
merchants. 

The coastal packet business which developed in 
early colonial times was largely carried in sloops and 
sinall schooners which made more or less regular runs 
between Atlantic coastal cities and towns, often in 
conjunction with stagecoach services. Packet sloops 
were also employed on the large rivers; those on the 
Hudson became large and well equipped vessels after 
the Revolution. On some of the longer runs small 
brigs were employed, particularly to the Southern 
ports. At the beginning of the War of 1 8 1 2 the coastal 
packets had become well established and some appear 
to have maintained a fairly regular schedule, at least 
during the summer months. This coastal packet 
service, which was really part of the coasting trade, 
is dealt under coasting vessels (see p. 42). 

The coming of peace in 1815 brought a revival in 
merchantile activity in America to meet the needs 
that had gathered during the war years. New York 
merchants saw in this period an opportunity to make 
their city a great merchantile center. One step in 
this direction was taken by four well-to-do merchants, 
who organized a trans-Atlantic packet service with 



four ships. One feature of this line of packets was 
that they were to sail on a fixed schedule; a ship was 
to leave port at the beginning of each month without 
regard to weather or the amount of freight on board. 

This first venture, the "Old Line," became best 
known as the Black Ball Line, as the ships carried a 
flag on which there was a black ball, a mark also 
carried on their fore-topsail. The Black Ball Line 
began operation between New York and Liverpool 
in 1818, and in spite of an economic depression that 
began in 1819, the Line prospered. This led to the 
establishment of other packet lines; the second to be 
organized was the Red Star Line in 1821, and this 
was followed by the Swallowtail Line, the Le Havre 
Line, and others. Services thus became established 
to Liverpool, London, and Le Havre, with two or 
more lines to each of these European ports. 

In order to maintain the schedules proudly adver- 
tised by the competing lines, it was necessary to sail 
the packet ships very hard, and to carry sail as long as 
possible. Early in the development of the packet 
lines, ships were racing across the Atlantic and the 
first arrival obtained a great notoriety which served 
the line's owners as valuable ad\ertising. Though 



27 



speed was important, carrying capacity was a basic 
necessity, due to the type of cargoes accepted. A 
merely fast ship without high order of cargo-carrying 
ability would have been a commercial failure in the 
trans-Atlantic packet trade throughout most of its 
existence. To resist the strains of hard sailing, which 
could be destructive to large wooden ships, their 
structure was necessarily always massive and sti^ong. 
Thus construction weight as well as cargo capacity 
made the packet ship a very heavy displacement 
vessel for her length. 

The earliest packet ships were regular traders 
selected because they sailed well. Such vessels had 
some rise in the floor amidships, rather firm, rounded 
bilges, and some tumble-home in the topsides. The 
bow was very full at the rail, but below the entrance 
became very fine, though quite short. The run was 
likewise short but rather easy. The sides were carried 
well fore-and-aft and almost parallel, so that there 
was a long, full body. These first ships were rela- 
tively small, about 500 tons register or less, approxi- 
mately 110 to 115 feet along on deck, and 28 to 31 
feet beam. 

The changes in form necessary to make such ships 
sail well were known at the time; an increase in the 
length of run and in the length of the entrance, 
combined with greater fineness at the ends, would 
produce more speed but at the cost of a loss in capac- 
ity in a short ship. There was also a practical limit 
to the depth a ship of about 500 tons should have. It 
was belie\ed that to sail fast, a ship required dead 
rise in her floors amidships, and the greater the dead 
rise the faster she would be. Because of these factors 
and the belief as to the need for dead rise, little change 
took place in the hull form of packets ships built 
before 1835, though between 1816 and 1832 the ships 
increased in overall size. 

For reasons of trade, the New York merchants 
found it necessary in the 1820's to employ ships of 
some size in the coastal packet trade with Charleston, 
Savannah, Mobile, and New Orleans (the first line 
to New Orleans was established in 1821). A necessary 
hull feature in these coastal packets, a majority of 
which were ship rigged, was a rather flat bottom in 
order to keep the loaded draft at a minimum, so that 
the ship could cross the bar at the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi. This change had been accepted as a neces- 
sity, as was the supposed loss of speed that was 
expected to result, but it was noticed that some of 
these flat-floored coastal packets were very fast ships, 
of great capacity for their size. 



This discovery led to the adoption of the flat-floored 
hull form in the trans-Atlantic packets, and by 1838 
the fashionable packet-ship model had become 
a vessel with straight sheer, rather straight sided for 
most of her length, with a very full bow at the rail, 
sharp and easy in the entrance below the load line, 
and with a fairly long and fine run. The cutwater 
was short and deep, naval fashion, a style that had 
become almost universal in America at the end of the 
War of 1812; even the Chesapeake Bay builders had 
given up their simple gammon-knee head and were 
supplying all their schooners except the small pilot 
boats with "naval heads."' At the same time the 
rake of stem and post was gradually reduced until, in 
some of the packets built at Philadelphia for the Cope 
Line, the stem rabbets and sternposts became up- 
right. The early ships were commonly flush decked, 
but as the vessels grew in size a long quarterdeck 
came to be employed and this was utilized for accom- 
modation of the cabin passengers, the steerage passen- 
gers being placed in the 'tween decks amidships, or 
in a deckhouse, and the crew in a forecastle space 
forward below the main deck. These ships were 
2-decked until into the 1840's when 3-decked packets 
were built. In appearance the packet often resembled 
a naval frigate, her sheer often being flush, or un- 
broken, as in the warship. The quarter galleries 
of the naval ships were omitted in the packets as 
these ornaments would be damaged in a hard-driven 
vessel. 

Out of the gradual development of the North .At- 
lantic packet-ship hull form came the ship design 
practices that helped produce the best of the clipper 
ships of the 1850's: A full midship section and good 
length of body, combined with fine ends; a strongly 
built and heavily sparred vessel that could be driven 
hard without coming apart or losing her spars. As 
the packets grew in length, improved construction 
details were introduced until it became possible to 
build wooden ships of great length without their 
becoming weak longitudinally. By 1843 packet ships 
180 feet long on deck were being built, diagonally 
strapped (see p. 115). 

After the introduction of the clipper ship, in 1850, 
packets were built that also could be reasonably called 
true clippers, so fine were they at the ends; the Racer 
and the Dreadnought, both built in Massachusetts, 
were examples. But no ship of really extreme hull 
design was long employed as a regular North Atlantic 
packet. 



28 




Smiih & DiMuN Shii'Vard, .\l\v York, About 1831, From a Contemporary Painting. This firm was then a 
leading builder of packet ships, '.nd later built Rainbow, Sea Jl'ik/i and other famous clipper ships. A treadmill 
can be seen at the e.xtreme left and a steam bo.x at the e.Ntreine right. (Smilhsoman photo 32^1^-0.) 



The building of packets centered at New York; out 
of a total of 185 ocean packets, listed by Albion in 
Square-riggers on Schedule, 160 were New York built; 
of 116 ship-rigged coastal packets, 78 were New York 
built. Only one ocean packet was built at the former 
center of improved shipbtiilding, Baltimore. New 
England's contribution was but 24 ocean and 37 
coastal packets. 

It was the fierce cotnpetitioti in packet-ship con- 
struction among New York builders that had led 
these shipbuilders to search for scientific information 
on the design of hulls, and caused them to import 
English books on the subject and to study and discuss 
the problem in print. The first American book on 
naval architecture, published at New York in 1839, 
was The Practical Shipbuilder by L. M'Kay, older 
brother of Donald McKay, who was to become 
prominent at Boston in the 1850's as a builder of 
clipper ships. Later the Nautical Magazine, published 
at New York, and the works on naval architecture 
and shipbuilding of John Willis Griffiths appeared. 
The mechanics' societies had lectures on the subject 
at their athenaeums and the title "mechanic" was 
proudly claimed by master shipwright and carpenter 
alike. Consequently, in the latter part of the packet- 



ship period, 1820 to 1850, when the great development 
of the type took place. New York had become a cen- 
ter of advanced merchant ship-design, and although 
Baltimore retained a reputation for turning out swift 
sailers, at least in small vessels, the palm for "scientific 
ship-design" rested in New York. 

Not until the 1850"s did New England bid for 
supremacy in this respect. The careful preservation 
of shipbuilding records in New England and the 
relative neglect of this in other sections have given a 
somewhat false concept of the national importance 
and the actual advance of shipbuilding in New 
England during the first half of the 19th century. 
Though shipbuilding was very active in this period 
throughout the New England States, there was very 
little evidence of progressive design, particularly in 
regards to very fast or large ships. 

After 1850, steamships gave the sailing packets 
increasingly strong competition and gradually took 
over the trans-Atlantic runs and the long coastal runs, 
the sailing vessels first losing the cabin passengers 
and then the valuable freight, such as specie and 
perishable goods. One by one the packet lines ceased 
operation, and the last sailing packets were reduced 
to the immigrant trade. The end finallv came in the 



4 72S46 — 60- 



29 




1880's when the Red Swallowtail Line to London 
ceased operation, the last sailing being completed 
in 1881. 

Clipper Ships 

Though of less economic importance than either 
the packets or the ocean freighters and coasters in 
the age of sail, the American clipper ships are of very 
great interest because of their part in the develop- 
ment of American sailing ship design, with its em- 
phasis on speed. The clipper-ship period was very 
short, so far as building was concerned. The appear- 
ance of the clipper ship was brought about by the 
existence of trades in which high freight rates could 
be obtained, particularly if fast runs were made. 
This first developed in the China trade. China 
cargoes brought good prices and could afford high 
freight rates. The length of the voyage alone was 
sufficient to encourage speed, for the individual 
merchant's investment in a China voyage was large 
and too long a voyage tied up capital and lost interest. 
There was yet another factor, the American mania 
for speed. This had become marked before 1800 in 
shipping and was, of course, based upon the success 
of the Baltimore clipper type in this respect. The 



Large American Medium Clipper Queen of Clippers, 
from a French print in the Watercraft Collection 
(USNM 159934). She was built by Robert E. Jackson 
at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 1853. Her register 
dimensions were 248'6" ,x 45' x 38', an unusually deep 
ship for her beam. (Smithsonian photo 44628-a.) 



China trade gave free rein to this desire for speed and 
the trade conditions permitted the operation of fast 
sailing vessels of moderate capacity; even extreme 
Baltimore clippers could be employed in the trade, 
as they were after 1815. As the value of the China 
trade gradually increased, the need for fast vessels 
of greater capacity than that of the privateer models 
of 1815-1820 attracted attention. Packet sliips were 
tried with some success and their relatively large 
capacity made them attractive to the China trade 
merchants in the early 1840's, though their hull 
design was not otherwise too well suited to the 
weather and sea conditions of the run. 

In 1844, when the merchants were still seeking an 
improved model of vessel for the China trade, Smith 
and Dimon, prominent packet-ship designers and 
builders, laid down the modified packet ship Rainbow, 
designed by John W. Griffiths, a rising shipwright 



30 




Clipper ShU' Ocean Herald, Iroin a trencli print in the 
Watercraft Collection (USNM 159928). She was 
built at Damariscotta, Maine, in 1853, and was sold 
to France in 1 856 and renamed Malabar. Said to be a 
medium-clipper model, her register tonnage was 1 658. 
{Smithsonian photo 44628-c.) 



in their employ. Historians of the clipper ship have 
at times considered this as the vessel marking the 
beginning of the clipper-ship period, although the 
first ship-rigged clipper in the China trade was 
probably the Ann McKim. 

What is a clipper ship? Much space has been given 
to this question by maritime writers and historians 
both in the United States and Britain. There are 
many answers, the fundamental one being that a 
clipper ship is one that can be sailed at a very high 
rate of speed. This definition is inherent in the word 
"clipper," which to Americans of the 19th century 
meant fast moving. To the naval architect or master 
shipwright the clipper had to have a hull capable of 
high speed and a rig to match. In the technical 
sense, then, a clipper was a very sharp-ended vessel 
having a hull form that possessed a high potential 
speed and that could carry a spread of sail sufficient 



to drive the vessel at this high potential speed, at 
least on occasion. 

A high potential speed depends on size, particularly 
length, in ships of sufficient displacement to carry a 
payload of cargo. Therefore, the numerical expres- 
sion of high potential speed must vary. For example, 
the Baltimore clippers of the privateer type are re- 
corded as having sailed at a speed of 13 knots and 
better on a waterline length of 100 feet, or thereabouts. 
Naval architects use speed-length ratio to establish 
the effect of length on maximum speed; this term is 
the square root of the waterline length divided by the 
observed maximum speed in nautical miles. Thus, 
the privateer Prince de Neufchatel (see p. 23) was 
observed to run at a speed of 13}^ knots, giving a 
speed length ratio of about 1.33; the 121-foot water- 
line schooner-yacht Sappho, at a much later date 
(1869) is credited with 16 knots, giving a speed length 
ratio of about 1.45; while the clipper ship James Baines 
is credited with a claimed speed of 21 knots on a 
waterline length of about 240 feet, giving a speed- 
length ratio of 1.35. On this basis, there was only a 
slight gain between the Neufchatel (built by Adam 
and Noah Brown of New York in 1813) and the 
clipper-ship James Baines (built by Donald McKay of 



31 



Boston in 1854). The speed-length ratio of 1.45 may 
be taken as the highest claimed for a seagoing vessel 
of sufficient displacement to carry cither a small 
amount of cargo or to give livable accommodations 
for a sea voyage of much length. 

The foregoing criterion of sailing speed gives rather 
di.scouraging results as regards progress in sailing ship 
design between 1812 and 1865; and apparently tar- 
nishes the reputation of the clipper ship. Such a com- 
parison, however, is somewhat unfair, for the privateer 
was designed to sail under less difficult conditions of 
sea and weather than the clipper ship and the yacht 
was designed to sail under the easiest conditions of all. 

Marine historians have resorted to the "shortest 
voyage over a given run" as the criterion of excellence, 
as, for example, the Baltimore schooner Vaquero, noted 
earlier (p. 25). The use of this criterion to establish 
the fastest clipper-ship leaves an element to chance; 
a very fast ship might be on a given run for years, yet, 
because of weather conditions or because of the way 
the ship was loaded or because of her commanders 
and the quality of her crew, none of which are matters 
of ship design, she might only once make a record or 
near-record run. Another factor that must be taken 
into consideration in the lowering of records for given 
runs is the increase that took place in knowledge of 
the wind and weather conditions to be expected in 
any month of the year along the courses sailed between 
New York and San Francisco, and in the trans-At- 
lantic and trans-Pacific runs. The meteorological re- 
search of Lt. Matthew Fontaine Maury in the 1840's 
and 1850's at the American Hydrographic Office in 
Washington established for these runs the sailing 
courses which, if closely followed, shortened very 
markedly the time between ports. It is not surprising, 
therefore, to discover that some of the vessels listed 
by maritime historians as clipper ships, on the basis of 
their "record passages," were relatively full-ended 
vessels having a low maximum speed potential. 

Speed under sail is affected by the direction of the 
wind in relation to the chosen course of a vessel; a 
ship sailing close-hauled, that is, pointing into the 
wind to her maximum capability moves through the 
water much more slowly than when the wind is free, 
that is, on her beam or abaft that direction. Often a 
fast ship will sail on all points at higher speed than 
a slow ship, but when the margin of superiority 
between ships in this respect is small, the best handled 
ship will be the fastest. Some fast ships sail better on 
one course than another. In one case two clipper 
ships, both notable sailers, were in company and one 



ship outsailed the other with the wind aft; but when 
they changed courses, so that the wind came forward 
of the bea^n, the position of the ships was soon reversed. 
When a ship is noted for being fast, then, the question 
to be asked is: on what course is she fast — close 
hauled or running free or reaching with the wind 
abeam? 

Wind and sea conditions also affect a ship's per- 
formance. The heavy, full-ended packets could be 
sailed in heavy head winds and seas when the poten- 
tially faster Baltimore clipper model brigantine or 
large schooner or extreme clipper ship had to reduce 
sail and speed to be safe. In heavy weather the larger 
vessel always had a basic advantage, for she usually 
could carry sail when the smaller vessel could not. In 
an area where the weather was generally poor at a 
given period, as in the North Atlantic in the late 
fall and winter or off Cape Horn in winter, large 
vessels as a rule had the advantage. 

Perhaps the simplest test of a ship's being fast is the 
record of the types and names of vessels she has 
passed when in company, for this very often shows the 
inherent speed advantage she had under a specific 
existing condition. Using the record-run criterion it 
is necessary to call some full-ended but heavily rigged 
carriers "clippers" but, if their passing of fast-sailing 
types of ships or of known clippers is on record, it is 
usually possible to decide whether or not the vessel 
in question was truly "fast" in model, for the weather 
stated, or was merely lucky in her weather. 

There are certain "probables" that decide a vessel's 
qualities when her model is examined. Sharp-model 
vessels of the Baltimore clipper type were usually 
quite fast close-hauled and on all other points of 
sailing if the wind were light or moderate and if the 
sea were not heavy. Commonly the deeper the draft 
(in relation to length and beam and therefore the 
greater the dead rise) in a Baltimore clipper, the 
faster she might be close-hauled, but she would 
probably be slower off the wind than some vessel with 
less draft and dead rise. This was also true at least 
to some extent in the later clipper ships. A relatively 
wide and flat-bottomed ship with fine ends would 
commonly be very stiff under sail and thus be able to 
carry a heavy press of canvas in strong winds. The 
North Atlantic packets were of this last description, 
as were some of the later clipper ships. 

It is extremel)' difficult to draw firm conclusions 
about the relative speed of vessels of varying date and 
model. It has been customary to compare indiscrim- 
inately, using the criterions of fast passages and high- 



32 



est recorded speed in surviving ship's logs, the saihng 
speed of old trading vessels, packets, Baltimore-clipper 
model schooners and brigs, clipper ships, and the last 
sailing freighters of the United States, the down- 
Easters, to show that the design of sailing ships im- 
proved steadily during the whole 19th century in 
North America. As has been suggested (p. 32), the 
increase in size, or at least in average size, makes such 
comparisons very misleading; in addition, the question 
of the conditions of weather and wind under which 
each passage was made, is not considered. In the 
packets, for example, the run from New York to Liver- 
pool was commonly made under very favorable con- 
ditions with fresh to strong winds abaft the beam; 
hence conditions on this course are extremely favor- 
able to a ship that could carry a press of sail and main- 
tain a good average speed. On the other hand, the 
return run to the westward was commonly unfavor- 
able, for head winds could normally be expected; the 
packet usually had to claw her way to windward at 
least part way, if not for the whole distance. Thus a 
weatherly and powerful vessel might make a relatively 
good passage westward simply because she could sail 
well close-hauled, though her maximum potential 
speed might be relatively low. Such conditions, how- 
ever, would not necessarily favor a powerful ship in all 
instances, for rig might be a factor. In one case a 
pilot-boat schooner left New York for Cork, Ireland, 
at the same time a packet ship sailed from New York 
for Liverpool. The schooner made the run to Cork 
under severe winter weather conditions in 26 days; 
the packet made the Irish coast in 28 days. The ad- 
vantage of the schooner lay in the easterly winds then 
faced by both vessels. On the westward run, which 
packet ships were making in 34 days or more, the 
schooner came home in 29 days over the longer 
southern route, for on this run also the schooner rig 
had the advantage because of the amount of wind- 
ward sailing required by the prevailing westerlies. 

On the long runs to China or California and return 
to New York or Boston, the average weather encoun- 
tered played a greater part in determining the length 
of the passage than the design of the hull of a ship. 
Since each individual ship had one point of sailing in 
which she could do her inaximum potential speed, her 
length of passage would often depend upon how much 
of the time she was in weather conditions that suited 
this ability. Analysis of clipper-ship passages show 
numerous cases in which very fast ships, judging by 
plans, builder's half-models, and previous records, 
were beaten by potentially slower ships on the long 



runs simply because the slower shi[) had weather con- 
ditions that suited her most for much longer periods 
than had the faster ship. 

Another factor that bedevils the marine historian 
discussing clipper ships is the fashion that developed 
in the 1850's, in the United States and particularly 
at Boston and New York, of calling nearly every new 
and large ship a clipper ship. Since the fashion in 
design then called for any ship, full or fine ended, to 
carry a large spread of sail and since the length-of- 
passage criterion was most commonly used, it is not 
surprising to find that the "clipper ships" of the con- 
temporary journalists were a mb<ed lot insofar as form 
of hull was concerned. 

Out of 433 ships listed by Carl C. Cutler in his classic 
account of the clipper ships. Greyhounds of the Sea, and 
by other clipper-ship historians, the plans or builders' 
models of 72 have been examined; of these not more 
than a total of 44 can be considered sharp enough to 
have a very high potential speed for their length and 
only 35 could be properly called clippers or extreme 
clippers. At least 22 of the ships represented were 
relatively full-ended medium clippers and the rest are 
by any criterion full-ended ships. It is hardly sound 
to make any sweeping generalization of the actual 
number of extreme clippers that were built, with only 
about 16 percent of the so-called clippers capable of 
being judged on the basis of their hull form, but one 
may conclude that ships of very high potential speed 
were much less numerous among the so-called clipper 
ships of the 1850's than is indicated by the various 
listings. Cutler, in particular, makes this point clear 
in his introductory note. 

In truth, the clipper ships introduced no one feature 
that was entirely new, and the first \'essels in this cate- 
gory built for the China trade were really sharp-ended 
packets like the Rainbow, Helena, Montauk, and others. 
These were followed by more extreme ships, such as 
the Samuel Russell, Oriental, and Sea Witch; the latter 
may be said to have been the first really extreme ship 
of the new clipper-ship class. In general, then, al- 
though the early China clippers had a good deal of 
rise in the floors amidships, compared to that in the 
last class of North Atlantic packets, their model in 
most other respects was nearly that of a good packet. 

Nor was the model of the fast packet then In use a 
recent design, for development of the fast carrier 
represented in the early China traders had begun at 
least as early as 1812, and even then the Baltimore 
builders were producing a medium carrier, having 
fairly easy lines, suitable for fast-sailing. A plan of 



33 



one of these, the Hannibal, built at Bahimore in 1810 
and captured and taken into the Royal Navy during 
the War of 1812, has been found. This ship, 135 feet 
6 inches long on deck, 37 feet 51^ inches beam, and 
10 feet 11 inches depth of hold, had rather marked 
dcadrise but her longitudinal lines were rather full. 
The trend in design illustrated in the Hannibal seems 
to have developed rather slowly, largely in smaller 
brigs and brigantines; in fact it may be more correct 
to say the basic design reappeared from time to time, 
rather than to say that it was developed. By 1838 
the Baltimore shipowners and shipbuilders had be- 
come very conscious of the shortcomings of the sharp- 
model vessels as peacetime carriers, recognizing that 
the old sharp-model vessels could no longer pay as 
they carried too little cargo in proportion to their 
dimensions, tonnage taxes, and crew costs. As a re- 
sult, some attempts were being made to build ships of 
greater relative capacity with as little loss in speed as 
possible. This was done by combining the full body 
of the New England ships of the "Boston model" with 
the sharper ends of the "Baltimore model." A ship 
launched about this time was claimed to represent this 
combination, but her builder's model and drawings 
have not been found and no report of her performance 
seems to exist. 

It is obvious, then, that the idea of employing a full 
body with fine entrance and run was nothing new 
when the Rainbow was built, not only because of the 
Baltimore effort, but also because of the evidence in 
ship plans dating at least as far back as 1806. Indeed 
as early as 1800 there had been two schools of thought 
in American shipbuilding, one considering extreme 
rise in the floor in the midship section necessary for a 
fast ship and the other that a large midsection with 
low dead rise could be used as well if the entrance and 
run were sharp. 

The California gold rush in 1849 had brought the 
still ubiquitous Baltimore clippers into the new trade, 
but these small vessels were soon replaced by the new 
class of ships on the China-trade model; the famed 
and shortlived California clipper. The demand for 
fast ships in which speed rather than cargo capacity 
was paramount produced a boom in shipbuilding, 
and soon yards from the Chesapeake to the Canadian 
border were turning them out in numbers. At first 
the extreme clippers were built at New York (a few 
were built to the southward), while New England 
produced only moderately sharp vessels, but soon 
they were on the stocks in Massachusetts and Maine, 



as well as in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and 
Rhode Island. 

Actually there were three types of ships that could 
be truly called "clipper ships" because of their having 
higher potential maximum speed than other sailing 
ships. The most radical type were the extreme clip- 
pers, built primarily for speed and with the least 
regard for cargo capacity. These might be modifica- 
tions of the old Baltimore clipper model, with marked 
dead rise and fine ends, as in the Samuel Russell, 
Xightingale, Sea Witch, Witch of the Wave, Staghound, 
and Gazelle. Some of these were far more radical in 
design than others. 

Less radical were the clippers, the ships of sharp 
but more practical model in which there was a definite 
intent to combine speed with fair cargo capacity. 
Among these were such noted vessels as McKay's 
Flying Cloud, Sovereign oj the Seas, and James Baines; 
Webb's Comet, Young America, and Invincible; and 
Samuel Pook's Surprise, Red Jacket, and Belle oJ the 
West. The ships of this class usually had a moderate 
rise in the floor, and a rather short but very sharp 
entrance and run, whereas the extreme clipper had a 
very long entrance and run. The two classes were 
not sharply divided but shaded gradually from one 
category to the other. The Lightning exemplifies this; 
with a rather full body she had, to a very marked 
degree, sharply formed ends, and these were quite 
long. Hence, even among naval architects and ship- 
builders, there could be a valid difference of opinion 
as to how some ships should be classed. 

Least extreme were the medium, or half clippers, 
vessels in which capacity came first but in which the 
designer had attempted to produce a reasonably fast 
vessel. Examples of this class were the Nor^ Wester, 
Andrew Jackson, and Golden Fleece. This class, too, 
shaded imperceptibly into the next class below, the 
full-ended ship. 

Building of clipper ships reached a maximum in 
1853-54, and in these two years many excellent 
examples of each of the three basic classes of clipper 
ships came off the ways. A fine example of an extreme 
clipper was the Surmv South, designed and built by 
George Steers at Williamsburg, New York, in 1854. 
Steers had won notice as a designer of fast vessels by 
modeling and building notable pilot boats of the 
New York fleet and, in 1850-51, be designed the 
yacht America whose success in England brought him, 
still a young man, to great prominence. In designing 
the Sunny South Steers had followed the basic model 
he had used so successfully in his fast schooners and 



34 




Lines of the Extreme Clipper Sunny South, built at Williamsburg, New York, in 1854. She became the 
slaver Emanuela. Taken off the half-model in the Mariners' Museum, Newport News, Virginia. 



particularly in the America. The clipper was rela- 
tively small, some 700 tons, and represented perhaps 
the most extreme design of all the American clipper 
ships built in the 1840's and 1850's. The vessel was 
marked by a very long and extremely fine entrance 
and a fine run, long for a ship-rigged vessel. She also 
had much dead rise amidships and was beautiful 
and yachtlike. Her figurehead was a gilded sea 
serpent carried the length of her curved trails, which 
were much like those of the yacht America, and the 
head was built up in the same manner as well. Like 
many of the China clippers and the coastal packets 
running into the Gulf of Mexico, the Sunny South 
was armed to repel pirates. It is worthy of comment 
that this beautiful vessel had the reputation of being 
extremely fast when in company of other ships, yet 
she made no record passages and she was not a 
financial success. She was eventually sold in 1858-59 
to Havana where, under the name Emanuela, she 
became known as the fastest slaver out of that port. 
On Aug. 10, 1860, the Emanuela, fl>'ing the Chilean 



flag, was captured in the Mozambique Channel by 
H. M. steamship Brisk, when the wind failed the 
clipper. When taken, the Emanuela had 850 slaves 
aboard. Unlike many slavers taken by the Royal 
Navy, the Emanuela was not immediately destroyed; 
she appears to have been employed as a storeship for 
a few years at the Cape of Good Hope, after which 
she is supposed to have been broken up or burned. 

The Sunny South was one of the few ships that 
actually had the feature that clipper ships were 
popularly supposed to have — a long, sharp, and 
hollow load line at the bow. She appears to have 
been the only American clipper ship that had her 
forefoot much cut away and had curvature for most 
of the length of her keel. Like some of the ships of 
her period she had a short, low quarterdeck and 
deep bulwarks. In appearance she resembled a large 
schooner hull of an improved Baltimore clipper model. 

An example of the less radical clipper model was 
the Pook-designed Fearless built at East Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1853 by A. and G. T. Sampson. 




Lines of the Clipper Ship Fearless built at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 1853. She was designed by Samuel 
Pook, Jr. Taken off the half-model in the Weld family collection. 



35 



l&aiMMMM 



isssssaSiSiiL 



Medium Clipper Coeur de Lion, buUt at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1854. From a painting in the Water- 
craft Collection (USNM 309517). Painted by the Chinese artist Chong Qua with great clarity of detail. The 
picture, as is usual in clipper ship portraits, slighdy exaggerates the rake of bow and overhang of stern. {Smith- 
sonian photo .^^635.) 



She was a fine-lined ship having a rather large 
midsection with little dead rise, a long, sharp and 
convex entrance, and a rather long and fine run. 
This ship might well be described as being as typical 
as any clippers could be in a class having so exten- 
sive a variation in design. Though the Fearless is 
said to have been somewhat less heavily sparred than 
some of her sisters, she was a very fast vessel and also 
held some notable passage records: Manila to Boston 
in 86 days in 1855 and San Francisco to Manila in 
36 days in 1856. 

As an example of a medium, or half, clipper the 
Coeur de Lion will serve; this fine ship was built at 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1854 by George 
Raynes, who designed and built a number of other 
fine vessels of this class, as well as at least two extreme 
clippers. The Coeur de Lion had a large midsection 
with some rise in the floor; the entrance was short. 



moderately sharp, and convex; and the run was also 
short but well formed. This ship was heavily sparred 
and sailed well but held no passage records. Vessels 
of the class of the Coeur de Lion differed very little in 
model and in potential maximum speed from some 
of the better down-Easters built after the Civil War, 
except that the vessels of the clipper-ship period were 
usually more heavily canvassed and carried a larger 
crew, even though smaller in size. 

The building of extreme clippers and clippers for 
all practical purposes ended with the depression of 
'57, which nearly destroyed shipbuilding all along 
the coast. The Civil War, following before the effects 
of the depression had worn off, and the destruction of 
much American shipping by British-built commerce 
raiders, were sufficient to depress the commercial 
shipbuilding industry in America for years afterward. 
It should be stated, however, that the clipper-ship 



36 




Lines of the Medium Clipper Coeur de Lion built at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1854. Taken off the 
half-model in the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Athenaeum. A painting of this ship, in the Watercraft 
Collection, is shown, opposite. 



building boom was almost fully deflated before 
1857, for high freight rates were no longer obtainable 
in the California and China trades, owing to the 
huge number of ships competing for cargoes and the 
increasing ability of California and the Northwest 
coast to provide many of the necessities formerly 
brought from the East. 

The whole development and decline of the American 
clipper ship occurred in the short period of 9 or 10 
years. Although Americans did not build any 
extreme clippers after the Civil War, the British 
continued their development through the 1860's and 
into the 1870's. In the last years of British develop- 
ment many very extreme ships, some as extreme as 
the Sunny South, were built in England and Scotland, 
though of an entirely different model. 

Attempts to make comparisons between British and 
American clipper ships are useless, for the two 
national types were designed to meet entirely different 
requirements of weather and sea and trade conditions. 
In the 1850"s, when British and American ships were 
temporarily in the same trades, the Americans appear 
to have had the faster ships on the average but late 
in the 1850's the American advantage had almost 
disappeared in any of the trades where the ships 
competed. Such competition was so limited, however, 
that any conclusion based on relative speed of indi- 
vidual clippers is misleading. While the Americans 
can claim credit for introducing the extreme clipper 
and the clipper designs, they did not maintain a 
monopoly on the design of very fast merchant ships 
and many such were launched in Europe during the 
last years of the American clipper ship period and for 
about 10 years thereafter. 



A reason for the American failure to resume building 
fast vessels after the Civil War lay in the fact that 
there were few American trades in which fast vessels 
were in demand. Of these few, the two most impor- 
tant were the fruit trade with the Bahamas, the W'est 
Indies, and Florida, and the coffee trade with Brazil. 
The latter in particular was carried on by vessels of 
some size, small barks and many brigantines and brigs 
being employed. Most of these were built at Balti- 
more, on the Chesapeake, and on the Delaware, but 
some notable coffee traders were constructed at New 
York and in New England. These vessels were 
usually fast sailers. The barks were sometimes almost 
medium clippers; the builders' model of the Albemarle 
in the Watercraft Collection (see p. 63) is a good 
example of the type of bark used ; but few of the ves- 
sels, barks or brigantines or brigs, were very sharp- 
ended. Some brigantines were employed in the fruit 
trade, but most of the fruiters were schooners, and 
toward the last of the sailing fruit trade 3-masted 
schooners became popular. A particularly favored 
model was built at Bath, Maine, for this trade, and a 
few of these 3-mastcrs were also built in Maryland. 
Fast fishing schooners and coasters were often em- 
ployed in this trade, which was seasonal. The Ba- 
hamas and Florida fruit trade was mostly in pine- 
apples; on the Florida east coast the Indian River 
country was being exploited in the years immediately 
following the Civil War, growing pineapples and, 
later, oranges. 

Coasters 

In colonial times the coasting trade was of very 
great importance. The small size of port villages and 
towns and the limited back countrv thcv served made 



37 



it difficult for them to gather cargoes for foreign 
trade that was needed to support the colonial econ- 
omies. Gradually certain ports became developed 
enoitgh to sustain some foreign trade, either through 
natural physical advantages or through the existence 
of certain products, such as tobacco for instance, in 
the back country. These ports at least as early as 
1670 began, by means of a coastal trade, to draw 
upon other coastal areas to build up cargoes for their 
overseas trade and to supply local users. In the 
process, regular traders as well as coastal packets 
developed, so that by the time of the Revolution 
well designed coasters and packets were in operation. 

The earliest coasters appear to have been ketches (or 
"catches"), sloops, and large shallops. As has been 
stated (p. 1 5), there is reason to suppose that the early 
ketches were in fact primitive schooners, and that the 
shallops were in this class also, though without head- 
sails or bowsprit. The sloops seem to have appeared 
in colonial waters in a well developed state, and some 
of the early coasting sloops appear to have been rather 
large vessels for the time; records indicate that as 
early as 1690 some were about 50 feet on deck. The 
efforts of the colonial ports to support themselves, 
after trade with England was halted by the Civil War 
in Britain, led to the rapid development of a profitable 
West Indian trade even then operated as part of the 
coastal trade. This resulted naturally from the geo- 
graphical distribution of the early American ports, 
for vessels proceeding to and from the West Indies 
could readily pick up and set down cargoes in a num- 
ber of American ports along the way. This close re- 
lationship was characteristic of the American coastal 
trade on the eastern seaboard throughout the period 
of sail. There was in addition to the legal trade, a 
profitable smuggling trade in the West Indies from 
colonial times well into the 19th century, and beyond. 

In the colonial p>eriod some river trade also devel- 
oped, producing for the work, such craft as shoal-draft 
sloops, shallops, gundalows, and "flats," or scows. 
Some of these were of sufficient size to make short 
coasting voyages as well. The sloops and shallops 
built for use on the James River in Virginia, on the 
Delaware, on the Hudson, and on some New England 
rivers included some vessels of this description. A 
small-craft trade also developed along the coast, par- 
ticularly on Long Island Sound and on the Chesa- 
peake. The lack of plans, models, or even pictures, 
of colonial craft prevent us from knowing very much 
about them, though they are referred to in some colo- 
nial records. 



Sloops and schooners predominated, though ships, 
brigs, and brigantines were also popular in the 18th- 
century coastal-West Indian trade. The growing im- 
portance of the lumber trade gradually produced 
coasting vessels suitable for carrying this merchandise. 
There appears to have been after 1740 a somewhat 
rapid increase in the average size of coasting vessels, 
and this led to an increase in the proportion of schoon- 
er-rigged vessel employed, as the large sloop required 
too many hands to work her. After 1825 sloops were 
limited to river and estuary trade, where the sloop- 
rigged carrier rcqtiired fewer hands than in coastal 
waters. In the last quarter of the 18th century and 
throughout the 19th the most active coastal traders 
were the inhabitants of New England and of the 
Chesapeake region, though nearly all the Atlantic 
coastal ports carried on some coastal trade, particu- 
larly New York merchants. 

After the Revolution the American coastal trade 
prospered, constituting a very great part of the total 
American merchant marine investment; and after the 
War of 1812 the rapid growth of many port towns and 
cities, the opening of canals and roads, and the de- 
velopment of the back country, caused a further ex- 
pansion in coastal trade. 

The New England trade to the West Indies after 
1820 was carried on almost entirely by topsail schoon- 
ers and brigantines. These vessels were usually large 
carriers and designed to carry lumber, as well as gen- 
eral cargo. In the period immediately after the end 
of the Napoleonic War and extending well into the 
1830's the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico was in- 
fested with pirates and freebooters, some masquer- 
ading as privateersmen out of the rebelling Spanish 
colonies. For that reason some New England West 
Indian trading vessels were modified carriers, designed 
to have a fair turn of speed, and many were also 
rather heavily armed. The Chesapeake traders used 
in this trade many small pilot-boat schooners as well 
as some quite large schooners and brigantines or 
brigs, all armed. As the British and American navies 
succeeded in suppressing piracy, armament went out 
of fashion, though some traders, particularly those 
smuggling, carried guns until as late as 1855. 

The American West Indian trade extended to man)' 
of the old Spanish colonics on the mainland along the 
Gujf of Mexico. 

Cargoes sent to the West Indies were at first salt 
fish, but they soon came to include flour, building and 
cooperage materials, farm produce, and manufac- 



38 




The Blanchard Shipyard (.left) in Yarmouth, Maine. Note the very fine example ol' 2-masted coasting 
schooner in the left foreground. {Smithsonian photo 45ogj.) 



tured goods such as tools, stoves, hardware, and tex- 
tiles. The vessels brought home dyewoods and ma- 
hogany as well as sugar and other merchandise. 

Ownership of American sailing merchantmen in 
this period might be by individuals or by companies, 
or by a group who divided "stock" in a vessel. Some 
shipowners in the 19th century held a controlling but 
not complete interest in a ship or number of ships, and 
some merchants used this method to reserve to them- 
selves reUable and controlled transportation for their 
goods. Individuals owning 100 percent of a fleet of 
large vessels were comparatisely rare. In New Eng- 
land it was not uncommon for a shipbuilding com- 
munity to build a large vessel and for the tradesmen 
to take shares or stock in her; the vessel was then 
operated by a vessel manager or by the captain, the 
latter being the more usual, who settled with the share 
owners at stated intervals. Shipbuilders often held 
shares in the vessels they built, and in a few cases, 
particularly in Maine, there were shipowners who 
built only on their own account. There were booms 
in vessel-owning, as in the clipper-ship period, and 
severe depressions, as in the late 1870's. Throughout 
the sailing ship period some vessels — ocean freighters, 
coasters, and even clipper ships — ^were built on specu- 
lation and sold after completion; but in general vessels 
were buUt under contract, the owner or owners financ- 
ing the builder. 



The brigantines and topsail schooners built in New 
England for the trade had a marked sheer, a somewhat 
raking and flaring stem rabbet fitted with a short 
head usually heavy in appearance, a slightly raking 
post, an upper-and-lower square transom stern with 
round tuck, a full convex entrance, and a long and 
sometimes fine run. The midsection usually showed 
small rise of floor and low and well-rounded bilges. 
Such vessels sailed moderately well. Generally speak- 
ing these vessels were cheaply and roughly built, 
though there were exceptions. The coasting vessels 
built in Maine were usually constructed at very low 
cost but, in spite of the rough finish, were very long- 
lived and made profitable vessels in the coastal trade. 
Those vessels built for the ^V^est Indian and lumber 
trades had short quarter-decks usually combined with 
high main-deck bulwarks; as a result the cabin sole of 
the trunk cabin was actually the maindeck, giving all 
space below the maindeck for cargo. Small schooners 
often housed the entire crew in the trunk cabin. 
Large schooners and brigantines usually had a small 
deckhouse at, or abaft, the foremast for a galley; 
sometimes this served to quarter the crew. In the 
large vessels there was sometimes a short forecastle 
below the main-deck. Some of the schooners and 
brigantines had quarterdeck bulwarks, others had 
merely the turned-stanchion-and-cap rail aft which 
eventually became very popular in all coasters. The 
West Indian traders were usuallv over 80 feet on deck. 



39 



The regular New England coasting trade, after 
1825, was carried on to a very great extent by 2- 
mastcd fore-and-aft rigged schooners 50 to 75 feet 
long, having short, high quarterdecks with bulwarks 
or turned-stanchion rails. Some of the vessels had a 
strong resemblance to the old Marblehead schooner, 
but these were usually much less sharp. 

The Chesapeake Bay coastal traders were Baltimore 
clippers, often of the modified model and commonly 
with flush decks and a low trunk cabin aft. These 
vessels as a rule had a small galley house just abaft the 
foremast; the crew wa s housed in the trunk cabin and 
in a short forecastle right forward, below the main- 
deck. Before 1850 coasters on the Baltimore clipper 
model were rarely over 80 feet and were commonly 
topsail schooners, in the West Indian coastal trade. 
Brigantines were rarely over 100 feet in length. 

At an early period after the War of 1812, probably 
in 1815-25, the centerl^oard was introduced into the 
Chesapeake Bay schooner. Some of the early center- 
board schooners were fitted with two boards, one 
forward and one abaft the mainmast, but by 1830 the 
single centerboard had come into use. In the Bay 
schooners this was often placed alongside the main- 
mast and off center so that the board passed through 
the garboard rather than through the keel. In such 
schooners the mainmast might also be ofT center, on 
the opposite side from the centerboard. By 1850 the 
standard Chesapeake Bay centerboard schooner hull 
had a straight keel, rather upright and flaring stem 
rabbet, upright post, round tuck, upper-and-lower- 
transom square stern, moderate sheer, flush deck, a 
short but usually sharp convex entrance, and a rather 
long, fine run. The midsection had a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low, full round bilge, and some 
tumble-home in the topsides. A short, heavy head 
complete with headrails and trails was used until 
about 1850, when the local fashion turned to the long 
and projecting cutwater that, exaggerated in time, 
came to mark all Chesapeake schooners and bugeyes. 

A local type of Chesapeake Bay schooner, mentioned 
earlier (p. 25), that was employed in the Bay coasting 
trade and occasionally in the trade to the Bahamas, 
was the "pungy," the last survivor of the Baltimore 
clipper model in the cargo-carrying class of schooners. 
Known at first as an inexpensive example of the true 
Baltimore clipper, it was commonly flush-decked and 
usually with stanchion-and-cap rails aft but with a low 
log rail forward. The draft was rather deep, the ends 
quite sharp, and there was a good deal of rise in the 
floor amidships. But by 1850, at least, the most 



common pungy model was closely related to that of 
the Norfolk, or Virginia, pilot-boat schooner in that 
there was only moderate rise of floor amidships (the 
hull being relatively shallow), a low round bilge, 
and sharply flaring topside. The pungy was a very 
fast sailer, particularly in light and moderate winds, 
but was wet in blowing weather. Some of the pungies 
were employed in the sea fisheries for a short period 
in the 1840's and early 1850's, as well as in the fruit 
trade. 

When the clipper ship became popular in the 1850's 
coasters soon showed the clipper-ship influence and 
many fine vessels were built of good model and well 
finished; for by this time the coasting trades were all 
very profitable and most owners could afford such 
refinements. The old round tuck stern, with its wide 
upper-and-lowcr transoms, went slowly out of 
fashion all along the coast; it was replaced, first by a 
flat and sharply raking transom with round tuck, 
then by a short counter with a raking transom 
curved athwartships and, in New England, elliptical 
in shape. Round fantail counters became popular in 
the 1850's in some areas. New York and Boston in 
particular. 

In the last half of the 1 9th century the New England 
coasting schooner reached its maximum develop- 
ment and, from Maine to Connecticut, schooners 
were being built that had good capacity, construction, 
and sailing qualities combined with good looks. 
There were basically two models of the 2-master in 
New England in this period; one was the true schooner 
hull in which the depth of hull was not very great 
and the entrance and run were rather short, sharp, 
and well formed. In some trades another model 
was developed in large coasters; it resembled that of a 
square-rigged down-Easter, having great depth of 
hull and the run formed with marked reverse curves 
in the buttocks. In model such schooners were really 
in some instances medium clippers. The New Eng- 
land coaster of two masts then carried a fore-and-aft 
rig with two headsails (jumbo and jib) fisherman 
fashion, fore and main gaff-topsails in summer, and 
only a topsail in winter. Square sails were very rarely 
employed in the.se vessels after the Civil War. Two- 
masters of from 100 to 135 feet on deck were built 
during that period, but were found very expensive 
to operate, as they required large crews. By 1885 
some had been fitted with a donkey engine and boiler 
used not only to raise the anchor but also to hoist 
sails. However, by then the gradual loss of the 
package trade to steamers required coasting schooners 



40 




The 3-Masted Schooner J. S. Hoskim, built by the New England Ship Building Company, Bath, Maine, for 
Emerson Rokes, of Baltimore, Maryland. Launched October 26, 1886, her register dimensions were 193.9' '^ 
34.2' X 1 1.5', 411.56 gross tons. Her captain was Joshua A. Rich. (Smithsonian photo 44^88.) 



to be built almost entirely for bulk cargoes, so there 
was a need for schooners larger than was practical 
for the 2-inasted rig. 

The 3-masted schooner was found to be the solution, 
so far as economy in operation was concerned, to the 
shift to bulk cargoes in the sailing coasting trade of 
the 1850's. As has been noted (p. 21), the 3-masted 
schooner apparently came into being quite late in 
the 18th century. It had been popular at Baltimore 
and vicinity about 1800, but not elsewhere. Between 
that time and 1850, however, a few were built outside 
the Chesapeake; and during the 1850"s and right after 
the end of the Civil War a number were built for 
coasting and ocean freighting. Most of the early ones 
were relatively sharp models with a rising straight 
floor amidships, a full, round bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. The entrance was moderately 
long and sometimes fairly sharp, with cons'ex lines. 



The run was of moderate length and often quite fine, 
and the sheer rather straight. These first 3-masters 
were, in fact, strongly influenced by the clipper-ship 
fashion and therefore many had very short and light 
heads, mere gammon knees fitted with some simple 
decoration. 

It was soon found that the sharp-model 3-mastcr 
did not pay in the coastal trade and for this reason the 
model had to be altered. By 1875 two types of 
3-master were in use. One was the centerboard 
model, having a shoal-draft hull with rather fiat floor 
amidships, a low and sometimes hard bilge, and 
tumble-home in the topside. Some of this type had a 
rather long and sharp convex entrance combined 
with a long and markedly flat run; the sheer was 
quite strong and the rig large. These were often very 
swift sailers. Some had two centerboards and others 
one; if a single one was used it was often placed 



41 



abreast the mainmast and cither the case or the 
mast, or both, might be off center. Some of these 
schooners had a short quarterdeck and others a long 
one extending to the foremast or thereabouts. The 
second type was a keel model, usually with a hull 
like that of a down-Easter, in which there was very 
marked depth and in which the run showed reverse 
curves in the buttock lines. 

In the lumber and coal trades the 3-masters pro\ed 
very profitable, and many were built all along the 
American coasts, Atlantic and Pacific, from the end 
of the Civil W'ar until the end of the first World ^Var. 
A few, particularly on the Pacific coast, were fitted 
with square fore-topsails. By 1885 more schooners 
were being built in a single year than all other rigs 
together. The steadily increasing size of 3-masted 
schooners led to the introduction of the 4-mast rig in 
1880; the first coasting schooner carrying this rig was 
the William L. White built at Bath, Maine. In 1888 
the first 5-master, the Governor Aryies, fitted with a 
centerboard, was built. In 1900 the first 6-master, 
the George W. Wells was built, and soon after that a 
steel 7-master, the Thomas W. Lawson. Because of 
their cost, only seven steel schooners were built on 
the Atlantic coast. By 1885 the large coasting schoon- 
ers were employed almost entirely in the coal trade. 
Wooden 5-mastecl and 6-masted schooners proved 
generally unsatisfactory, as they were too long to 
have longitudinal strength, and were awkward to 
handle in confined waters. By 1920 the coal schooners 
had given way to steam colliers; by then the sailing 
coasting trade was a thing of the past. 

The model developed for the 4-, 5-, and 6-masted 
schooners became almost standardized except for 
dimensions. The vessels had a strong sheer and a 
strongly raking stem rabbet on which was either a 
plain gammon knee with some carving or a light head 
fitted with trail boards and, in some cases, with 
single head rails. The post was nearly vertical and 
the stern was formed with a short and light counter 
having a wide elliptical transom. The entrance was 
sharp, convex, and of moderate length; the run was 
likewise rather short but often very well formed and 
as fine as in many of the clipper ships of the 1850's. 
These big schooners were sometimes fast sailers 
under favorable conditions, but were too lightly 
manned to allow them to be sailed hard; in addition 
their construction was rarely strong enough for such 
treatment. 

The small 2-masted coasters lingered on in Maine, 
on the Chesapeake and on the Gulf coast, until well 



into the 2Gth century but the development of the 
type may be said to have ceased by about 1885, 
though 2-masted coasters were built as late as 1914. 
In the last years of the small sailing coasters, vessels 
built for specific coasting trades were employed in 
general trade, often far from their place of building 
and original employment. Thus, schooners built 
for the stone and brick trades at New York and in 
Massachusetts ended their days in the Florida or the 
Maine general coasting trade. 

In the great period of the 2-masted sailing coaster, 
between 1825 and 1885, many special types were 
developed. One was the scow schooner. The early 
history of this vessel type in America is not known; 
scow sloops were employed from colonial times for 
river trade and were common on the Maine coast, 
on the Hudson River, the Gulf coast, at the head of 
Chesapeake Bay, and on the Great Lakes. As the 
scows grew in size the schooner rig became popular 
and a large number of scow schooners were in use 
by 1870. Most were fitted with centcrboards but a 
few had leeboards, as had most of the scow sloops. 
After the Civil War the scow schooner became popular 
at San Francisco for Bay and river trading. At least 
one 3-mast scow schooner was built on Long Island 
Sound. Scow sloops and schooners were used in the 
Hudson River brick trade and scow sloops were once 
very common on the New England coast, carrying 
sand, stone, firewood, and ice. 

The general coastwise schooner trade was in a 
huge variety of cargoes; lumber, flour, salt, sugar, 
grain, coal, wood staves and hoops, ice, firewood, 
salt fish, sand, stone, bricks, lime, hay, farm produce, 
manufactures, and "notions." Cotton, grain, and 
other bulk cargoes v\ere often lightered to a loading 
port by coasting schooners. Livestock was often 
carried and on the Maine coast schooner loads of 
sheep \\'ere often carried between the mainland and 
the islands, which were once used as grazing grounds. 

Coasting packets were once very profitable, and 
even after steamers had taken over the important runs 
between large ports, the schooner packet was able to 
serve the small coastal towns and villages. Some of 
these packets operated until after the Civil War, by 
which time the railroads and steamers had reached 
most of the coastal areas, and highway transport had 
also developed. The schooner packet, usually built 
for the purpose or a converted fisherman or coaster 
with a reputation as a smart sailer, generally was no 
more than a sharp-ended coaster in model. The rig 
was that of a coaster, of perhaps greater sail area than 



42 




The 3-Masted Schooner Bertha Louise, of Fall River, Massachusetts, built by Kelly and Spear of Bath, Maine, 
and launched March i, 1890. A typical New England 3-masted coasting schooner of the date, her register 
dimensions were 1 15.2' x 28.3' x 8.7', 231.42 gross tons. (Smithsonian photo 448^2.) 



usual. If the packet run was long enough to warrant 
sleeping quarters, the cabin was fitted for passengers, 
the after trunk being usually given up to passengers 
and the captain, and the crew being quartered for- 
ward as usual. The hold was fitted for light cargo, 
but some vessels had large hatches fitted with tem- 
porary ramps to allow carrying carriages and wagons 
in the hold as well as horses. Some of the packet 
operators, particularly in eastern New England, had 
arrangements with stage-coach lines that permitted 
the transfer of mail, packaged goods, and passengers. 
Coastal passages by the sailing packets were far more 
comfortable and usually faster than by stage-coaches, 
particularly if the trip were long. A number of 
Chesapeake-Bay-built schooners were employed as 
coastal packets after 1840 even in New England, 
though New England builders were turning out very 
fast packet schooners themselves. A distinct period 



existed, 1845-50, in which Maryland-built schooners 
were introduced into New England, particularly at 
Cape Cod and at Gloucester and one of the builder's 
models in the Collection (p. 78) shows a vessel built 
for the packet trade on this imported model. 

The brigantines used in the coasting trades during 
the 19th century represent a most interesting class of 
vessel. During much of the century vessels of this rig 
were "jacks-of-all-trades," serving alternately as 
coasters. West Indian traders, and as ocean freighters. 
This rig had a very curious history. In the 17th cen- 
tury it appears in its accepted form — a 2-masted vessel 
square rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft on the 
main. At some time late in that century, or early in 
the 18th century, the fashion arose for carrying a 
square topsail on the main, and later square topgallant 
sails were added to this mast so that, except for the 
main course, the fore and main masts carried the 



43 




The 4-Masted Coasting Schooner A7;(^ Philip was built in 1886 at Camden, Maine. Her register dimensions 
were 211.0' x 42.5' x 20.4', 1,163.65 net tons. From a painting by VV. P. .Stubbs, 1888, in the Watercraft 
Collection (USNM 76108). (Smithsonian photo ^^6gi~b.) 



square sails. The foremast, in this period, had no gafT 
sail. It was common practice, in naval reports, to 
refer to the brigantine in abbreviation, "brig.," and 
gradually "brig" (with period omitted) was used 
when actually a "brigantine" was meant. When in 
the 18th century a main course was added to the 
brigantine, the resulting rig came to be called "brig" 
by lexicographers. A variation of this rig was the 
"snow," a 2-masted vessel rigged exactly like the 
"brig" that had by then developed, except that on 
the after side of the mainmast, was placed a pole, 
or small mast, on which a main fore-and-aft gaff- 
sail, or spanker, was set, an arrangement that allowed 
the main yard to be lowered without interfering with 
the main fore-and-aft sail, as it did on the brigs and 
brigantines. Curiously enough, the snow rig became 
the naval rig known as the "brig," so that after 1810 
nearly all naval brigs were, in fact, snows! In the 
19th century a fore-and-aft gaff-sail of small size was 
added on the foremast and the result was called 
"schooner brig" or "brig schooner" by some and 



finally, Ijy most seamen, hermaphrodite. To add to 
the confusion, the British Navy as late as 1812 rated 
as "brigantines" vessels having the lexicographers' 
"brig" rig. 

The American coasting brigantine was built in a 
variety of hull forms. The most common was that of 
the ordinary 2-masted topsail schooner, having a 
rather full entrance, long and often fine run, moderate 
sheer, slightly raking and flaring stem rabbet with a 
short and heavy cutwater, a somewhat raking stern- 
post, upper-and-lower raking transoms with round 
tuck, the rail quite full at the bow and the sides alinost 
parallel for most of the hull length. The midsection 
was formed with a slight rise in the straight floor, 
a full round bilge, and some tumble-home in the top- 
side. The high, raised quarterdeck, at main-rail 
height, was short and had solid bulwarks or the 
turned-stanchion-and-cap rail. Between 1820 and 
1850 this was the most common New England coasting 
brigantine. To the southward the model used was 
that of the inodified Baltimore clipper until about 



44 



1838, when the Chesapeake Bay region began to build 
brigantines very like tlie New England type, but 
with a mucli finer entrance and run and with a very 
flaring bow section. By 1840 they had produced a 
clipper brigantine having many of the hull-design 
features that were to mark the clipper class (see p. 73) 
of the 1850's, and as the clipper ships became fashion- 
able, the New England brigantine builders followed 
the style set by the Bay builders. 

By then however, the size of brigantines had in- 
creased and builders in New York, and later in New 
England and Maryland, were launching brigantines 
whose hull design was that of the clipper ship, in which 
the floor was carried w-ell fore-and-aft and the buttocks 
had marked reverse curves as the counter was ap- 
proached. These vessels sometimes had long quarter- 
decks reaching to the foremast, or beyond. Another 
variation, used in some New-England-built brigan- 
tines and 3-masted schooners, was to carry what had 
earlier been the raised quarter-deck from the level of 
the rail height aft to the level of the main-deck at stem, 



in a long, flush deck that did not follow the outward 
sheer of the hull. The turncd-stanchion-and-cap rail 
was carried to the foremast, or thereabouts, in these 
vessels and, eventually, this rail was brought to the 
knightheads. 

A number of barkentines, 3-masted vessels with 
square sails on the foremast only and fore-and-aft 
rigged on the main and mizzen, were built for both 
coasting and for the ocean trades after 1850. This 
rig became popular on the West Coast, and some very 
fine wooden barkentines were launched on the North- 
west Coast. On the Great Lakes, 2-masted schooners 
with square-topsails on the foremast gave place to 3- 
masters in the 1850's and 1860's. Gradually a distinc- 
tive type of 3-master developed in the Lake trades in 
which the hull was long, narrow and rather full ended 
and wall sided, the entrance short and moderately full, 
the run short but often rather fine, and the hull fitted 
with a centerboard. The rig sometimes had a short 
mizzen-mast, and a large square course was .set on the 
foremast and above it either a square topsail or a 



Deck of the 4-Masted Schooner Sam G. .\ferisel, built in Maine, iqi?- (Smithsonian photo 38454-e.) 




h 



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m 




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BOBBIE HUNTBn . SS Tt/^s. 

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eea/T> ^3.7' 

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Lines of San Francisco 2-Masted Scow Schooner Robbie Hunter, built in 1870. As taken off by the Historic 
American Merchant Marine Survey^ 



raffee, a triangular topsail with its apex at the top- 
mast head. 

In the late 19th century a number of variations in 
sail form took place in some localities; on the Pacific 
Coast many schooners had the mainsail of triangular 
form with a long, triangular topsail set above and 
abaft this, with its sheet made up to the end of the 
main boom. This rig was also used on the spanker in 
barkentines and brigantines built on the West Coast. 

Auxiliary steam schooners were built on the Pacific 
Coast and on the Great Lakes. On the Lakes these 
were actually steam barges with a rather large sail plan 
and had a 3- or 4-masted schooner rig without a 
bowsprit. On the Pacific Coast the "steam schooner" 
was employed in the coastal lumber trade and even- 
tually this name was so well established that it became 
the type-name of the lumber vessels there, even after 
they became steamers without a sailing rig. 

The relation of Canadian builders to American 
builders requires mention, for there are a few Cana- 
dian half-models in the Watercraft Collection. From 
Colonial times, after Canada ceased to be a French 
colony, the relationship between shipbuilders of Can- 
ada and of the United States was very close, particu- 



larly between those of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick builders and those of Maine, New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts. There were also very close rela- 
tions between builders on both sides of the Great 
Lakes. The shipyards and boatshops of New England 
employed many Canadian-born carpenters, who 
worked on both sides of the border, as employment 
demanded. As a result the vessels built in New Eng- 
land and in the Canadian Maritime Provinces were 
quite similar in hull design, construction, and rig. 
In the 1840's and 1850's many fine vessels were built 
in eastern Canada, including the very fast Marco Polo 
and a number of medium clippers. The New 
Brunswick builders along the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
built fine ships, barks, brigantines, and some steamers 
in the period between 1850 and 1885. The fishing 
schooners built in Nova Scotia after about 1865 were 
on the same model as those built in Massachusetts. 
Small craft in eastern Canada were generally of a dis- 
tinctive model and the boatbuilders of Nova Scotia, 
in particular, have had a reputation for skill. 

It is worthy of mention that many shipbuilders who 
became famous in the United States were Canadian 



46 



born or Canadian trained — Eckford, Donald McKay 
and Lawlor are examples. During the last quarter of 
the 19th centiuy ship design was taught at a small 
trade school at Charlestown, Massachusetts, and the 
graduates of this school included many Nova Scotian 
and New Brunswick shipbuilders as well as many New 
Englanders, some of whom became prominent in their 
business. 

During the last quarter of the 1 9th century the ship- 
builders of eastern Canada built many fine coasting 
schooners and also some sharp-model 2-masters to 
carry salt fish to Europe. In the early 20th century, 
and particularly during the first World War, the 
Nova Scotia builders launched for this trade some 
sharp, fast .sailing 3-niasted, or ''tern" schooners on 
yacht-like lines. While most of these schooners re- 
tained the traditional "clipper bow" quite a number 
were designed with the round bow profile of the con- 
temporary sailing fishing schooner. The Nova Scotia 
3-masted "fish carriers" were the last fast-sailing com- 
mercial vessel type to be launched in North America, 
and in this respect they may be said to be the "last of 
the clippers" as some of these vessels were extreme 
models for sharpness of form. 

Ocean Freighters 

Of far greater economic importance than North 
Atlantic packets and clipper ships in the development 
of the American sailing merchant marine were the 
ocean freighters, the regular traders and transients of 
the late 18th and 19th century. They included brigs, 
snows, and ships, and later barks, brigantines, and 
barkentines, and a few large, square-topsail schooners. 




HuDSo.\ Ru'ER Brick .'5cuu<j.\lr uf about 1890. 
(Smit/uonian photo 4578^-b.) 



These ocean freighters carried on the bulk of the sea 
trade of the American colonies and, later, of the 
United States. The popular type of vessel varied with 
the times, and with the state of the times. When there 
was peace they were full-ended and slow sailers, for 
economical operation required large cargo capacity 
in relation to hull size, rather than speed and handi- 
ness. In times of unrest, the sea trader was often a 
Baltimore clipper, or at least a fairly fast sailer for 
her size, with cargo capacity limited by the necessity 
of sailing fast in order to have any cargo to deliver at 
all. This is not to say that such changes were univer- 
sal, for there was always some use for the two extremes. 
The full-lined ship could be used in convoys in war- 
time, and so we find the pre-Revolutionary merchant 
ships of the colonials relatively full-ended vessels 
during the French wars because they had naval pro- 
tection, whereas earlier, in the last years of the 17th 
century, and later, in the 18th century, fast ships had 
been built because of the lack of this protection. After 
the Revolution, insofar as a generalization may be 
made, the average merchant ship had lines fairly good 
for swift sailing. The unprotected state of most of 
the American merchant marine in the period 1786- 
1815, as has been explained, had made popular the 
Baltimore clipper model, and even the hull design of 
merchant ships, in which cargo capacity was thought 
most desirable, had felt the influence of this design. 

As early as 1760, and before 1818, American mer- 
chant ships were commonly built in lengths of 75 to 
100 feet on deck; and brigs were 60 to 90 feet. These 
vessels had a large midsection with some slight rise 
in the floor. As early as 1800 there was a difference 
of opinion among American shipbuilders as to the 
desirability of rising floors in square-rigged vessels, 
as has been mentioned. Before 1815 the stem and 
sternpost were usually well raked but there was no 
uniformity in proportion; in this there was also a 
difference in opinion as to what was most desirable 
in square-rigged vessels, and as early as 1760 many 
were built with nearly upright posts. The entrance 
was commonly very short and full and the run long 
and fine. Some sharp-built vessels were launched, as 
we have seen (p. 19), at least as early as the American 
Revolution and there can be little doubt that such 
ships were iiuilt much earlier. By the time of the 
Revolution, American ships no longer had high quar- 
terdecks of more than one level, or deck. The fashion 
of having low raised decks at bow and stern lasted 
until about 1780; thereafter it gradually went out of 
style and, by 1790, flush decks were becoming in- 



47 




Brigantine San Bias at East Boston 
in the 1890's. (Smithsonian photo 
45785-) 



creasiiigly common. Many vessels had open bul- 
warks on the main deck and some carried these to 
the stern. The average .size of American ocean 
freighters grew gradually; ships of 110 to 115 feet on 
deck increased in number during the first decade of 
the 19th century. 

The increased interest in improvement of design 
that competition among packet-ship builders had cre- 
ated in the period immediately after the War of 1812 
(see p. 29) had a considerable cflect on American 
shipbuilding, but all classes of ocean freighters, and 
particularly those in the European trade, did not 
benefit from this movement. The design of these 
ships and brigs was mainly influenced by efforts to 
evade the measurements of the existing tonnage law, 
so as to have more capacity in fact than the tonnage 
measurement indicated. There is not space to de- 
scribe the law and its influence in detail; suffice to 
say that it produced a very deep and full-ended hull 
that gradually developed into the kettle bottom craft 
represented by some builders' models in the Water- 
craft Collection. Such vessels, though wretched sail- 
ers, could carry double their register yet be subject to 
far less taxes and port charges than a normal vessel. 
Even ships of less extreme model were often very 
full-ended to obtain great capacity for a given ton- 
nage; and full-ended ships, barks, and brigs were built 
in very large numbers in New England between 1820 
and 1850. 

The common ocean trader of this period had a 
rather straight sheer, straight keel with little or no 
drag, a nearly upright stem above the load line with 



a short curse at the forefoot, a moderately raking 
post, and an upper-and-lower transom .square stern 
with roimd tuck lielow. The entrance was very short 
and quite full, and the rail line was almost square 
acro,ss at the bow and very sharply rounded at the 
shoulders. The stern was wide and the sides of the 
hull were almost parallel for most of the length. The 
run was very short and full. Ships of the period 1820- 
40 were commonly 100 to 135 feet long on deck, brigs 
75 to 100 feet, and topsail schooners and brigantines 
slightly smaller in the European and South American 
trades. The cutwater was short and heavy, na\al 
fashion, and the vessels had a heavy, blocklike 
appearance. Improved rigs were developed. Fore- 
and-aft gaff sails, were employed on all masts of 
ships and brigs; these were called spencers when on 
the fore and main masts of ships. Many schooners 
had fore booms. The bark rig was becoming popular. 
Vessels, in general, were fitted to be operated econom- 
ically. 

In the 1840's and 1850's the fashionable clippers 
caused a change in the appearance of ocean traders; 
ships 190 feet in length became common; and in model 
they took on the appearance of the clipper ship, 
with round sterns, light and simple heads and cut- 
waters, and well proportioned sail plans. The en- 
trance and run were lengthened somewhat and made 
finer so that, on the average, their sailing qualities 
were improved. Many ocean traders were almost 
medium, or half, clippers. In some trades, particu- 
larly the South American and Pacific trades, a large 
proportion of rather sharp brigs, brigantines, and 



48 



The 3-Masted Salt-Fish Carrier 
E. P. Theriault, built in Nova 
Scotia in 191 9. {Smithsonian photo 
38794-b). 




topsail schooners were employed and some of these 
were fast-sailing craft. 

The building of ocean freighting ships declined after 
the depression of 1857 and very few ships of any great 
size were built until after the Civil War, \Nhen there 
was a slow recovery and New England in particular 
began building ships over 190 feet and of a superior 
class. These down-Easters, as they came to be 
known, were fuller ended than earlier clippers and 
extreme clippers, approaching the medium clipper 
in form, and many were very large and well finished. 
The number of brigs, brigantines, and topsail schoon- 
ers in foreign trade gradually lessened; brigantines 
and schooners in this period were built primarily for 
the coasting and the West Indian trades. 

The down-Easter soon achieved high importance 
in the American merchant marine and in most 
respects represented the highest development of the 
sailing merchant ship. They were large carriers yet 
had lines that permitted quick passages on occasion. 
They had relatively smaller sail plans than the old 
clipper ships, but with their larger average size and 
greater power to carry sail, they were nearly as fast 
on long voyages as the more extreme ships of the 
1850's. Builders' models in the Watercraft Collection 
illustrate this class of ship and show the perfection in 
hull form that the New England builders reached by 
1885. Most of these ships had strong sheer compared 
to earlier vessels. The rather upright stem had a 
short flaring cutwater with very sparse adornment, 
in the form of a figurehead or billet and a little 
carving; often the trails and headrails were omitted. 



The stern was often round or there was a light and 
well formed counter with an elliptical transom. The 
entrance was fairly sharp and convex, and of moderate 
length. The run was rather short but often very 
well formed. 

The down-Easter remained supreme in the Ameri- 
can merchant marine until well toward the end of 
the 19th century, when economic depressions and 
unwise taxes finally took their toll. By then the 
competition of steamers had also become very 
effective and the cost of operating ships under the 
American flag gradually rose so that they could no 
longer compete with foreign ships. The maritime 
interest of the American public had also declined 
very markedly after the Civil War. The opportuni- 
ties for profit in the expansion in the West and the 
rise of American manufacturing in many areas 
produced a shift in economic interest; investors for- 
merly supporting shipping now turned to railways, 
manufacturing, land speculation, timbering, and 
mining. By 1900 the American merchant marine 
was to a very great extent restricted to the coasting 
trade and to inland navigation. 

Attempts to revive the seagoing merchant marine 
were made but it was not until the first World War 
that any real success was obtained, and this was 
accomplished by government subsidy. Standard 
models of freight steamers were built as part of the 
war effort and, for a period, America was again 
active in foreign trade. This declined for a time after 
the war but in the years prior to the outbreak of the 
second World War a strong merchant marine was 



49 





^ 



MiKcHAM >Shii' hd-'-iar, Iruiii a French prim in the Watt-rcrait (^.ullcLUDn i^L i'5.\M 7b4C)i)i. A good example 
of an American h'eighting ship of the period 1825-45, she was built at Medford, Massachusetts, in 1834 and 
employed in the European trade. Her register tonnage was 490, old measurement. (Smithsonian photo 
44638-g.) 



again developed. In the meantime the coastal trade 
had declined tmtil, by 1940, it was almost non- 
existent. At the present time the American merchant 
marine represents an unusual condition — a seagoing 
trade development unsupported by any coastal trade 
of consequence. The modern merchant marine is 
referred to in more detail under steamships (p. 114). 

Special Types 

The 1 9th century saw the rise of a number of special 
types of sailing craft. Perhaps the most important or 
best known were the pilot boats. The first American 
pilots, active in the colonial period, were self-appointed 
and without legal responsibilities. At some ports the 
pilots cruised at sea in search of vessels needing their 
services, at others the pilots remained ashore imtil 
vessels came within sight of their lookout positions. 
Pilots were at work in some ports at least as early as 
1650, employing any suitable type of small boat. 

After the Revolution pilotage became a well estab- 
lished profession and each of the important ports 
had groups of pilots who used sloops or schooners of 
some size. The pilots at Norfolk appear to have 



established the initial standards of the profession; 
they developed a suitaiale model of small vessel, sloop 
or schooner rigged, for their service and as the geo- 
graphic conditions at the mouth of the Chespeake 
required them to cruise they also established the basic 
practice of operation. 

These pilot boats carried a seaworthy dinghy or 
"canoe" that could be carried on deck (in early 
times, probably a dugout boat-canoe, hence the name, 
but later usually a ship's yawl boat). This boat was 
used to transfer pilots to and from the ships at sea 
and was rowed by apprentices, who also brought the 
pilot boat back to port after the pilots were all dis- 
charged. The small Norfolk pilot boats did not 
remain at sea long; and most were operated by a single 
pilot, hence accommodations aboard them were very 
limited and somewhat primitive. 

Other ports, such as Charleston, Philadelphia, New 
York, and Boston developed somewhat larger and 
more comfortable boats, as their pilots ranged farther 
at sea; the common size of these pilot schooners up to 
1825 was about 60 feet on deck. During the remain- 
ing century the schooners grew in size until boats 



50 





The Clipper Bark Race Horse, from a French print in the VVatercraft Collection (USNM 159926). She was 
built in 1850 by Samuel Hall, at East Boston, Massachusetts, for Boston owners. K medium clipper of small 
size and a good sailer, her register dimensions were 125' x 30' x 16', 530 tons. {Smithsonian photo 44638-j.) 



over 100 feet on deck were not uncommon. At the 
end of the century the sailing pilot boat was gradually 
being replaced in some ports by specially designed 
steamers. 

When the pilots operated singly, or in siBall groups 
aboard a pilot-boat schooner, there was much compe- 
tition and the boats were raced in an efTort to place a 
pilot aboard an incoming vessel. This produced 
classes of pUot boats having great speed as well as 
vessels of marked sea-keeping ability. The pilot-boat 
schooner soon developed into a remarkably fine class 
of small vessel approaching a yacht in most require- 
ments. 

By the middle of the 19th century pilot associations 
were being formed and competition ceased; each pilot 
going out in turn and the profits being shared by 
the association members. This led to a reduction in 
the number of pilots and pilot boats at each port. 

In the early 19th century these schooners were from 
about 50 to 65 feet long with long, low, raised quarter- 
decks, and had a Baltimore-clipper hull form. At 
Boston a somewhat similar form was developed. In 
the South Atlantic ports and on the Gulf Coast the 
modified Chespeake model remained popular until 



after the War of 1812. The pilot boats at Norfolk 
began to depart from their original model about 1806; 
the first change was to make the stem nearly upright, 
thus sharpening the entrance without lengthening 
the overall hull dimensions. This was copied else- 
where and, at New York the appearance of pilot-boat 
schooners changed rapidly after about 1835. Pilot- 
boat schooners with cutwaters, trails and headraUs, 
and fitted with a billet head or a small figurehead, 
began to appear all along the coast. Yet the straight, 
upright stem, sometimes falling inboard a trifle at the 
head, became the hallmark of the pilot boats by 1860 
at New York and, later, at Boston. 

Between 1830 and 1860 the New York pilot boats, 
and those in some other ports, had the Chesapeake rig 
in which there was a very large sail area. The rig 
had two raking masts, supported by only one or nvo 
shrouds on a side, and a short bowsprit. On these, 
until about 1845, were set a gaff-mainsail with boom 
(this was a loose-footed sail secured to the boom only 
at tack and clew, but later the foot was laced to the 
boom), and a large gafF-foresail, ha\ing no boom, the 
clew of which came well abaft the maintnast. A 
single large jib was set. A main-topmast was carried 



51 




■^ 



The Ocean Freighting Ship ]\'illiam Lawreme. 1874, from a French print in the VVatercraft Collection (USN'M 
159930). This type was popular with American and Canadian shipowners during the period 1865-85. (Smil/t- 
sonian photo 44638-1!.) 



but rarely a gaff- topsail; on the topmast was set a 
large staysail which became better known to modern 
yachtsmen as the fisherman staysail. The rig was 
designed so that in strong winds and fresh breezes 
the vessels would work on all points of sailing under 
foresail alone, the jib and mainsail being set only 
when the vessel was racing to put a pilot aboard a 
ship, or when the weather was light, at which time 
the topmast staysail would also be set. 

These pilot schooners attracted international atten- 
tion and were widely copied abroad. When yachting 
became an organized sport in America, a great many 
schooner yachts had pilot-boat hulls and rigs; indeed, 
two or three were former pilot boats or were used as 
pilot boats after a few years as yachts. By 1860 fore 
booms were being added and the size of the foresail 
reduced, so that the rig became the modern one now 
used in some yachts. By then the pilot boat was a 
rather stereotyped model having a short, straight keel 
with much drag, and a nearly upright post, above 
which was either a very short counter or a strongly 
raking V-shaped transom; the stem was nearly upright 
above the load line and unadorned with any head or 



carvings, the forefoot was usually much rounded and 
the curve of the forefoot was carried farther and farther 
aft along the keel in each new boat. The sheer was 
usually strong, the freeboard amidships quite low. 
The midsection was formed with a steeply rising floor, 
sometimes with hollow at the garboard, a high and 
often hard turn of the bilge, and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. The entrance was usually long, very 
sharp and, sometimes, slightly hollow at the load line 
just abaft the stem. The run was less long but very 
fine, with almost straight buttocks where they crossed 
the load line aft. Some of the boats were flush decked; 
others had a long, low quarterdeck, with an oval cock- 
pit for the helmsman. In the early part of the 19th 
century many pilot boats had a "sunk poop," the 
raised quarterdeck ending aft just forward of the steers- 
man's position and dropping down to a level below 
that of the maindeck. Few pilot boats had a cabin 
trunk on the quarterdeck, a flush deck being preferred 
there. 

The designers and builders of pilot schooners were 
often noted yacht builders as well. George Steers of 
New York and Dennison J. Lawlor of Boston were 



52 




Down-Easter Merchant Ship, name unknown, 
photo 45/85-c) 

notable examples; both were also designers of other 
types of vessels. 

George and Henry Steers were the sons of an Eng- 
lish shipwright who came to the United States after 
the War of 1812 and became a shipbuilder at New 
York. The elder Steers, trained in an English naval 
dockyard, had adapted the Baltimore clipper model 
as his favorite. His sons followed his trade, Henry, 
the older, became a very famous shipbuilder who de- 
signed sailing ships, steamers, and at least two men- 
of-war; he also turned out some very fast yachts. 
George, the younger, specialized in pilot-boat schoon- 
ers and yachts. In 1851 he designed the famous 
schooner yacht America whose success in England 
brought him great fame. He later designed and 
built the extreme clipper Simtiy South and, with Henry, 
designed the notable American Navy steamer Niagara. 
He was killed in 1856, by being thrown from his car- 
riage. The brothers were closely associated profes- 
sionally from 1852 to 1856, and some vessel designs 

472S46— 60 5 



in drydock on the West Coast about 1885. (Smithsonian 

have been credited to George that should have been 
assigned to Henry. 

Dennison J. Lawlor was born in New Brunswick, Can- 
ada, and came to Massachusetts about 1848. He 
worked for various shipbuilders and began designing as 
early as 1849; in the 1850's he had become well known 
as a designer of fast schooners and began turning out 
notable pilot schooners. Inthel860's hedesignedand 
built some very fast fishing schooners, as well as com- 
mercial craft including coasting schooners and brigan- 
tines. During the Civil War he designed the Meteor, 
a very fine auxiliary steamer in her day, and after the 
war became one of the leading designers and builders 
of tugs and small steamers. He also achieved fame 
as a yacht designer, in New England. A number of 
his designs, including famous pilot boats and fishing 
schooners, a tug, the auxiliary steamer Meteor, steam 
yachts, and a launch, are represented by half-models 
in the Watercraft Collection. 



53 




^^^-tBC^ 



Boston Pilot Schooner Hesper, built at Chelsea, Massachusetts, by Dennison J. Lawlor, in 1884. Her 
register dimensions were 92' x 22' x 12', 98.94 gross tons. She is represented in the VVatcrcraft Collection by 
the builder's half-model (USNM 76037; see p. 91). {Smithsonian photo jyy^/~b.) 



Between 1830 and 1857 a small number of schooners 
was employed by the New York newspapers to obtain 
the latest news from incoming ships; these ranged from 
small schooner-rigged decked boats to small pilot 
schooners, some of which were built on the Chesa- 
peake. These were all swift-sailing craft, as the com- 
petition between the newspapers was very great; the 
newspaper schooners raced for incoming ships in the 
saine manner as the pilot boats of the period. 

In thelast half of the 19th century the use of the cen- 



terboard sharply increased; centerboards were to be 
found in coasters, pilot boats, fishermen, and yachts 
and e\en in vessels of large size or those intended for 
long voyages. The centerboard proved very useful 
in the 3-masted coasters, for it was found that those 
with a centerboard sailed much better when light 
than did those with a keel. The period between 1870 
and 1895 was one in which the centerboard was most 
widely used in American commercial sailing craft, 
large and small. 



54 



Special types also appeared in some coastal and 
river trades during the 19th century. On the lower 
Mississippi sloop-rigged barges were used during the 
first half of the century; eventually these were built 
with leeboards or centerboards. A large variety of 
sailing barges also appeared; some had complete 
schooner rigs, but many carried the old shallop rig, 
without bowsprit or headsail. Some of these were 
actually canal-boat hulls fitted with masts that could 
be lowered to pass under bridges. Masts fitted in 
that way were employed at an early date, though not 
always in coasters. Dtu-ing the War of 1 8 1 2 one pinky 
schooner thus fitted, as a privateer was thereby 
enabled to hide among the islands on the Maine coast, 
her spars lowered, and to pounce on passing English or 
Canadian vessels, either by using sweeps or by raising 
her rig and sailing. 

Another curious type was the Fiscataqua River gun- 
dalow (not to be confused with the 18th century 
gundalo). used in that ri\er in New Hampshire. This 
was a shallow, log-built barge with spoon-shaped ends, 
fitted with a single triangular boomless sail laced to a 
spar that could be lowered to pass under bridges. 
This spar was hung on a stub mast by a short chain 
halyard and as a result the rig has a superficial resem- 
blance to the lateen rig. These vessels had a single 
leeboard secured inside an iron rack to keep it from 
breaking away from the hull at the pi\ ot on the off 
tack. These boats, which sometimes ventured a short 



distance coastwise, were good sailers. The name 
"gundalow" was also applied in New England to 
various sailing scows having this rig or a simple 
square sail on a piv^oted mast that could be lowered. 

There was a sharp increase in the use of vessels 
having the form of a flat-bottomed, sharp-bowed .skifT 
rigged as a sloop or schooner, or with square sails. 
One of these, a gundalow used on the Kennebec River 
in Maine, had a mast that lowered, and was rigged 
with a square course and a topsail; the hull had one 
leeboard and a low trunk cabin aft. 

Flat-bottomed skiff-shaped schooners, or sharpies, 
were developed on the Great Lakes and along the 
coasts of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Florida. Some 
of these had the above-water appearance of regular 
coasting schooners i)ut the underbody of a skiff or 
sharpie. Sloops of the same form, used in the Caro- 
linas and in Florida, were sometimes called "flatties," 
and a rather distinctive type was used for a period on 
the Chesapeake Bay as lighters to carry farm produce 
to ports that could be served by schooners and steam- 
ers. The log-bottom bugeye, an overgrown canoe, 
also developed on the Bay, had two masts, of almost 
equal height and standing with a sharp rake, fitted 
with leg-of-mutton sails and a large jib; they were 
employed in both fishing and freighting. Small sailing 
craft lasted in the coastal trade, until the introduction 
of gasoline cnaincs early in the 2rith century. 



Catalog of the Collection — iS/lerchant Sail 



MERCHANT SHIP, 1818 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76123 



Aniens 



The ship-rigged wooden merchant vessel Altiais was 
built on this half-model at Castine, Maine, in 1818 for 
the general ocean-freighting trade. She represented 
a class of such vessels that were developed in New- 
England after the War of 1812 for the foreign trade. 
Though considered a large merchant vessel at the time 
of her launching, ships of the size of the Atticus were 
soon very common in the American trade with Euro- 
pean and Mediterranean ports. 

The half-model represents a burdensome vessel hav- 
ing a long body and full ends, moderate sheer, straight 
keel with verv little or no drag, upright stem rabbet 



curved at forefoot, upright post, round tuck, and upper- 
and-lower-transom square stern. The entrance is 
short, bluff, and nearly round at the rail. The run 
is rather long but quite full. The midsection is well 
forward and is formed with slightly rising straight 
floor carried well out, well rounded bilge, rather 
straight and upright topside, and slight tumble-home. 
She had deep bulwarks and in proportion to her 
length was rather wide for ships of her type. 

The half-model scales 132 feet moulded length at 
rail, 33 feet 4 inches moulded beam, and 16 feet 8 
inches moulded dejnh; it represents a ship of about 
298 tons, old measurement. Scale of model is % inch 
to the foot. 

Given by James B. Clrawford. 



55. 



MERCHANT SHIP, 1827 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76126 

L/tcas 

The Lucas, a ship-rigged merchant vessel, was built 
on this model at Castine, Maine, in 1827, for general 
ocean freighting, and is typical of the largest class in 
her trade then popular with New England shipowners. 

The half-model represents a wooden merchant ship 
having moderate sheer, a straight keel with little 
drag, nearly upright stem rabbet with well rounded 
forefoot, upright post, round tuck, upper-and-lower- 
transom square stern, and a long body with very full 
rail line forward and a wide stern. The midsection 
shows a slightly rising straight floor, low and well 
rounded bilge, and upright topside. The entrance is 
short and bluff; the bow sections flare heavily. The 
run is rather long and for so burdensome a hull is 
quite fine. The midsection is forward of the mid- 
length of the hull; in general this vessel was designed 
not for fast sailing but to have large capacity. .Ships 
of this class and period had deep, heavy heads, usually 
fitted with a billet, though some had the more expen- 
sive figurehead. 

The model is for a ship 132 feet 8 inches moulded 

length at rail, 30 feet 8 inches moulded beam, 17 

feet 4 inches moulded depth, and about 290 tons, old 

measurement. Scale of model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by James B. Crawford. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1830 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76067 

This half-model of a ship-rigged ocean-freighting 
vessel was made by Samuel Pattee about 1830. A 
ship, name unknown, was built on it by Thomas 
Harwood at Bath. Maine; the vessel is said to have 
been employed largely in the cotton trade between 
Liverpool, England, and New Orleans and other 
southern ports. Ships in this trade required large 
under-deck capacity; speed was not particularly 
necessary. 

The half-model shows a very burdensome, wooden, 
ship-rigged merchantman having rather straight 
sheer, a straight keel with little drag, nearly upright 
stem rabbet with moderately rounded forefoot, 
upright post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, long parallel body with full rail line for- 
ward and a wide stern, a short and very bluff entrance, 
and a very short and full run. The midsection is well 
forward of the midlenglh of the hull and is formed 
with a slight rise in the straight floor, a rather quick, 
hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 



Rather roughly inade of white pine, the model is 
painted, and is mounted with a short, heavy head with 
trails, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. Ships such 
as this were dull sailers and were disrespectfully 
described by sailors as having been "built by the mile 
and sawn off by the foot." 

The model scales 131 feet moulded length at rail. 
28 feet moulded beam, and 18 feet moulded depth to 
rail. Scale is V, inch to the foot. 

Given bv William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath. 
Maine. 



MERCHANT SHIP, 1836 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76066 



Glasgow 



The ship-rigged merchantman Glasgow of Bath, 
Maine, was built in that port in 1836 on this model. 
Glasgow, a typical cotton ship of her date, was em- 
ployed for many years in the New Orleans-Liverpool 
trade. In outward appearance these ships often had 
some resemblance in profile to packet ships, but were 
usually smaller and had very full lines, so were not the 
fast sailers that most packets were by this date. 

The half-model sliows a burdensoir.e, wooden vessel 
having graceful sheer, a straight keel with little drag, 
upright stem rabbet with rounded forefoot, upright 
post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transomsquarestcrn 
and short quarterdeck. The midsection is well for- 
ward of midlength and is formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, a round, full bilge, and is rather wall 
sided above, with some tumble-home. The entrance 
is short and bluff, the run short and full, and the body 
long and straight sided. 

Mounted with a short, heavy head with billet, trail, 
cutwater, keel, post, and rudder; the stern carvings and 
name boards are shown. Painted in the fashion of 
the period: green (verdigris) bottom, black topsides 
with three narrow white bead lines, and one broad 
varnished strake; carvings all gilded as in original ship. 

The model is for a vessel 1 38 feet moulded length as 
rail, 135 feet between perpendiculars, 31 feet 2 inches 
beam, 19 feet depth in hold, and 5945^^4 tons regis- 
ter, old measurement. Scale of model is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, and W. F. 
Weeks of Bath, Maine. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1850 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76068 

A ship-rigged merchant vessel, name unknown, was 
built on this model at Bath, Maine, about 1850. The 



56 



model, in the long, narrow, and deep ship form that 
became popular in burdensome vessels in this period, 
represents the class of large ships built in Maine for 
the cotton trade, which demanded very large under- 
deck capacity without pretensions to fast sailing (it 
was not until well into the 1850's that many fast- 
sailing ships were built for this trade). 

The half-model represents a large, ship-rigged, 
wooden vessel, burdensome and full ended, having a 
moderate sheer, straight keel with little or no drag, 
rather upright stem rabbet with small rounded fore- 
foot, upright post, round tuck, light and rather shallow 
square stern with upper and lower transoms, short 
and bluff entrance with much flare in the bow sections, 
long parallel-sided body, and short and full run. The 
midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, round and rather hard bilge, and is wall sided 
above, with slight tumble-home. 

Painted and mounted, with the short heavy head 
and cutwater typical of these Maine-built cotton ships 
until well into the 1850's. 

The model scales 183 feet 4 inches moulded length 
at rail, 33 feet moulded beam, and 25 feet moulded 
depth. Scale of model ],i inch to the foot. 

Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 

PACKET SHIP, 1850 

Decorative Half-Model, usnm 311307 (Griffiths' 
Collection) 

Universe 

This small decorative half-model of the clipper- 
packet ship Universe was made by the ship's designer, 
John W. Griffiths, of New York. It is not an actual 
builder's model. The lines and sail plan of this 
vessel are in Griffiths' Treatise of Marine and .Naval 
Architecture, London, 1857 (new ed.). 

The Universe, built in 1850 by Smith & Dimon at 
New York for Williams and Guion's Liverpool Line, 
was a 1,297-ton (old measurement) packet. She was 
the first of the American packet ships that might be 
classed as a "clipper" ship. Her registered length 
was 186 feet, her beam 38 feet 7 inches, and her depth 
28 feet 6 inches. The model, which is only about 20}^ 
inches in length at rail, is apparently on a scale of Jin 
inch to the foot. 

The half-model shows a sailing ship hull having 
moderate sheer, straight keel with little drag, a raking 
and flaring stem rabbet with very small round at fore- 
foot, a nearly upright post, raking transom, round 



tuck, the entrance sharp and slightly hollow at the 
forefoot and rather short, and the run short but fine. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, a 
full and round bilge, and some tumble-home in the 
topside. The model is mounted with keel, rudder, 
and cutwater; channels are indicated. 

Received from Marion H . \irnelson, granddaughter 
of the designer. 



CLIPPER SHIP, 1851 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76072 



Comet 



The noted American clipper ship Comet is repre- 
sented by this decorative half-model presented by the 
builder and stated in the Museum records to be a 
duplicate of the builder's half-model. The Comet was 
built at New York City by William H. Webb in 1851 
for the California and China trades. Noted for her 
speed and beauty, the Comet made many fast passages, 
such as: 

New York to San Francisco 103 days (maiden 

voyage) 

San Francisco to Hong Kong 37 days 

San Francisco to New York 86 days 

San Francisco to New York 76;^ days 

New York to Liverpool 19 days 

Liverpool to Hong Kong 84 days 

On one voyage she sailed 332 nautical miles in 24 
hours and 1,512 nautical miles in 120 consecutive 
hours. 

The lines and sail plan of this ship are in William 
H. Webb's Plans of Wooden Ships. 

The half-model shows a moderate and graceful 
sheer, straight keel with very slight drag, raking and 
flaring stem rabbet, upright post, and a short, round, 
and light counter. The entrance is long, sharp and 
slightly hollow at forefoot; the bow sections have much 
flare; and the run is very long and fine. The mid- 
section has slightly rising straight floors carried well 
out, a well rounded and easy bilge, and a slight 
tumble-home above. This clipper, like many of her 
t\'pe, has a large midsection combined with ver\' fine 
ends. 

The model, mounted on a mirror to show the 
deck arrangement of the ship complete with bulwarks 
and deck furniture, is illustrated on p. 9. The figure- 
head, mouldings and cutwater, keel, post, and rudder 
are shown, and the stern carvings are also represented. 

The model is for a ship 229 feet l)etween perpendicu- 
lars, 42 feet extreme beam, 24 feet 10 inches depth, 



57 




Bcilder's Half-Model of Clipper Ship Mounted Against Mirror to Show Deck Arrangement. I'oung 
America, USNM 1 60 135. (Smit/uoiuan photo 20ji!j.) 



and 1836 tons register. Scale of model is ,'3 inch to 
the foot. 

Given by William H. Webb, shipbuilder, New York 
City. 

CLIPPER SHIP, 1853 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160135 

Young America 

This decorati\'e half-model of the American clipper 
ship Toung America is a duplicate of the original build- 
er's half-model, complete with deck furniture and 
bulwarks. The figurehead, mouldings, cutwater, 
keel, post, rudder and stern carvings are shown. The 
model is mounted on a mirror. 

The I'oung America, built in New York City by W^il- 
liam H. Webb in 1853, was one of the most celebrated 
of American clipper ships. Employed in the Cali- 
fornia and Australian trades, carrying freight and 
passengers out of New York and Liverpool, the I'oung 
America made five passages from San Francisco to 
New York in from 83 to 92 days and five passages in 
from 97 to 101 days. The run from New York to Liv- 
erpool was made in 18 days and the return voyage in 
23 days. Liverpool to Melbourne, Australia, was 
made in 81 days and runs from Liverpool to San Fran- 
cisco in 102, 103, 105, and 106 days. 

This ship was heavily sparred and canvassed; her 
lines and sail plan are in William H. Webb's Plans of 
Wooden Ships. 

The model shows a clipper ship having a moderate 
and graceful sheer, straight keel with slight drag, the 
stem rabbet raking and flaring, vertical post, a short, 
light, round counter, the entrance long and sharp and 
somewhat hollow at forefoot, the run very long and 
fine. The bow sections show strong flare. The mid- 
section is large, formed with slightly rising straight 



floor carried well out, a full-round bilge, and slight 
tumble-home in the topsides. 

The model is for a ship of 236 feet 6 inches between 
perpendiculars, 42 feet extreme beam, 28 feet 3 inches 
depth, and 1962 tons register. The deadrise amid- 
ships is 2 inches to the foot. Scale of model is ]i inch 
to the foot. 

Given bv William H. Webb, shipbuilder. New York 
City. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1853 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76062 

Jobn N. Ci/sbing 

The full-rigged merchant ship John N. Cushing of 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, was built at that port 
in 1853 on this half-model and was intended for the 
general ocean-freighting trade. She was employed 
for some years in the New England, West Indies, and 
Europe trade. John N. Cushing, Sr., who owned 
the fleet of merchant vessels to which this ship be- 
longed, was a firm believer in full-bodied carriers and 
continued to build such ships, even though they were 
out of date, and in spite of their slow sailing, well into 
the clipper-ship period. Five ships were built for the 
Cushing fleet on this half-model. 

The half-model shows a very burdensome wooden 
merchantman, deep and narrow, rather straight in 
sheer, straight keel with little or no drag, upright stem 
rabbet with small rounded forefoot, nearly vertical 
post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom square 
stern with low cross seain, short and very bluff en- 
trance, long body, short and heavy run, some flare in 
bow sections. The midsection is well forward and is 
formed with slightly rising floor, round firm bilge, and 
is wall sided above. The beam at rail is carried well 
into the ends. 



58 



The model scales 154 feet moulded length at rail, 
28 feet moulded beam, and 24 feet moulded depth. 
Scale is ji inch to the foot. 

Given by John N. Cushina;, Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1855 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160148 

A ship-rigged merchant vessel was built from this 
half-model about 1855 at Bath, Maine, and although 
the model has the name "Mayflower" painted on it, 
this does not appear to have been the name of the 
ship. The model represents an improved form of 
vessel, built for the cotton trade in the middle 1850's, 
combining capacity and fair sailing qualities. 

The half-model is of a wooden, ship-rigged mer- 
chantman of the half-clipper type, having graceful 
sheer, straight keel with \'ery slight drag, upright and 
straight-stem rabbet with small forefoot, vertical post, 
short and light counter, square stern, moderately 
sharp entrance with strongly flaring sections, long 
parallel body, and a long but somewhat full run. 
The midsection is formed with slightly rising straight 
floor, full-round bilge, and considerable tumble- 
home in the topsides. 

The model scales 131 feet 4 inches moulded length 
at rail. 28 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 20 feet 
moulded depth. Scale is )^ inch to the foot. 

Mounted and painted in the style of the period and 
trade, with painted ports, naval fashion. 

Given by the Board of Trade, Bath, Maine. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1857 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76063 

Eli-^abetb Gushing 

The full-rigged merchant ship Elizabeth Gushing was 
built on this half-model in 1857 at Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, for John N. Gushing of that port. 
The vessel, intended for the East India trade, was a 
modified "kettle-bottom"' model — deep, narrow and 
full ended, and of rather large dimensions. A very 
old-fashioned type of vessel at her date of building 
she illustrates the extreme conser\'atism of her owner. 

The half-model represents a merchant ship of very 
burdensome form, having slight sheer, straight keel 
with little or no drag, rather upright stem rabbet 
flaring a little at the top and with small cur\ed 
forefoot, slightly raking post, round tuck, upper-and- 
lower-transom square stern, short and full entrance, 
very short and full run, a long body, and flaring bow 
sections with \erv ijlufl' rail line. The midsection is 



formed with very slightly rising straight floor, rather 
hard bilge, and straight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted \\ith short and heavy head, cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder. 

The model scales 172 feet moulded length at rail, 
36 feet moulded beam, and 28 feet moulded depth. 
Scale is ,',^ inch to the foot. 

Given by John N. Gushing, Newburyport, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76054 

Expoitei-j Reporter 

The merchant ships Exporter and Reporter were 
built on this half-model at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1874 by George W. Jackman, Jr., for 
the general ocean trade and were owned in that 
port. They belonged to that class of merchant sailing 
ships, known as down-Easters, that followed the 
extreme clipper ships in the American ocean trades. 
The down-Easters combined large cargo capacity 
with very good sailing qualities and thus were more 
profitable to operate than the extreme clippers of 
the California, Australian, and China trades of the 
1850's, yet were capable of making almost as speedy 
passages. These ships were largely employed in the 
cotton trade, .^n earlier vessel named Reporter, a 
clipper ship, was built at Medford, Massachusetts. 
The Exporter was sold foreign in 1892. 

The half-model shows a moderately burdensome 
ship having marked sheer, straight keel with \-ery 
little drag, raking and flaring stem rabbet, upright 
post, short, light counter with elliptical transom, 
sharp entrance of moderate length, and fine run. 
The midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor carried well out, well rounded bilge, and mod- 
erate tumble-home above. Painted and mounted 
with long head, trail, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel 199 feet 6 inches beUveen 
perpendiculars, 38 feet 2% inches beam, 24 feet 
depth, and 1369.75 gross tons register. Scale of the 
model is % inch to the foot. 

Gi\-en by Sumner, Swasey, and Currier of New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. 

MERCHANT SHIP, 1875 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76065 

Oregon, Herci/ks, C. C. Thompson, 
Highland Light 

The full-rigged ship Oregon was built on this half- 
model by William Rogers at Bath, Maine, in 1875, 



59 



and later the sister ships Hercules, C.C. Thompson, and 
Highland Light were built on her moulds. These 
merchant ships were down-Easters. Vessels of this 
type represented the highest development of the 
American square-rigged merchant ship, combining 
fine working qualities, speed, and capacity to an 
extent not generally achieved earlier. The Oregon 
was considered a superior vessel of the type. 

The half-model represents a large wooden ship 
having strong sheer, straight keel with little or no 
drag, moderately raking and flaring stem rabbet, 
upright post, short counter with elliptical transom, 
sharp entrance of moderate length, and a rather long 
easy run. The midsection is formed with slightly 
rising straight floor, hard bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home above. 

The model is mounted with stub bowsprit and 
masts, head and cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. 
Gilded and painted as on the original ship. 

The Oregon measured 205.9 feet l:)etween perpen- 
diculars, 30.9 feet extreme beam, and 24.01 feet 
depth in hold. She was 1431 tons register. Scale 
of the model is Vi inch to the foot. 

Given by William Rogers, shipbuilder, Bath, Maine. 

MERCHANT SHIP, about 1876 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160150 

A wooden ship-rigged merchant vessel, name un- 
known, was l)uilt on this model at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, about 1876. She was a down-Easter, a 
class of vessels moderately sharp ended for carriers, 
yet of good capacity. 

The half-model represents a vessel having marked 
and graceful sheer, a straight keel with little or no 
drag, a curved, raking, and flaring stem rabijet, up- 
right post, short and light counter ending with an 
elliptical transom; sharp entrance of moderate length, 
and a rather long and easy run. The midsection 
shows a slightly rising straight floor of some length, a 
hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

The scale of this model is stated in the Museum 
records to be Ys inch to the foot; this gives a ship of only 
172 feet moulded length at rail, which is very small 
for this type and date. It seems probable that the 
scale is '3 inch to the foot, giving a vessel about 202 
feet 6 inches moulded length at main rail, about 35 
feet 1 % inches moulded beam, and about 22 feet 5 
inches moulded depth. 

Given by R. G. F. Candage. 



MERCHANT SHIP, 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76094 

This half-model of a Canadian sailing merchant ship 
was exhibited at the World's Exposition at New Or- 
leans in 1884-85 and represents a design of vessel 
intended for the New Orleans-European cotton trade. 
It closely resembles the general model of the American 
down-Easters of this date and is also rather typical 
of the ships built on the north shore of the Province of 
New Brunswick for the ocean carrying trade. Ca- 
nadian-built ships of this type were often fast and 
rather sharp for their period, and many of these New 
Brunswick built vessels were constructed on specula- 
tion and sold in England, where they were very often 
employed in the Australian or South American trade. 

The half-model shows a vessel having a rather 
straight sheer, straight keel with little or no drag, 
rather upright and flaring stem rabbet, slightly raking 
post, a light, round counter, a short, sharp and some- 
what convex entrance, and a long, well formed run. 
The midsection has a slightly rising straight floor, 
rather easy round bilge, and is wall-sided above. 

Mounted with head, cutwater, keel, post, and 
rudder. Painted and gilded. 

The model scales 202 feet length on the load line, 
40 feet moulded beam, and 24 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth. Rise of floor is 20 inches at half floor. Regis- 
ter tonnage would be about 1.650 and the dead- 
weight tonnage about 2,200 tons. Scale of the 
model is '3 inch to the foot. 

Given by W. Powers, shipbuilder, Kingston, 
Ontario. 

MERCHANT BARK, 1836 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76050 

Willicv/i Shroeder 

The bark-rigged merchant ship William Shroeder was 
built on this model at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 
1836 for owners in that port and was intended for 
the West Indian trade. The Shroeder was considered 
a very good vessel for the trade, having the reputation 
of Ijeing an easy-working ship, of sailing very well, 
and of being profitable because of her rather large 
capacity. She ran chiefly between New England 
ports and Puerto Rico, carrying lumber south and 
sugar and molasses on the return voyage. About 10 
or 12 years after her launching the Shroeder was sold 
to .Salem owners and thereafter was employed in the 
Salem-Zanzibar trade. 



60 



The half-model has a rather straight sheer, straight 
keel with little or no drag, stem rabbet curved and 
with little rake, nearly upright post, round tuck, 
upper-and-lower-transom square stern, a rather short 
and full entrance, a fairly long and easy run, quite a 
long body with a broad stern, and a full, round rail 
line at the bow with much flare in the bow sections. 
The midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, a rather easy round bilge, and a slight timible- 
home in the topside. 

Mounted, with a short, heavy head, cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder, and the mouldings shown as 
in the original \essel. Painted, with painted ports, 
naval fashion. 

The model scales 131 feet 8 inches moulded length 
at rail, 26 feet 8 inches moulded beam, and 15 feet 
moulded depth. Scale is "3 inch to the foot. 

Given by Captain Charles M. Bayley. 

MERCHANT BARK, 1845 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76049 

Edtvard Koppisch 

The bark-rigged merchant vessel Edward Koppisch of 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, was built on this model 
at that port in 1845 for the West Indian trade. She 
was employed on the New England-Puerto Rico run, 
carrying lumber out and sugar and molasses home. 
About 12 years after her launching she was sold to 
Salem, Massachusetts, owners, and was employed in 
the African trade out of that port. 

The half-model is of a bark-rigged vessel having a 
rather straight sheer, straight keel with little or no 
drag, curved and moderately raking stem rabbet, 
somewhat raking post, round tuck, upper-and-lower- 
transom square stern, entrance full and short, run 
moderate in length and slightly full, long body with 
wide stern, and an almost round rail at bow with 
much flare in the forward sections. The midsection 
has a slightly rising straight floor, easy round bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with short, heavy head, cut^vater, keel, 
post, rudder, and gilded mouldings. Hull painted, 
with black topsides and with painted ports, naval 
fashion. A monkey rail, or false hammock rail, is 
shown; this became fashionable in American merchant 
ships after the War of 1812 and continued in general 
use to the end of the clipper-ship period, .\merican 
sailing ships in the West Indian trade in the period 
between 1825 and 1855, were usually copper-sheathed. 

Model is for a vessel 125 feet moulded length at 



rail, 23 feet 4 inches moulded beam, 13 feet 4 inches 
moulded depth, and about 250 tons register, old 
measurement. Scale of the model is %d inch to the 
foot. 
Given by Captain Charles M. Bayley. 



MERCHANT BARK, 1846 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76071 



Saone 



The bark-rigged merchant vessel Saone was built on 
this model at Bath, Maine, in 1 846 for owners in that 
port; she was intended for general ocean carrying out 
of New England, trading to Europe, the West Indies, 
and South America. 

This half-model is of an extreme kettle-bottom 
vessel, a design developed to escape full payment of 
tonnage dues without any loss in carrying capacity, 
and following a basic principle of design, used in the 
much later turret steamers, of wide bottom and narrow 
upper deck. Depth, under the American tonnage law 
in force when the Saone was modeled, was an estimate 
of depth in hold as a proportion of the mea.sured beam 
at deck, rather than a measurement of actual hold 
depth as in later years. Hence real depth was a tax 
free measurement to a great extent. As a result the 
hulls were formed with a deep midsection, having a 
wide, almost flat bottom, a firm round bilge, very 
marked tumble-home, and concave topside that under 
the tonnage law gave a very great cargo capacity but 
small register tonnage. The form resembling the pro- 
file of an old iron kettle, hence the name. There were 
disadvantages. For her maiden voyage the Saone was 
loaded with lumber but with insufficient ballast; when 
she filled away from the wharf, she fell over on her 
side with her lower yardarms in the water. She then 
had to be unloaded to right her, and ballast added. 

These kettle-bottom ships were deep in proportion 
to beam and length; to the discomfort of their crews, 
even when properly ballasted they sailed with a sharp 
angle of heel, and were slow as well. 

The body plan of the Saone is shown in Hall's Report 
on Shipbuilding. 

The half-model shows a very bm-densome vessel 
having very straight sheer, a straight keel with no drag, 
nearly upright stem rabbet and post, round tuck, up- 
per-and-lower-transom square stern, excessively long 
body and wide stern, almost round rail at bow, and a 
very short and full entrance and run. 

The Sonne registered 292 tons, old measurement, 116 
feet 10 inches moulded length at rail, 21 feet 9 inches 



472S46— 60- 



61 



moulded beam, 16 feet 9 inches moulded depth, 
20-inch hollow in the tumble-home topsides, and 
carried 460 tons of cargo on a draft of 14 feet to the 
keel rabbet. Scale of the model is ■% inch to the foot. 
Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 

MERCHANT BARK, 1851 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76059 

Hesper 

The bark-rigged merchant vessel Hesper was built 
on this model at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1851 
for John N. Gushing of that port. She was a kettle 
bottom and was employed in the European trade. 
Like the rest of her type she was a very large carrier 
but slow and unhandy, though reputedly profitable 
for her owner. 

The half-model is of a very burdensome ship having 
very little sheer, a straight keel with no drag, upright 
stem rabbet with small, rounded forefoot, nearly up- 
right post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, short full entrance and run, and a very 
long body. The midsection has a slightly rising 
straight floor, round firm bilge, a marked tumble- 
home, with the topside straight rather than concave. 
The Hesper was short, deep, and narrow. 

The model scales 128 feet moulded length at rail, 
25 feet moulded beam, and 21 feet moulded depth. 
Scale is ){ inch to the foot. 

Given by John N. Gushing of Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts. 



MERCHANT BARK, 1854 
Builders Half-Model, usnm 76114 



Crusader 



The bark-rigged merchantman Crusader was built on 
this model at Millbridge, Maine, in 1854 for the 
European trade. She belonged to that class of sailing 
vessels sometimes called half clippers, having good 
capacity and some pretension to fast sailing. The 
Crusader, cost $85,000 to build and fit for sea; she was 
a well finished vessel and profitable in her trade, al- 
though too full in the run to be very swift. She was 
engaged in general ocean freighting and was finally 
burned at sea on a voyage between Rio de Janeiro 
and London. 

The half-model shows a vessel having a rather 
straight sheer, straight keel with little or no drag, 
rounded stem rabbet becoming straight and vertical 
above the load line, upright post, round tuck, upper- 



and-lower-transom scjuare stern with little overhang, 
short and rather sharp entrance, short and full run, 
and a long body. The midsection shows a slightly 
rising straight floor and a rather hard bilge, and is 
wall sided above. The bow flares strongly. 

The model scales 216 feet moulded length at rail, 
28 feet moulded beam, and 19 feet moulded depth. 
Scale is ]{ inch to the foot. 

Given by Captain Austin Dyer. 



MERCHANT BARK, 1877 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76134 



]uU 



cl 



The bark-rigged merchant vessel Julia was built on 
this model in 1877 at Ellsworth, Maine, for local 
owners and was intended for general ocean freighting, 
an example of the smaller class of Maine-built down- 
Easters that followed the clipper-ship period, com- 
bining good capacity with beauty and speed. Vessels 
of this type for many years competed successfully, 
with the early, iron tramp steamers. 

The half-model shows a merchant vessel having 
marked sheer, a straight keel with little drag, curved 
and raking stem rabbet, vertical post, short counter 
with elliptical transom, moderately sharp convex 
entrance, long, fine and well-shaped run, and a good 
length of body. The midsection shows a slightly 
ri.sing straight floor and a well rounded bilge, and is 
rather wall sided above. 

Mounted with long head, cutwater, keel, post, and 
rudder. 

The model .scales 164 feet moulded length at rail. 
The vessel was 155 feet 1 inch between perpendiculars, 
34 feet extreme beam, 20 feet 1 inch depth of hold, 
and the net tonnage was 758.18. Scale of the model 
is )'i6 inch to the foot, unusually small for a fiuilder's 
half-model. 

Given by Isaac M. Grant. 



MERCHANT BARK, 1878 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76095 



Albemarle 



The half-clipper bark Albemarle of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, was built on this model by William Skinner and 
Sons of that city for Messrs. Wedbee and Dickerson. 
She was launched June 19, 1878. The Albemarle had 
wire-rope standing rigging and improved fittings; she 
was considered an advanced design when launched. 
Though economic conditions in the American ship- 
ping trades had, before 1860, brought an end to the 



62 







Lines of the Coffee-Clipper Bark Albemarle, built at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1876. Taken off the builder's 
half-model USNM 76095. 



construction of the very large California clipper ships, 
some trades still existed in which small clipper sailing 
vessels were profitable — one was the fruit trade to the 
West Indies, another, the Rio de Janeiro-American 
coffee trade. The latter trade employed the larger 
vessels, mostly barks, brigs, and brigantines. While 
few of these vessels were very extreme in design, some 
were quite sharp and many were very fast sailers. 
The Albemarle was long accepted as one of the fastest 
vessels in the Rio coffee trade and her design was 
much admired. 

The half-model shows a medium-, or half-clipper 
bark having a moderate and graceful sheer, straight 
keel with slight drag, a raking, curved and flaring stem 
rabbet, nearly upright post, light and short counter 
with elliptical transom, long and sharp entrance, and 
a moderately long and fine run with no length of 
deadflat amidships; the bow sections show heavy 
flare. The midsection is formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, firm round bilge, and curved tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Mounted with long head, trails, cutwater, keel, 
rudder, and post. 

The model scales 138 feet 10 inches moulded length 
at rail, 130 feet 6 inches between perpendiculars, 30 
feet 9 inches moulded beam, and 15 feet 5 inches depth 
rabbet to underside of deck at side. The vessel would 
draw 16 feet 9 inches when loaded. The model is 
marked with what are, apparently, her register dimen- 
sions: "135 feet between perpendiculars, 30 feet ex- 
treme beam, 1 4 feet 1 1 inches depth of hold, 560 tons." 
Scale is % inch to the foot. 

Given by William Skinner and Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 



MERCHANT BRIG, 1817 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76061 



Dove 



The merchant brig Dove was built on this model in 
1817 at Newbury, Massachusetts, for John N. Gush- 
ing, Sr., of Newburyport. She was built for the West 
Indian trade in the period immediately following the 
Napoleonic Wars, when the West Indies were infested 
with pirates and frcebooting privateers of the Spanish 
colonies then in the throes of revolution. Because of 
this condition it was necessary to construct West 
Indian traders with some speed. The Dove, an at- 
tempt to combine capacity with sailing ability, had 
sharper ends and a greater rise of floor than most 
New England traders of her time. However, this 
brig was by no means a clipper model, though she 
was the sharpest vessel ever owned by Gushing, whose 
fleet of brigs, as well as ships and barks, were all 
extremely full ended and liurdensome. 

The half-model represents a brig-rigged vessel hav- 
ing strong sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, 
curved and somewhat raking stem rabbet, slightly 
raking post, round tuck, upper-and-lovver-transom 
square stern, short convex entrance becoming almost 
round at rail, and a short, but rather easy run. The 
midsection has a moderately rising and short straight 
floor, rather easy round bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Mounted and fitted with a short, heavy head, cut- 
water, keel, post, and rudder, and with a quarterdeck 
rail. Painted as in the original vessel. 

The model scales 76 feet moulded length at rail, 18 



63 



J'OCAMOJVTAS . 




Lines of the New England Merchant Brigs Powhatan and Pocahontas, built at Nevvburyport, Massachusetts, 
1 829-30. An example of a model of burdensome freighting vessels favored in New England before the days of 
the clipper ships. Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 76060. 



feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 10 feet moulded 
depth. Scale is ]i inch to the foot. 

Given by John N. Gushing, Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1825 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76070 

Thomas Harwood built a merchant brigantine, 
name unknown, on this model at Bath, Maine, in 
1825 for the West Indian sugar trade. Vessels built 
in Maine for this trade usually had short, high 
quarterdecks with a trunk cabin let into them so that 
the cabin sole, or floor, was at main deck level. The 
crew's quarters were in a small deckhouse abaft the 
foremast. Because the main deck was much lower 
than the quarterdeck, these vessels were referred to 
as "low-decked" in Maine shipyards. The bulwarks 
were high, permitting large deck-loads, so the low- 
decked vessels were popular in the Maine lumber 
trade. Since lumber was the usual southbound cargo 
in the Maine-owned West Indiamen, the vessels 
built for the sugar and molasses trade were commonly 
of this description. 

The name "barrel bottom" was sometimes applied 
to such a vessel; some sailed well, particularly in light 
and moderate winds, but usually they would not 
carry sail well in a fresh breeze. 

The half-model shows a burdensome vessel having 
marked sheer, a straight keel with little or no drag. 



curved and slightly raking stem rabbet, slightly 
raking post, round tuck, upper-and-lowcr-transom 
square stern, and a short entrance and run. The 
midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, well-rounded slack bilge, and an upright topside. 
The model is for a brigantine 91 feet in moulded 
length at rail, 22 feet moulded beam, and 9 feet 
moulded depth. Scale of the model is |.) inch to 
the foot. 

Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 

MERCHANT BRIG, 1829 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76060 

Powhatan, Pocahontas 

John N. Gushing, Sr., was a very successful mer- 
chant and shipowner of Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
who became prominent, after the War of 1812, as the 
operator of a large fleet of merchant vessels, the 
larger portion of which were full-rigged brigs. He 
engaged in the general ocean carrying trade and 
most of his vessels were employed in freighting out of 
Newburyport to Europe, the West Indies, and South 
America. Early in his career he decided that only 
burdensome vessels were profitable and began to 
have brigs built, and later barks and ships, that were 
extreme in design in this respect. The pioneer of the 
extremely burdensome brigs, in his fleet, were the 



64 



sisters Powhatan, built at Newbury, Massachusetts, 
in 1829, and the Pocahontas, built there the following 
year, both on this half-model. The type of brig 
represented by this model was developed into an 
extreme kettle bottom in Cushing's later vessels. 

The half-model represents a deep, narrow, brig- 
rigged vessel having a very slight sheer, straight keel 
with little or no drag, a rather upright and straight 
stem rabbet, small rounded forefoot, upright post, 
round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom square stern 
with small overhang, very short and ijluff entrance, 
a long parallel body, and a short, very full run. The 
midsection shows a slightly rising floor, firm bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the straight topside. 

The model is for a vessel 1 1 3 feet moulded length 
at rail, 26 feet 4 inches moulded beam, 17}^ feet 
moulded depth, and about 268 tons register, old 
measurement. Scale of the model is ^4 inch to the foot. 

Gi\en by John N. Gushing, Newburyport, Mas- 
sachusetts. 



MERCHANT BRIG, 1832 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76058 



Palos 



The brig-rigged merchant vessel Pains was built on 
this model at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1832 
for John N. Gushing of that port. She was an extreme 
kettle bottom, narrow, deep and with very great 
tumble-home in the topsides. The brig was so profit- 
able, largely because she carried cargo tonnage far 
in excess of her register tonnage (port dues were paid 
only on the latter), that fifteen brigs were afterwards 
built, most of them by Stephen Jackman, on the 
moulds, or model, of the Palos. Among the vessels 
built on this half-model, which may be said to have 
been the standard one for i:)rigs in the Gushing fleet, 
were the Carthage, Athens, Corinth, James Gray, Nicholas, 
James Caskie, Ark, Massachusetts, Salisbury, Smith, and 
Tuttle. The brig Keying was the last; launched in 
1845, she cost 122,264.98. These kettle-bottom brigs 
traded chiefly to Europe and the \Vest Indies, bearing 




h^\._^-jji^^ 



KtrrLt-BuiiuMBRiG.y«/niuo', btiih uii ihe model of the /'.//uj ibuildcis liall-uiodtl L'SXM 76058; ai .\c-ubui>', 
Massachusetts, in 1844. From a painting by Frederic Roux, at Le Havre in the 1840's. {Smithsonian photo 
3394) 



65 



tobacco to Europe from Richmond. Virginia, and 
returning to New England with sah or coal or manu- 
factures from Liverpool, or with marine stores and 
cordage from the Baltic, or with sugar and molasses 
from the West Indies. One of these brigs carried 700 
tons of coal from Cardiff to Jamaica, though her 
register tonnage was a little under 300, and it was 
very common for this class of brig to carry twice her 
register tonnage in dead weight. 

The half-model shows a very i)urdensome hull 
having a nearly straight sheer, straight keel with 
little or no drag, straight and nearly vertical stem 
rabbet, a small rounded forefoot, slightly raked post, 
round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom square stern 
with very little overhang, short and bluff entrance 
slightly hollow at the forefoot and almost square at 
the rail, a very long parallel-sided body, and a short 
and very full run. The midsection has a slightly rising 
straight floor, rather hard bilge, and a concave 
tumble-home in the topside. 

The model is for a vessel 109 feet moulded length 
at rail, 24 feet moulded beam, 20 feet moulded depth, 
and about 277 tons register, old measiu-ement. Some 
of the brigs built on this half-model measured 290 
register tons. In these it is probaiole that length was 
added amidships by inserting two or more extra 
frames at the same spacing as the others. Scale of 
the model is % inch to the foot. 

The spar dimensions of the Palos were as follows: 



Spars 



Mainmast 



Foremast 



Bowsprit 
Main topmast 
Fore topmast 
Main topgallant mast 
Fore topgallant mast 
Main royal mast 
Fore royal mast 
Jil) boom 



Tards 
Main 
Fore 

Main topsail 
Fore topsail 
Main topgallant 
Fore topgallant 
Main royal 
Fore royal 



Lenglh 
62' 

58' 

28' 

33'6" 

33' 

19'6" 

19'6" 

12' 

12' 

28' 



Leng 
46' 
46' 
36'6" 
36'6" 
24'6" 
24' 
17' 
16' 



Diamfter 
20" at deck 

201 i" at deck 

20^2" at Gammon 
12;,^" at cap 
12" at cap 

7U" at cap 

7" at cap 

5J4" at cap 

5" at cap 
I2J2" at cap 



Dinmeter 
at slings 
13" 

xiy-," 

1054" 
6%" 

4" 
3/2" 



Length of 
arm outside 

lifts 
24" 
24" 
26" 
26" 
15" 
15" 

9" 

9" 



950 sheets of copper were required to copper the jjot- 
tom of the Palos. In addition to the sails indicated by 
the spars given above, the brigs often carried a 
spencer (boomless gaff-foresail) on the foremast and, 
of course, the usual boomed gaff-spanker and head- 
sails. The brigs did not carry light sails, other than a 
few stunsails, for these would not help such dull- 
sailing vessels to any appreciable degree. 

Given by John N. Gushing, Newbtuyport, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1838 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76127 

Amet/jyst 

The brigantine-rigged merchant vessel Antelhyst was 
built on this half-model at Stdlivan, Maine, in 1838 
for the coastwise and West Indian trades. Intended 
to carry a large cargo on a moderate draft, in order to 
enter some of the rather shallow harbors to which she 
would trade, the Amelhvst was a vessel of average size 
for her type and trade at the time slie was built. 
When Maine-built these vessels usually were low 
decked and had short and heavy heads, usually fitted 
with a fiddlehead billet. Such vessels as the Amethysl 
were not designed to sail fast, thotigh handiness in 
working in narrow waters was highly prized, and some 
full-bodied vessels were very capable in this respect. 
The half-model is of a hull having moderate sheer, a 
straight keel of very little drag, curved and raking 
stem rabbet, slightly raking post, 
round tuck, upper - and - lower- 
transom square stern, short and 
bluff entrance, long body, and a 
short and very full run. The 
midsection shows a slightly rising 
straight floor and a heavi!\- 
rounded bilge, and is rather wall 
sided above. 

The model scales 82 feet 7 
inches between perpendiculars, 22 
feet 9}^ inches beam and 8 feet 6 
inches depth. Scale is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given by D. A. Simpson. 



Length of 
Head 



8'6' 

5' 
5' 
5' 
3' 
3' 
6' 
5' 
2' 



Rake 

to I'O" 
34" 
to I'O" 



pole 
pole 
pole 



MERCHANT BRIG, 1841 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76057 



Chenamus 



The brig-rigged merchant vessel Chenamus of New - 
buryport was built on this model at the neighboring 
village of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1841 for John 



66 



N. Gushing and H. Johnson. She was intended for 
trade to the Pacific Coast, the Columbia River region, 
and the Northwest Coast. A somewhat smaller vessel 
than the standard Gushing brig, she was of the same 
extremely burdensome type that Gushing employed 
in his own fleet. 

The half-model represents a brig hull having a very 
slight sheer, straight keel, upright stem rabbet with 
small rounded forefoot, slightly raking post, round 
tuck, upper-and-lower transoms, square stern, and 
a strong flare in the bow sections. The entrance is 
short and bluff, slightly hollow at the forefoot and 
becoming almost square across at the rail, the very 
short run is steep and full, and the body long and 
parallel. The midsection shows a slightly rising 
straight floor, firm bilge, and a strong tumble-home 
in the topside. In general, the half-model represents 
a slow sailing, burdensome kettle-bottom brig. 

The model scales 97 feet moulded length at rail, 
20 feet moulded beam, and 12 feet 9 inches moulded 
depth, and represents a vessel of about 202 register 
tons, old measurement. Scale is Xe inch to the foot. 

Given by John N. Gushing, Newburyport, 
Massachusetts. 

BALTIMORE CLIPPER BRIG, 1845 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76064 

This builder's half-model is of an extreme Baltimore 
clipper brig of the period 1810-45. The model was 
submitted to John N. Gushing, Sr., in January 1845, 
as a proposal by a Baltimore builder for the construc- 
tion of a full-rigged brig for use in the Pacific north- 



west coast trade, the estimated cost being S10,765. 
Cushing's preference for extremely full-ended vessels 
probably prevented his accepting the proposal; no 
vessel was built from this model for the Gushing fleet. 

The half-model is of a flush-decked vessel designed 
to sail fast in moderate winds and its appearance 
and size are very similar to those of Baltimore clipper 
brigs built as privateers in the War of 1812. It repre- 
sents the older type of Baltimore clipper in which 
the keel had much drag and the midsection showed 
a sharp rise in the straight floor. By 1825, at least, 
the Chesapeake Bay builders were producing for the 
merchant service brigs and brigantines in which 
there was litde drag to the keel and only moderate 
rise in the straight floor at the midsection. This 
half-model, then, does not represent the most ad- 
vanced ideas in the design of fast commercial brigs 
by Maryland builders in 1845 and, indeed, it may 
actually have been made much earlier than this date. 

The half-model represents a brig having a rather 
straight sheer, straight keel with very marked drag, 
slightly curved and strongly raking stem rabbet with 
well rounded forefoot, sharply raking post, round 
tuck, and an upper-and-lower-transom square stem 
with very small overhang. The entrance is long, 
sharp and slightly convex, and the run is long and 
fine. The midsection is formed with the sharply 
rising floor briefly straight near the keel, a slack and 
well rounded bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside, but only above the maindeck level. The 
bow sections have moderate flare. 

Model is mounted with a stub bowsprit, short and 







~Ni 






Lines Taken Off Builder's Half-Model USNM 76064, of a Baltimore clipper brig, 1845. Model is for a 
merchant brig or brigantine but shows a popular type that earlier (1812-15) was used for privateers. 



67 



deep head, trails and headrail, cutwater, keel, 
post, rudder, and false hammock rails. Ports are 
painted, naval fashion. 

Brigs of this type had sharply rakinc masts and were 
very heavily sparred and canvassed; the antithesis of 
the Gushing fleet of brigs. The Baltimore clipper 
as early as 1790 had an international reputation, 
which it maintained well into the 1850's, for fast 
sailing and weatherliness. 

The model is for a brig 112 feet moulded length 
at rail, 105 feet 6 inches between perpendiculars, 26 
feet 6 inches moulded beam, 12 feet 8 inches movilded 
depth, 14 feet draft at post, and about 255 tons register, 
old measurement. Scale of the model is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given by John N. Gushing of Newburyport, 
Massachusetts. 

The original proposal for building this vessel was 
a simple statement of cost: 



Hull and Spars 


$6, 400 


Blacksmith's (bill) 


500 


Rigging 


850 


Blockmaker's (bill) 


200 


Joiner's (bill) 


375 


Riggers' (bills) 


240 


Plumber's (bill) 


150 


Copper etc., 


2,050 



$10, 765 

This half-model is one of the few of Baltimore 
clippers that have survived from the period prior to 
1850 and the only one known of a full-rigged brig 
other than a few half-models of naval brigs of this 
type. It is believed that many Ghcsapeake Bay builders 
were late in turning to the half-model as a method of 
design, and that they retained the old draught, or 
lines plan, far later than was usual elsewhere; hence 
there may have been relati\'ely few builders' half- 
models before 1840. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1846 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76140 

Wafson 

The brigantine-rigged coaster Watson was built on 
this half-model at Sedgwick, Maine, in 1846. She 
was designed for the South Atlantic coastal and the 
West Indian trades, and was typical of a large number 
of small Maine-built traders of this period. Though 
she was only 146 tons register, old measurement, she 
was considered a large vessel of her class when built. 
These sinall Maine-built Ijrigantines, usually low 



decked, with a short, high quarterdeck, were very 
profitable for many years and were commonly long- 
lived and inexpensive craft. The Watson carried the 
usual cargoes in the West Indian trade: New England 
lumber (white pine building material, laths, and 
shingles) south and sugar and molasses north. The 
South Atlantic ports also received inanufactures such 
as machinery, hardware, finished fabrics, furniture, 
and "notions" and shipped north yellow pine and tar 
or turpentine. By 1840 the New England shipyards 
were using the longleaf southern pine for planking 
and ceiling and, of course, the marine stores, tar and 
turpentine. 

The half-model represents a brigantine-rigged 
vessel having moderate sheer, a straight keel of little 
or no drag, ciu'ved and raking stem rabbet, slightly 
raking post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, a short and rather full entrance, and a 
well formed run of moderate length. The midsection 
has a slightly rising straight floor, full round bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with short, heavy head, cutwater, keel, 
post, and rudder. 

The model scales 90 feet moulded length at rail, 
22 feet moulded beam, and 8 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth. Scale is }i inch to the foot. 

Given by Joshua Watson, shipbuilder, Sedgwick, 
Maine. 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1848 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76124 



Teluli 



a 



The brigantine Telula was built on this hawk's-nest, 
or crow's nest, half-model in 1848 at Gherryfield, 
Maine, for the coastal trade. Vessels of this rig and 
date usually carried a gaff foresail, or spencer, and 
could work as well as a topsail schooner, yet with the 
wind aft could run as well as a full-rigged brig. The 
brigantine fitted with a spencer on her foremast was 
sometimes called a schooner, or hermaphrodite, brig. 
The trading brigantines of this date were fitted to 
give economical operation and were relatively in- 
expensive vessels to build and fit. 

This half-model, a good example of the type, is made 
with a backboard upon which the profile is marked 
to show the height of the bulwarks, wales, and the 
half breadths of the level lines are marked on the sec- 
tions, which are to deck level. The stations are 
marked and on each of these is a small board shaped 
to sectional form, or to the mould of the individual 
station. Battens are tacked to the sections, to hold 



68 



them rigid and secure, and must be removed to take 
off the Hnes. 

The half-model represents a vessel of very moderate 
sheer, having a straight keel with moderate or little 
drag, slightly raking stem rabbet curved below the 
load line, slightly raking post, round tuck, upper-and- 
lower-transom square stern, short and full entrance, 
long body, and a short and rather full run. The mid- 
section has a moderately rising straight floor, a low, 
well rounded and easy bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. The head and cutwater are 
short and heavy. 

The model is for a vessel 78 feet moulded length at 
rail, 22 feet moulded beam, and 10 feet 8 inches 
moulded depth to rail cap. Scale of the model is % 
inch to the foot. 

Given by G. R. Campbell and Company. 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1852 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76131 



Iscarion 



The brigantine Iscarion was built on this model by 
Hamen Cousins at Trenton (now Lamoine), Maine, 
in 1852 for the general coasting and West Indian 
trades. The low-decked vessel was particularly 
designed to carry lumber. The vessel is an excellent 
example of the small brigantines employed in the 
coastal trades in the 1850's out of Maine ports. 

The half-model is of a brigantine hull having mod- 
erate sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, curved 
and raking stem rabbet, slightly raking post, round 
tuck, raking flat transom, square stern, moderately 
full entrance with flaring bow sections, no deadflat, 
and a rather short but easy run. The midsection has 
a slightly rising straight floor, a round, easy bilge, and 
a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with short and rather heavy head, cut- 
water, keel, post and rudder; a short quarter deck and 
rather deep bulwarks are indicated. 

The model is for a brigantine 89 feet 8 inches 
moulded length at rail, 23 feet 8 inches moulded 
beam, and 9 feet moulded depth, about 198 tons 
register, old measurement. Scale of the model is 
]i inch to the foot. 

Given by C. L. Young. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1852 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76141 

Abby Watson 

The trading brigantine Ahby Watson was built on 
this model at Sedgwick. Maine, in 1852 and was 



considered to be a very fine vessel and large for her 
type when launched. She was employed in the VV^est 
Indian trade for some years and afterwards was in 
the lumber trade to South Atlantic ports. She was 
lost with all hands off Cape Hatteras about 1876. 

The half-model shows a low-decked brigantine 
having moderate sheer, a straight keel with very 
slight drag, curved and raking stem rabbet, nearly 
vertical post, round tuck, raking-transom square 
stern, a rather sharp entrance with flaring bow sec- 
tions, short deadflat, and a moderately long but 
somewhat full run. The midsection shows a slightly 
rising straight floor, a round, easy bilge, and a slight 
tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with short heavy head, cutwater, keel, 
rabbet, and post. A short quarterdeck is indicated. 

The model is for a vessel 109 feet 9]i inches between 
perpendiculars, 27 feet beam, 9 feet ?))i inches depth, 
and 213.87 gross tons register. Scale of the model is 
Jo inch to the foot. 

Given by Joshua Watson, shipbuilder, Sedgwick, 
Maine. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1852 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160123 

A merchant brigantine, name unknown, was built 
on this model at Bath, Maine, in 1852 for the West 
Indian and coastal trades. The half-model illustrates 
a popular hull form in this class of vessel in the period 
1840-55, having good capacity and fair sailing quali- 
ties. This type of vessel had a short, high quarterdeck 
at rail-cap height. 

The half-model shows a brigantine having moder- 
ate sheer, a straight keel with little drag, curved and 
raking stem rabbet flaring somewhat at the top, nearly 
vertical post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, short and full entrance with strong flare 
in the bow sections, and a moderate length of body 
and run, the latter somewhat full. The midsection is 
formed with some rise in the straight floor, a low, full 
round bilge, and a moderate tumble-home in the 
topside. 

Mounted with a short, hea\-y head and cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel 90 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at rail, 22 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 8 
feet moulded depth to deck. Scale of the model is 
% inch to the foot. 

Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 



69 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1854 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76135 



Fredonia 



The trading brigantine Fredonia was built on this 
model in 1854 at Ellsworth, Maine, for the West In- 
dian trade. She was an ad\anced design for her time 
and, in general, her model shows many of the char- 
acteristics that marked brigantines built in Maine and 
Nova Scotia 20 years later, combining cargo capacity 
with \-ery good sailing qualities. Slightly narrower 
than contemporary Maine-built brigantines of her 
approximate length, the Fredonia was considered a 
very handsome vessel, and was profitable to operate. 

The half-model represents a brigantine hull having 
moderate sheer, a straight keel, flaring and rather 
upright stem rabbet with rounded forefoot, nearly 
upright post, short counter and raking transom, mod- 
erately sharp entrance with much flare in the bow 
sections, giving a full rail line, practically no deadflat, 
and a long and easy run. The midsection shows a 
short and slightly rising straight floor, easy and round 
bilge, and some tumble-home in the topside. The 
model shows a short quarterdeck. 

The model is for a vessel 103 feet moulded length 
at rail, 24 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 10 feet 
moulded depth. Scale of the model is 'o inch to the 
foot. 

Given by Abraham Lord. 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1856 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76115 



Anita Owe)! 



The brigantine-rigged merchant vessel Anita Owen 
of New York was built on this model at Millbridge, 
Maine, in 1856 by Ezekiel Dyer for the West Indian 
trade. She was a profitable and well built vessel, cost- 
ing $20,000, of a type that carried a large cargo for her 
size yet sailed quite well. The A)uta Owen was lost in 
1870. 

The half-model is of a burdensome brigantine-rigged 
trading vessel having moderate sheer, a straight keel, 
rather upright but flaring stem rabbet with a very 
small curved forefoot, nearly upright post, round tuck, 
a square stem with raking transom, a rather full en- 
trance, and a moderately long, easy run. The mid- 
section is formed with a slightly rising and \'ery short 
floor developing into a rather easy and much rounded 
bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. There 
is strone flare in the bow sections. 



Mounted with a small, pointed longhead, trails, cut- 
water, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model scales 117 feet moulded length at rail, 
27 feet 5 inches moulded beam, 13 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth. Scale is Yn inch to the foot. 

Given by Captain Austin Dyer. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1856 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76100 

Hurricane Bird 

The trading brigantine Hurricane Bird was built at 
Baltimore, Maryland, by Pendergast and Brother in 
1856 for the West Indian trade. The Hurricane Bird 
was a handsome and fast vessel on a clipper model 
that Maryland builders had developed, by gradual 
modification of the old Baltimore clipper hull form, 
brigs and brigantines in the late 1830's very similar in 
character to the later and better known clipper ships 
of the late 1840's. 

The Hurricane Bird was launched November 3, 1856, 
and ^vas lost at sea in 1859. She was heavily sparred 
and canvassed like most of the Maryland-built brigan- 
tines in the West Indian sugar trade. Speed in these 
traders was probably desired because many carried 
north fruit, as well as sugar and molasses. 

The half-model is of a medium clipper brigantine 
having rather slight sheer, a straight keel with very 
slight drag, very flaring and raking stem rabbet, 
nearly upright post, a short coimter with a raking 
square transom ha\'ing some cur\'e athwartships, rather 
long and sharp entrance, and a flne run of moderate 
lentrth. The midsection is formed with a moderate 
rise in the straight floor, rather hard bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. The bow sections 
flare considerably. 

Mounted with a pointed longhead, cutwater, keel, 
post, and rudder; a short quarterdeck is indicated. 

The model scales 111 feet motilded length at rail, 
26 feet moulded beam, and 10 feet 10 inches moulded 
depth, deck to rabbet at side. Scale is 'o inch to the 
foot. 

Given I:)y William Skinner and Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1858 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76099 

Alexander Kirklandj George Lafimer 

The trading brigantines Alexander Kirkland and 
George Latimer %vere built on this model in 1 858 for 
the West Indian trade by \Villiam Skinner and Sons, 



70 



SRJaA.\T/N£S GEO/iae IAT/M£ff St ALEXANPEfi HIltKLA-W 



ie/7gr^ mou/ile»t af mf //0-3' 
Srmf/ of p9/f ""' 




Lines of the Baltimore-Built Brigantines George Latimer and Alexander hirkland, built 1858 for the West 
Indian trade. The Latimer was destroyed by the Confederate cruiser Florida, and the Kirkland disappeared at 
sea. Taken off builder's half-model U.SNM 76099. 



Baltimore, Maryland. The model represents a clipper 
brigantine of the period as developed by Maryland 
builders in which the rise of the straight floor and 
drag to the keel of their earlier Baltimore clipper 
model had been reduced to a minimum. The Latimer, 
a noted sailer in the West Indian-Baltimore sugar 
trade, was burned by the Confederate raider Florida 
in 1864. The Kirkland "went missing" and was 
probaljly overwhelmed in a hurricane. These Balti- 
more-built West-Indiamen were very similar in all 
respects to the brigantines in the coffee trade and 
carried a large spread of canvas. 

The half-model is of a medium-clipper hull ha\ing 
a moderate and handsome sheer, straight keel with 
slight drag, slightly raking and moderately flaring 
stem rabbet, nearly upright post, short counter with 
raking elliptical transom curved athwartships, a 
long and sharp entrance with some hollow at the 
forefoot and much flare in the bow sections, and a 
long and fine run. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, well rounded and rather 
easy bilge, and a marked tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted wdth a longhead, trails, cutwater, keel, 
post, rudder, and stub bowsprit. 

The brigantines measured 110 feet 9 inches moulded 
length at rail, 104 feet between perpendiculars, 24 
feet 8 inches moulded beam, and 10 feet 3 inches 
moulded depth, deck to rabbet at side. Scale of 
model is )i inch to the foot. 

Given by William .Skinner and Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1867 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76118 

Eva M. JohnsoKj Majy E. Fennel 

The trading brigantine Eva M. Johnson, 235.84 
register tons, was built on this model in 1867 and 
the Mary E. Pemiel, 239.01 register tons, in 1868, at 
Harrington, Maine, for the West Indian and coast- 
wise trades. The model is typical of the Maine-built 
brigantine traders, usually with a short quarterdeck, 
employed in the sugar and molasses trade in the 
decade following the Civil War. 

The half-model represents a brigantine having mod- 
erate sheer, a straight keel with very slight drag, 
rather upright but flaring stem rabbet with slightly 
rounded forefoot, vertical post, short wide counter 
ha\ing raking elliptical transom rounded athwart- 
ships, short and rather full entrance, short and easy 
run, and a rather markedly long body. The mid- 
section shows a slight rise in the straight floor, round 
and easy bilge, and some tumi)le-home in the topside. 
The bow sections ha\e a good deal of flare. 

Mounted with a small longhead, trails, cutwater, 
keel, post and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel 114 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at rail, about 109 feet between perpendiculars, 
27 feet moulded beam, and nearly 12 feet 4 inches 
moulded depth. Scale of the model is ^ inch to the 
foot. 

Given l)y \'. L. Coflin. of Harrington, Maine. 



71 



MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1866 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76117 

Antelope^ Gcr::elle 

The trading hrigantincs Antelope and Gazelle were 
huilt on this model at Harrington, Maine, in 1866 
for the West Indian and coastwise trades. Vessels 
of this general model were good carriers and excellent 
seaboats; they sailed moderately well, and were 
considered by Maine shipowners to be very profitaiile 
in the West Indian trade. The Antelope, launched in 
July 1866 and wrecked on the Delaware Breakwater 
a few years later, and the Gazelle, launched in Septem- 
ber 1866, measured 329.92 and 326.37 gross tons 
register, respectively. 

The half-model is of a brigantine measuring about 
117 feet moulded length at rail, 113 feet 9 inches 
between perpendiculars, 23 feet 3)2 inches beam, 
and 14 feet moulded depth. Scale of the model is 
Yi inch to the foot. 

The model has moderate sheer, a straight keel with 
very slight drag, slightly raking stem rabbet with 
moderate flare and a slightly rounc^ed forefoot, nearly 
upright post, short counter with raking elliptical 
transom, rather full and short entrance, marked 
length of body, and a short and somewhat full run. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
round and very easy bilge, and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. The ijow sections have marked flare. 

Mounted with long head, cutwater, keel, post, 
rudder, and short quarterdeck monkey rail. 

Given by V. L. Coffin, Harrington, Maine. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1871 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76116 

MiHiiie Smith 

The brigantine Minnie Smith was built on this model 
by Ezekiel Dyer at Millbridge, Maine, in 1871 for 
the West Indian, coastwise and foreign trades. She 
cost S20,000 to build and was lost while entering the 
port of Salerno, Italy, from the West Indies, on her 
maiden voyage. 

The half-model represents a brigantine having mod- 
erate sheer, a straight keel with little drag, some- 
what upright and flaring stem rabljet with a slightly 
rounded forefoot, nearly vertical post, short and wide 
counter with thin elliptical transom, moderately 
sharp but short entrance, marked length of body, 
and a rather full run of moderate length. The mid- 
section has a slightly rising straight floor, an easy. 



round bilge, and tuml^le-home in the topside. The 
Ijow sections have considerable flare. 

Mounted with longhead, cutwater, keel, post, 
rudder, and a short quarterdeck monkey rail. 

The model is for a vessel measuring about 116 feet 
8 inches moulded length at rail, 26 feet 8 inches 
moulded beam, and 12 feet moulded depth. Scale 
of the model is % inch to the foot. 

Gi\en l)y Chaplain Austin Dyer. 

MERCHANT BRIGANTINE, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76075 

/. W. Parker 

The trading brigantine J. IT. Parker of Belfast, 
Maine, was built at that port by C. P. Carter and 
Company in 1874 on this model. This firm, noted 
for the fine design and construction of its vessels, had 
built many 3- and 4-masted schooners and barken- 
tines, and at least one clipper ship, having started 
building in about 1851. The J. IV. Parker was in- 
tended for general freighting in the coastwise. West 
Indian, and European trades, and w^as, therefore, a 
large vessel for her rig. Her model represents the 
final development of the American trading l^rigantine, 
coml:)ining swift sailing, weathcrliness, and good 
handling qualities with excellent cargo capacity. The 
brigantines remained popular with some shipowners 
in the West Indian and European trades after the 
Parker was built; a number of fine vessels of this rig 
were bmlt in Nova Scotia in the 1880's and 1890's. 
In the coastwise and, more slowly, in the West 
Indian trade, the brigantine was replaced by the 
3-mastecl schooner, which benefited more by use of 
steam winches than the brigantine. The rising cost 
of manpower necessitated the use of a rig that could 
be handled by fewer men and, as size increased, by 
the additional help of the donkey engine and its 
\vinch. The mechanical aids combined to doom the 
brigantine in these trades, for the latter's square sails 
could not be handled by any practical arrangement 
of the steam winch. 

The half-model represents a brigantine having 
strong sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, moder- 
ately flaring and raking stem rabbet with slightly 
rounded forefoot, nearly vertical post, short and light 
counter ending in a raked elliptical transom much 
curved athwartships, short and sharp entrance, 
moderate length of body, and a short but easy run. 
The midsection is formed with a moderately rising 
straight floor, firm roimd bilge, and tumble-home in 



72 



- ^iY. PACKER /S7¥ 

gell^ »' Of I fa 




Lines of the Brigantine, J. 11". Parker, built at Belfast, Maine, in 1874. Taken ofl' the builder's half-model, 
USNM 76075. 



the topside. There is much flare in the bow sections. 
The model gives the impression of being rather deep 
and narrow for its length and it belongs to the down- 
Easter hull form. 

Mounted with longhead, trails, cutwater, keel, post, 
rudder, and a short quarterdeck monkey rail, the 
latter indicating a turned-stanchion-and-cap rail 
above it. 

The model scales 129 feet 1 inch moulded length at 
rail, 121 feet 3 inches between perpendiculars, 28 feet 
10 inches moulded beam, and 15 feet moulded depth 



deck to rabbet. Scale is 



inch to the foot. This 



model was given by the builders, C. P. Carter and 
Company, shipbuilders, Belfast, Maine. 

SQUARE-TOPSAIL SCHOONER, 1845 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76143 

Kuth Thomas 

The square-topsail trading schooner Ruth Thomas 
was built on this hawk's nest model at Frankfort, 
Maine, in 1845 for the coastwise and West Indian 
trades. She was low decked to suit the requirements 
of the lumber trade. Vessels of this rig had a square 
forecourse, square topsail and topgallant sails, as well 
as the usual schooner fore-and-aft foresail on the 
foremast; the main had a gaflf mainsail and gaff 
topsail, in addition to the usual schooner headsails 
and main- and main-topmast staysails. The foresail 
on these coasters had a boom and some set a very 
deep square topsail on the foremast, omitting the 
topgallant sail. A fore royal was a great rarity in 
the New England-built topsail schooners of this period 
and employment. The square-topsail schooner went 



out of fashion with New England owners about 1855, 
although as late as 1895, some vessels of this rig were 
built in eastern New England and in Nova Scotia for 
the coasting and West Indian trades. 

The half-model, made up of plank sections mounted 
on a profile on a ijackboard, represents a schooner 
hull having moderate sheer, a straight keel with 
small drag, curved and somewhat raking stem rabbet 
with rounded forefoot, nearly vertical post, round 
tuck, upper-and-lower-transom .square stern, short 
and full entrance, rather long and easy run, and a 
markedly long body. The midsection is formed with 
a slightly rising straight floor, easy bilge, and a moder- 
ate tumble-home in the topside. 

Model is fitted with a short, heavy head, cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder. A short quarterdeck is 
indicated. 

The model scales about 88 feet moulded length at 
rail, 83 feet 7 inches between perpendiculars, 24 feet 
2 inches moulded beam, and 7 feet 6 inches depth. 
Scale is ]!> inch to the foot. 

Given by F. L. Tyler. 

SQUARE-TOPSAIL COASTING SCHOONER, 1847 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76069 

ArroivsiCj Eagle 

The square-topsail keel coasting schooner Arroivsic 
was built on this model at Arrowsic Island in the 
Kennebec River, Maine, in 1847 for the coastal 
lumber trade. The square-topsail packet schooner 
Eagle was also built on this model and employed in the 
run between New York City and Bath, Maine. Both 
vessels were built by master-builder Samuel Pattee, 



73 




Lines of the Square-Topsail Coasting Schooners Arrowsic and Eagle, built at Airowsic Island, Kennebec 
River, Maine, in 1847. The Eagle was employed as a New York to Bath packet. Taken off the builder's 
half-model USNM 76069. 



father of the donor of the half-model. The Eagle in 
particular had the reputation of being a fast sailer 
and on one occasion made the run from New York to 
Bath, outside Long Island and around Clape Cod, in 
210 hours wharf to wharf. The Arrowsic was con- 
sidered a good sailer; she capsized and sank off Block 
Island, sometime about I860, through carrying too 
great a press of canvas dvu'ing a gale. 

The half-model represents a coasting schooner hav- 
ing marked sheer, a straight keel with moderate drag, 
slightly raking and flaring stem rabbet \vith a well 
rounded forefoot, slightly raking post, round tuck, 
and an upper-and-lowcr-transom square stern (the 
lower transom is unusually small). The entrance is 
short but inoderately sharp at and below the load 
waterline, with a very full deck line and rail, and the 
run is long and rather fine for so burdensome a vessel. 
The iTiidscction is formed with some rise in the straight 
floor, a well rounded and rather easy turn of bilge, 
and some tumble-home in the topside. The bow 
sections show great flare. 

These schooners had deep bulwarks and a short, 
high quarterdeck. They had short heavy cutwaters 
fitted with trails, knees, head rails, and billets. The 
model is of the lift type, to represent waterlines or level 
lines, and the lifts are held together l)y wooden toggles 
through thein, with wedges at bottom and top, in- 
stead of the iron screws usually employed to fasten the 
lifts together. 

The model is for a vessel about 85 feet 9 inches 
moulded length at main rail, 22 feet 8 inches moulded 
beam, and 7 feet 10 inches moulded depth from rabbet 
to underside of deck at side, 81 feet 7 inches between 
perpendiculars, and 9 feet 8 inches draft at post when 



fully loaded. Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 
Given by William P. Pattee, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1847 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76109 

Watchman 

The 2-masted coasting schooner Watchman was built 
on this model at Tinker's Island, Maine, in 1847. A 
low-deck vessel intended for the general coasting trade, 
and particularly for carrying lumber from Maine to 
Boston and southern New England ports, she was a 
good exam]5le of the type of coaster employed in this 
trade in the 1840's and 1850's. Such vessels had 
high hatch coamings, as they were habitually loaded 
until the maindeck was nearly awash. 

The model represents a burdensome schooner hull 
ha\ing moderate sheer, a straight keel with slight 
drag, a curved and raking stem rabbet, nearly up- 
right post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, a short and full entrance with flaring bow 
sections, long body, and a short and full run. The 
midsection is formed with a very moderate rise in the 
straight floor, round and easy bilge, and a slight tum- 
ble-home in the topside. The stern in this model is 
deep for the dcjjth of the hull, giving the vessel a very 
heavy appearance. 

Mounted with a deep, heavy head, cutwater, keel, 
post, and rudder. A short quarterdeck is indicated. 

The model scales 80 feet moulded length at rail, 22 
feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 7 feet depth of hold. 
The scale is U' inch to the foot. 

Given by Joshua Watson, shipbuilder, Sedgwick, 
Maine. 



74 



TWO-MASTED TOPSAIL COASTING SCHOONER, 

1847 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76104 

M.arcia Tribou 

The 2-masted, topsail-rigged coasting schooner Mar- 
cia Tribou was built on this model at Bucksport, 
Maine, in 1847. She was designed for the West 
Indian and coastal trades and is fairly representative 
of the large class of schooners employed in these trades 
and in general freighting along the Atlantic coast in 
the period 1825-50. 

The half-model shows a burdensome schooner hull 
having a good deal of sheer, straight keel with very 
little drag, curved and raking stem rabbet, nearly 
upright post, round tuck, upper-and-lower-transom 
square stern, short and high quarterdeck, a short and 
full entrance with flaring bow sections, and a short 
but rather well formed run. The midsection shows a 
very slight rise in the straight floor, well rounded 
bilge, and a very small tumble-home in the topside. 
The model is mounted with a short and somewhat 
pointed head, cutwater, keel, post, rudder and a high 
quarterdeck bulwark. 

The model scales 89 feet moulded length to taff"rail, 
85 feet between perpendiculars, 23 feet 8 inches 
moulded beam, 8 feet 9 inches moulded depth from 
deck at side to rabbet, and 10 feet 2 inches draft at 
post. Scale is K inch to the foot. 

Given by John Swazey, Bucksport, Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1852 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76138 

Lucy 

The 2-masted coasting schooner Lucy was built on 
this model at Sargentville, Maine, in 1852. She was 



built for the New England coasting trade, carrying 
lumber to southern New England and manufactures 
on the return voyage, and was of the low-decked 
type, with a short and high quarter-deck and a heavy 
stern. This vessel was eventually lost on a winter 
passage. 

The half-niodcl is of a very burdensome .schooner 
hull ha\ing moderate sheer, a straight keel with very 
slight drag, curved and raking stem rabbet, nearly 
upright post, round tuck, raking square stern, short 
full entrance and run, and a long body. The mid- 
section shows a very slightly rising straight floor, 
rather easy bilge, and a slight tumble-home above. 

The model is for a vessel about 85 feet moulded 
length at main rail, 77 feet between perpendiculars, 
23 feet 3}^ inch beam and 7 feet 1^^ inches depth. 
Scale of the model is ]i inch to the foot. 

Given by Robert Dority, shipbuilder, Sedgwick, 
Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1855 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76126 

Wakeag 

The 2-inasted coasting schooner Wakeag was built 
on this model at Trenton (now Lamoine), Maine, in 
1855 for the coastal and West Indian trades. The 
vessel was intended to have very large capacity for 
her length on a limited draft and to carry lumber 
profitably. The Wakeaa was considered large for a 
coasting schooner at her date of launching. 

The half-model shows a burdensome schooner hull 
having rather straight sheer, a straight keel with very 
slight drag, a flaring, curved, and raking stem rabbet, 
vertical post, round tuck, raking square stern, short 
and full entrance and run, with flaring bow sections. 



Tc^u^ C'aiZmf .ItAertut 




Lines of the Square-Topsail Coasting Schooner Marcia Tribou built at Bucksport, Maine, in 1 847 for the 
lumber trade. Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 76104. 



75 



NOHTH STAR 



/*wo/* 6e/perpi Se 9 

MouMi^ Seam l7t' 




Lines of the 2-Masted Coasting Schooner North Star, built at Sullivan, Maine, 1856. This vessel is some- 
what similar to the early Marblehead type of fishing schooner. Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 
76128. 



and a long body. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, a round and easy bilge, 
and some tumble-home in the topside. She has a 
notably long straight side and wide stern. 

The model scales 102 feet moulded length at rail, 
90 feet between perpendiculars, 25 feet 3}^ inches ex- 
treme beam, and 8 feet S^U inches depth in hold. 
Scale is J^ inch to the foot. 

Given by Hamen Cousins, shipbuilder, Lamoine, 
Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1855 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76136 

J. W. Hale 

The 2-masted, keel coasting schooner J. IT. Hale 
was built on this model in 1855 at Brooklin, Maine, 
for the general coasting trade. This vessel was de- 
signed primarily to carry lumber. She was employed 
for 2 years in the freighting of longleaf yellow pine 
from Jacksonville, Florida, and from Savannah and 
other southern ports to New England for shipbuilding 
and construction purposes. The vessels in this trade 
also freighted marine stores out of the Florida port 
and carried manufactured goods south. The J. W. 
Hale made two West Indian voyages, and was lost off 
Hatteras when she was 4 or 5 years old. 

The half-model shows a wide, shallow schooner hull 
having very moderate sheer, a straight keel with very 
slight drag, a curved and raking stem rabbet, slightly 
raking post, round tuck, wide square stern with raking 



transom, the entrance short and rather sharp, and the 
body long and the run short and quite full, with 
flaring bow sections. The midsection shows a slightly 
rising straight floor, full and rather easy bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with a rather light head of moderate 
length, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. A short 
quarterdeck is indicated. 

The model scales 87 feet moulded length at rail, 23 
feet moulded beam, and 7 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth. Scale is J^ inch to the foot. 

Given by Moses B. Day, Brooklin, Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1856 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76128 

North Star 

The small 2-masted, fore-and-aft rigged coasting 
schooner .North Star was built on this model in 1856 
at Sullivan, Maine. She was intended for the coastal 
lumber trade. The model represents an obsolete 
type of coaster at the date she was built, but this 
hull form remained popular with some Eastern Maine 
owners until after the Civil War because of its sailing 
qualities. In general, the model was very nearly 
that of the old Marblehead fishing schooner of colonial 
times, with some additions. The coasters had the 
same marked sheer, heavy drag to keel, high and 
short quarterdeck, rising floor, full short entrance, 
and rather easy run. Like the old Marblehead 
schooner, these small Maine-built vessels were good 



76 



sailers and very weatherly and handy. They were 
also fair carriers. The North Star, modeled by Richard 
Simpson, a notable builder of coasters and fishing 
schooners at Sullivan, was reported to have been 
a fast sailer and a fine sea boat. 

The half-model represents a schooner having very 
great sheer, a straight keel with heavy drag, rather 
upright and curved stem rabbet, well rounded fore- 
foot, slight rake to post, round tuck, upper-and- 
lower-transom square stern, short entrance with 
somewhat V-shaped watcrlines, fair length of body, 
and a somewhat short but well formed run. The 
midsection is formed with rather marked rise in the 
straight floor, firm round bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Vessels of this type had a short, heavy cutwater 
and much steeve in the bowsprit, a short, high and 
bulwarked quarterdeck; and, for their size high 
bulwarks on the maindeck. The old form of bow, 
having no flare, is very marked in the North Star. By 
1856 this class of coaster had become better finished 
than the earlier fishing schooners; a head and billet 
with, sometimes, carved trails were often used, and 
the deck arrangement and deck fittings approached 
those of contemporary fishing and coasting schooners, 
of the then "modern" design, built in Maine and 
Massachusetts. 

The model is for a schooner measuring 60 feet 
moulded length at rail, 58 feet 9 inches length between 
perpendiculars, 17 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 
6 feet 3 inches moulded depth, and 8 feet 3 inches 
draft at post, loaded. Scale of the model is % inch 
to the foot. 

Given by D. A. Simpson, Sullivan, Maine. 



TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1838 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76052 

K. B. Sumner 

The 2-masted keel coasting schooner R. B. Sumner 
was built on this model at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, for owners in that port, in 1858. This vessel 
is said to have been intended for the general coastal 
freighting trade but she is unusually sharp for this 
employment; in any case she was found to be a fast 
sailer and was employed as a packet on the Boston- 
Newburyport run. It is probable that she was 
modeled and built as a packet rather than as a 
freighter. 

The half-model represents a schooner hull having 
a slight and graceful sheer, straight keel with moderate 
drag, raking and flaring stem rabbet with slightly 
rounded forefoot, slightly raking post, round tuck, 
upper-and-lower-transom square stern, sharp convex 
entrance of moderate length, and a rather long and 
very fine run. The midsection is formed with a some- 
what rising straight floor, full round bilge, and a 
moderate tumble-home in the topside. There is a 
moderate flare in the bow sections. 

Mounted with a graceful longhead having trails 
and billet, cutwater, keel, rudder and post. A long 
quarterdeck monkey rail is ^hown. The schooner 
had a turned-stanchion-and-cap quarterdeck rail, 
packet-fashion. 

The R. B. Sumner was about 84 feet 3 inches moulded 
length at rail, 79 feet 8 inches between perpendiculars, 
21 feet 2 inches moulded beam, 8 feet 4 inches 
moulded depth, and had a draft, loaded, of 9 feet 




Lines of the Coasting and Packet Schooner R. B. Sumner, built at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1858. 
Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 76052. 



77 



4 inches at post. Scale of the model is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given by Sumner, Swazey, and C'nrrier of New- 
ijuryport, Massachusetts. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1858 
Builder's Halp-Modbl, usnm 76122 

Aaron 

The large 2-masted coasting schooner Aaron was 
built on this model at Lubec, Maine, by J. Kennedy 
in 1858. She was intended for the AVest Indian and 
coastwise trades and was emplo\ed for a time in 
freighting salt fish from eastern Maine to South 
Atlantic ports. She was eventually lost on a voyage 
to Africa. The Aaron was cf the class of large 2- 
masted coasters, popular in the 1850"s and 1860's, 
that were replaced by the 3-masters of the 1870's and 
1880's. 

The half-model is of a schooner hull having rather 
marked sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, raking 
stem rabbet, upright post, short counter and square 
transom sharply raked, short and full entrance, rather 
long body, long but rather full run, and flaring bow 
sections. 

The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
much rounded and rather easy bilge, and a slight 
tumble-home in the topside. 

Moimtcd with longhead, billet, cutwater, keel, post 
and rudder. Many schooners of this class had long 
quarterdecks. 

The model scales 108 feet 9 inches moulded length 
at rail, 32 feet 10 inches moulded beam, and 14 feet 5 
inches moulded depth. Scale is ^e inch to the foot. 

Given by J. Kennedy, shipbuilder, Lubec, Maine. 



TWO-MASTED PACKET SCHOONER, about 1860 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76053 

Charmer 

The 2-masted packet schooner Charmer was built at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, about 1860 for the 
Boston-Newburyport packet service, carrying pas- 
sengers and light freight. This trade required a fast 
and handy schooner, of moderate draft. These 
packet schooners remained profitable for many years 
after steamers had entered the coastwise trades, for 
the sailing packets were inexpensive to operate and 
had enough speed to compete with the majority of the 
early small steamers. The sailing packets often 
carried mail, package freight, and carriages and 
horses, as well as passengers. 

The model of the Charmer was based on the lines of 
the packet schooner Iowa; her predecessor in the 
Newburyport packet trade. The Iowa was a Chesa- 
peake Bay pungy schooner built in Dorchester 
County, Maryland, in 1854. She had been brought 
to Gloucester as a fishing schooner, but her speed and 
working qualities led to her immediate sale to owners 
in Newburyport. The Iowa became celebrated locally 
for her sailing qualities; she was considered very fast 
and weatherly. The model of the Charmer was made 
as an exact copy of the lines of the Iowa, but with a 
New England head and cutwater. The Charmer also 
became a celebrated schooner, with the reputation of 
being a very fast sailer and weatherly. 

The half-model represents a Chesapeake pungy 
schooner ha\-ing high bulwarks, a rather low free- 
board, flush deck, slight sheer, straight keel \\\\h. 
moderate drag, much rounded forefoot and sharply 




Lines of the Packet Schooner Charmer of Newburyport, Massachusetts, built about i860 on the lines of the 
pungy Iowa, which had been brought to Gloucester as a fishing schooner and converted to a packet late in the 
1850's. Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 76053. 



78 



raking stem rabbet, strongly raking post, round tuck, 
and an upper-and-lower-transom square stern, the 
upper transom sharply raked and both well-rounded 
athwartships. The entrance is fairly sharp and con- 
vex, the run long and fine. The midsection has a 
rising straight floor, easy round bilge, and a moderate 
tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with carved head and iiillet, cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a schooner 81 feet moulded length 
at rail, 77 feet ji inch between perpendiculars, 61 feet 
on the keel, 22 feet 6 inches moulded beam. 7 feet 8 
inches moulded depth: 6 feet 9 inches depth in hold, 
and 8 feet 9 inches draft. Scale of the model is }2 inch 
to the foot. This vessel was 116 tons register, old 
measurement. 

Given by Sumner, Swazey, and Clurrier, Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1860 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76051 

A large 2-masted coasting schooner, name unknown, 
was built on this model at Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts, in 1860. She was of the class of big 2-masted 
coasters, eventually replaced by 3-masters, many of 
which were employed in the coal trade. 

The half-model is of a schooner hull having 
moderate sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, curved 
and raking stem rabbet, nearly upright post, short 
counter, raking elliptical transom, rather full entrance 
with flaring bow sections, moderate length of body, 
and a rather long and well shaped run. The mid- 
section is formed with a slightly rising straight floor, 
well rounded and easy bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. 

This class of schooner usually had a long quarter- 
deck at rail height, with a quarterdeck monkey rail 
and a turned-stanchion-and-cap rail above. The 
quarterdeck sometimes reached to a little forward of 
the foremast in such schooners, which usvially had 
rather deep external keels in lieu of centerboards. 

The model scales 106 feet moulded length at rail, 
24 feet moulded beam, and 10 feet moulded depth. 
Scale is % inch to the foot. 

Given by E. P. Goodwin. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1860 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76137 

E. Closson 

The large 2-masted coasting schooner E. Closson of 
Bangor, Maine, was built on this model at Sedgwick, 



Maine, in 1 860 for the coastwise lumber trade. She 
had a sunken poop deck, as in some ships of this date, 
which is not indicated by the half-model. 

The half-model represents a coasting schooner hull 
having moderate sheer, a straight keel with litde 
drag, a flaring, curved and raking, stem rabbet, 
nearly upright post, short counter with elliptical 
ransom, a rather sharp entrance with flaring bow- 
sections, moderate length of body, and a .short but 
rather easy run. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, well rounded low bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

The model is for a vessel 95 feet 6 inches between 
perpendiculars, 26 feet 3^ inch beam extreme, 8 feet 
11 inches depth in hold, and 135.37 tons register. 
Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by Robert Dority, shipbuilder, Sedgwick, 
Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1867 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76123 

Ada S. Allen 

The 2-masted coasting schooner Ada S. Allen was 
built on this model in 1867 at Dennysville, Maine, for 
the coastwise lumber trade. In Maine 2-masted 
coasters were not developed much further, as the large 
2-masters were soon replaced by 3-masters, those in 
service being relegated, after about 1880, to the lime 
and granite trades, to short-haul freighting, and to 
the ice and firewood trades. The 2-masters built in 
Maine after 1885 were commonly under 85 feet on 
deck. Some centerboarders were built, mostly for 
the Stonington, Deer Isle, granite business, but most 
of the Maine coasters were keel vessels. To obtain 
weatherliness they had a fairly deep external keel 
rather than a strongly rising straight floor. 

The half-model represents a schooner hull having 
moderate sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, raking 
stem rabbet with well rounded forefoot, nearly upright 
post, short counter with square transom, moderately 
sharp convex entrance, moderate length of body, and 
a rather long and shapely run. The midsection shows 
a slightly rising straight floor, moderately easy bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. The bow- 
sections have marked flare. This \essel had a short 
quarterdeck with turned-stanchion-and-cap rail. 

The model is for a vessel 98 feet moulded length at 
rail, 94 feet between perpendiculars, 27 feet extreme 
beam, 9 feet 7 inches depth in hold, and 142.25 net 
tons register. Scale of the model is '^ inch to the foot. 

Given by William Welch. 



79 



TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1868 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76130 

Mountain Laurel 

The Mountain Laurel, a large 2-masted coasting 
schooner, was built on this model at Trenton (now 
Lamoine), Maine, in 1868forthe coastwise trade. Her 
model and appearance somewhat resembled that of a 
contemporary fishing schooner of the full "Banker" 
type. 

The half-model is of a rather Inirdensome schooner 
having moderate sheer, a straight keel with slight 
drag, curved and raking stem rabbet, upright post, 
short counter with wide and raking transom, fairly 
sharp and convex entrance, and a long but rather full 
run. The midsection is formed with a slight rise in 
the straight floor, a low and rather hard turn of bilge, 
and some tumlile-home in the topside. The bow 
sections flare and the stern appears heavy. 

Model mounted with billet, longhead, trails, cut- 
water, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel 96 feet moulded length at 
rail, 88 feet 7 inches Ijetween perpendiculars, 25 feet 
7 inches beam, 8 feet 4)2 inches depth in hold, and 
141.74 tons register. Scale of the model is ^s inch 
to the foot. 

Given i)y Hamen Cousins, shipbuilder, Lamoine, 
Maine. 



TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1869 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76121 

Mable F. Staples^ Al':{ema 

The 2-masted coasting schooner Mahle F. Staples of 
Machias, Maine, was built on this model in 1869 at 
Harrington, Maine, and in 1871 the sister schooner 
Alzema was built there on the moulds of the Staples. 
These were very large vessels for their rig and were 
intended for the lumber and coal trades. The Al-ema 
was wrecked at Puerto Rico in April 1886, and the 
Mable F. Staples was lost at Nassau, Bahamas, in the 
hurricane of September 1887. Schooners with two 
masts and hulls of the size of these vessels were found 
to be expensive to operate, as they required large 
crews; in the coasting trade, the manning problem in 
these big two-masters led to the introduction of the 
steam-powered windlasses and winches that later 
made the large 3-masters so economical in manpower. 

The half-model is of a deep ship-form hull showing 
rather marked sheer, a straight keel with small drag, 



curved and raking stem rabbet, nearly vertical post, 
short counter with a shallow and wide elliptical 
transom having much rake, fairly sharp and convex 
entrance, rather long body, and a short and hollow 
run. The midsection is formed with a slight rise in 
the straight floor, well rounded and rather easy bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. The bow 
sections flare strongly. 

Mounted with a rather pointed and light longhead, 
of moderate size for the length of the vessel, a billet, 
trails, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. A long 
quarterdeck was usually found in this class of schooner. 

The model is for a vessel about 124 feet moulded 
length at rail, 108 feet 5 inches between perpendicu- 
lars, 27 feet 3 inches beam, 11 feet 3J2 inches depth 
in hold, and 268.16 net tons register. Scale of the 
model is Ke inch to the foot. 

Given by V. L. Coffin, Harrington, Maine. 



TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1871 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76133 

Williatn H. Archer, Lenora 

The 2-masted coasting schooner William H. Archer 
of Plymouth, Massachusetts, was built on this model 
at Ellsworth, Maine, in 1871 for the general coasting 
trade. In 1873 the schooner Lenora was built on the 
Archer's moulds at the same place. These schooners 
were representative, in model and dimensions, of the 
greater part of the Maine-built coasters of this period, 
having good capacity and sailing qualities, and being 
\vell fitted for the usual cargoes found in the general 
coastwise trade. 

The half-model is of a hull having moderate sheer, 
a straight keel with \ery little drag, raking stem 
rabbet with rounded forefoot, nearly vertical post, 
short counter with rather wide elliptical and raking 
transom, a sharp convex entrance with flare in the 
i)ow sections and a long and rather easy run with fair 
length in the body. The midsection shows a slight 
rise in the straight floor, a well rounded and easy bilge, 
and some tumble-home in the topside. 

Model is mounted with longhead, trails, cutwater, 
keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel of 89 feet moulded length 
at rail, 85 feet between perpendiculars, 25 feet beam. 
7 feet depth in hold, and 90.69 net tons register. 
.Scale of the model is Y^ inch to the foot. 

Given by Isaac M. Grant, shipbuilder, Ellsworth, 
Maine. 



80 




Coasting Schooner Bloomer, at Belfast, Maine, in 1936. Built at Eden, Maine, in 1855, her register dimen- 
sions were 64.3' x 21.8' x 6.2', 51 gross tons. {Smithsonian pholo ^j/Sj-o.) 



TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1871 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76132 

D. S. Lawrence, City of Ellsivorth 

The 2-masted keel coasting schooner D. S. Lawrence 
was built on this model at Ellsworth, Maine, in 1871 
for the general coasting trade and occasional packet 
runs. In 1875 the schooner City of Ellsworth was built 
on the same moulds at Ellsworth for coasting and 
packet service. The schooners, modeled and built by 
Isaac M. Grant, had the reputation of being prime 
sailers and proved to be profitable. Their model 
represents an important post-Civil War development 



in the design of small, 2-masted coasting schooners in 
New England. 

The half-model is of a shoal-bodied keel schooner 
having rather straight sheer, a straight keel with 
moderate drag, slightly raking and strongly flaring 
stem rabbet with rounded forefoot, slightly raking 
post, long counter (for the period), raking transom 
curved athwartships, moderately sharp, convex en- 
trance, and a rather short but very hollow and easy 
run. The midsection shows a rising straight floor 
(the dead rise rather great for a Maine-built coaster of 
this period), firm round bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. Bow sections have a good deal 



81 



of flare. Model is mounted with longhead, trails and 
knees, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. A rather long 
quarterdeck monkey rail is shown. 

The model is for a vessel about 63 feet 8 inches 
between perpendiculars, 21 feet moulded beam, and 
6 feet 10 inches moulded depth rabbet to deck. Scale 
of the model is % inch to the foot. In building these 
two schooners about 6 feet was added amidships. 

Given by Isaac M. Grant, shipbuilder, Ellsworth, 
Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76120 

Helenj Alta V. CoU, Pojara 

The large 2-masted coasting schooner Helen of New 
York was built on this model and launched in June 
1874, at Harrington, Maine. Her sister ship Alta ]'. 
Cole was launched at the same yard in November of 
that year and the Pojara, also built on these moulds, 
was launched there in October 1875. All were built 
for the West Indian and coastwise trades. The Alta V. 
Cole was wrecked in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts, in 
December 1886 and the Pojara was lost on her maiden 
voyage at Green Key, West Indies, December 18, 
1875. 

The half-model represents a hull having strong 
sheer, a straight keel with some drag, raking and near- 
ly straight stem rabliet with slightly rounded forefoot, 
nearly upright post, short counter, wide elliptical 
transom with strong rake, rather sharp convex en- 



trance, rather long body, and a short but rather easy 
run. Midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
firm round bilge, and a slight tmnble-home in the 
topside. Bow sections have much flare. Model 
mounted with billet, longhead, trails, cutwater, keel, 
post, rudder, and long quarterdeck monkey rail. 

The half-model is for a vessel 119 feet 2 inches 
moulded length at rail, 109 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 28 feet 1 1 inches beam, and 7 feet 1 ]i inches depth 
in hold. Scale of the model is Ks inch to the foot. 

Given by V. L. Coffin, Harrington, Maine. 

TWO-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1876 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76152 

Hunter 

The 2-mastecl coasting schooner Hunter of Rockland, 
Maine, was Iniilt on this model at Orland, Maine, in 
1876. Considered a good sailer and an excellent ves- 
sel of her class and type, she was intended for general 
coasting and, for a time, was employed in the lime 
trade out of Rockland and Rockport, Maine. The 
model is a fine example of the last de\elopment in 
the design of large Maine-built 2-masted coasting 
schooners. 

The half-model shows a hull having a moderate and 
graceful sheer, straight keel with some drag, slight 
rake and a slightly flaring stem rabbet that is slightly 
rounded at the forefoot, nearly upright post, short 
counter, and a raking elliptical transom. The mid- 
section shows a slight rise in the straight floor, a firm 



HUMTEB 

C^ifinq Jifjeenrr iv^f '•I Ct/^hJ, 




Lines of the Large, 2-Masted Coasting Schooner Hunter, built at Orland, Maine, in 1876 for the general 
coasting trade. The plan shows a type popular in the early days of the coal trade. Taken off" the builder's 
half-model USNM 76152. 



82 



low bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 
The entrance is rather sharp, convex, and moderately 
long, the body is long, and the run is short but fine. 
The bow sections are markedly flared. Model is 
mounted with a longhead, billet, trails, cutwater, keel, 
post, rudder, and a long quarterdeck monkey rail. 

The model is for a vessel 116 feet moulded length 
at rail, 99 feet 8 inches between perpendiculars, 27 
feet moulded beam, 9 feet 8 inches depth in hold, and 
187.22 net tons register. Scale of the model is % inch 
to the foot. 

The Hunter's customhouse dimensions were 105 feet 
between perpendiculars, 28 feet beam, 9 feet depth 
in hold, 197 tons gross. 

Given by Harry H. Buck. 

PUERTO RICAN TRADING SCHOONER, 1927 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315713 



Candelaria (V^ 



The 2-masted Puerto Rican trading schooner 
Candelaria (1) was built from this half-model near 
Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, in 1927 by a master ship- 
wright named Polito, a native of Caracoa, for Bartolo 
Cabanillas, of Mayagiiez. The Candelaria was con- 
sidered a good schooner of her type, sailing well, a 
profitable carrier and a good looking vessel. She had 
high bulwarks and flush deck, to carry oil and gasoline 
driuns on deck, and could sail with little ballast. 

The half-model represents a shoal-bodied, keel 
schooner of good capacity, having moderate sheer, a 
straight keel rabbet, a rounded and raking stem 
rabbet, raking post, and a moderately long counter 
ending in a wide, shallow flat transom set at a slight 
rake. The entrance is long, full, and convex, and the 
run is long and easy. The midsection is formed with 
a straight floor of moderate rise, easy round bilge, and 
a slightly flaring topside. 

The model is for a vessel of about 76 feet moulded 
length at rail, 23 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 8 
feet moulded depth. Scale of the model is ]{ inch to 
the foot. The customhouse dimensions of this vessel 
are 74 feet length, 24 feet 9 inches beam, 8 feet 5 inches 
depth in hold, and 82 gross tons. Model is made to 
deck level and shows that frames were spaced 18 
inches on centers. 

The Candelaria was rigged with a large jib, foresail, 
mainsail, and main topsail; she had a spike bowsprit. 

Given by Jose E. Echevarria, Aguadilla, Puerto 
Rico. 



PUERTO RICAN TRADING SCHOONER, about 

1942 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315714 

Candelaria (T) 

The 2-masted Puerto Rican trading schooner 
Candelaria (2) was built about 1942 from this half- 
model at Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, for Bartolo 
Cabanillas. of that port. 

The half-model is of a burdensome schooner ha\ ing 
a straight keel rabljct, rounded and slightly raking 
stem rabbet, upright post, and a counter of moderate 
length ending in a wide, thin transom having very 
little rake. The sheer is slight. The entrance is 
short, rather full, and convex, and the run is short but 
well formed. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, round and moderately 
firm bilge, and a slightly flaring topside. The 
schooner had high bulwarks and was flush decked. 

The model is for a vessel of about 58 feet moulded 
length at rail, 19 feet moulded beam, 7 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth. The model is made to deck level 
and shows the frames to have been spaced 18 inches 
on center. Scale of the model is U inch to the foot. 

Given by Jose E. Echevarria, Aguadilla, Puerto 
Rico. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1870 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76078 

Nellie S. Pickering, Fame Gorham 

The 3-masted, centcrboard, coasting schooner 
Nellie S. Pickering of Belfast, Maine, was built on this 
model in 1870 at that port, by C. P. Carter and Com- 
pany. This shipbuilding firm built clipper ships, 
down-Easters, brigs, brigantines, and coasting 
schooners, and was one of the few Maine shipbuilders 
to construct many centerboard vessels. The next 
year these builders launched a sister schooner Fame 
Gorham. The schooners were intended for the lum- 
ber trade out of Jacksonville, Florida. At the 
mouth of the St. Johns River there was then a shoal 
bar that limited the draft of vessels. As a result most 
of the 3-masted schooners built for this trade in the 
1870's and 1880"s had centerboards and, thus fitted, 
sailed very well on the wind when light, where most 
keel 3 masters did not. These centerboarders, many of 
which had fine ends and large sail areas, were handy, 
reliable vessels for the business, and it was claimed 
that they were the fastest of the 3-masted coasters. 



83 







l^illl.l.uja;iifT1 



Lines of the 3-Masted, Centerboard, Coasting Schooner Nellie S. Pickering, built at Belfast, Maine, in 1870 
for the Jacksonville lumber trade. The Fame Gorliam was built on the same moulds. Taken ofl the builder's 
half-model USNM 76078. 



The half-model shows a relatively burdensome hull 
of moderate depth, having a moderate and graceful 
sheer, straight keel with very slight drag, raking and 
flaring stem rabbet slightly rounded at the forefoot, 
nearly upright post, short counter, elliptical transom, 
a short and sharp and slightly convex entrance with 
flared bow sections, a rather long body, and a moder- 
ately long and fine run. The midsection is formed 
with a slightly risins; straight floor, a low, firm bilge, 
and a marked tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with a graceful longhead, billet, and trails, 
cutwater, keel, post, and a short cjiiartcrdeck monkey 
rail. 

The model scales 135 feet 4 inches moulded length 
at rail, 125 feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 31 
feet 4 inches moulded beam, and 10 feet 10 inches 
moulded depth. Scale is % inch to the foot. 

The length of her spars were: foremast 77 feet, 
mainmast 78 feet, mizzen 79 feet, topmasts each 48 
feet, bowsprit outboard of rabliet 20 feet, jib boom 
outside of cap 30 feet, spanker boom 48 feet. 

Given by C. P. Carter and Company, shipbuilders, 
Belfast, Maine. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1872 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76119 

James M. Riley, Susan P. Thurloiv 

The 3-masted, keel, coasting schooners James M. 
Riley and Susan P. Thurlow were built on this model 
at Harrington, Maine, in 1872 for the West Indian 
trade in the winter months and for the general 
coasting trade in summer. The James M. Riley was 
wrecked at Fortune Islands in 1886. 

The half-model shows a hull having moderate 
sheer, a straight keel with little or no drag, a flaring 



and raking stem rabbet slightly rounded at the lore- 
foot, nearly vertical post, short counter with raking 
elliptical transom, moderately sharp and convex 
entrance with bow sections ha\'ing marked flare, a 
long i)ody, and a short but rather easy run. The 
midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, low 
and rather hard bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. 

The model is for a vessel 133 feet 10 inches moulded 
length at rail, 126 feet 5 inches between perpen- 
diculars, 31 feet 1 inch beam, 16 feet 7 inches extreme 
depth, and 440.07 net tons register. Scale of the 
model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by V. L. Coffin, Harrington, Maine. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1872 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76076 

J oh) I B/rd 

The 3-masted, shallow-bodied, keel, coasting 
schooner John Bird of Rockland, Maine, was built 
on this half-model by C. P. Carter and Company, 
of Belfast, Maine, in 1872 for the general coastwise 
trade, and was largely employed carrying lime out 
of Rockland and Rockport. This schooner is said to 
have been a very fast sailer. 

The model represents a shoal and wide hull having 
a moderate and graceful sheer, straight keel with 
little drag, rather upright and flaring stem rabbet 
slightly roimded at the forefoot, slightly raking post 
and short counter with light elliptical transom, 
sharp convex entrance, moderate length of body, 
and a rather long and fine run. The midsection shows 
a slightly rising straight floor, rather quick and low 
bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. The bow 
sections flare strongly. This schooner had a long 



84 



quarter-deck, though the model indicates a short one. 

Mounted with graceful longhead, billet and trails, 
cutwater, keel, post, rudder, and a short quarter- 
deck monkey rail. 

The model scales 131 feet 3 inches moulded length 
at rail, 123 feet between perpendiculars, 29 feet 6 
inches moulded beam, and 9 feet 4 inches moulded 
depth to deck at side. Depth of bulwarks 4 feet. 
Scale is % inch to the foot. 

Given by C. P. Carter and Clompany, shipl)uilders, 
Belfast, Maine. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1873 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311859 

Emelie E. Birdsall 

The 3-masted. centerboard, coasting schooner 
Emelie E. Birdsall of Wilmington, Delaware, was 
built at that port in 1873-74 by Jackson and Sharpe 
Company. She was modeled by Captain Edward 
Kershaw and was noted as a \'ery fast sailer and 
handy vessel. 

The half-model represents a hull having strong 
sheer, a straight keel with very little drag, raking and 
flaring stem rabbet slightly roimded at the forefoot, 
upright post, short coimter having a raking elliptical 
transom, sharp convex entrance with hollow at 
forefoot, rather short body, and a long and easy run. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
well rounded and somewhat easy l^ilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Mounted with longhead, billet, trails, cutwater, 
keel, post, rudder, and a short quarterdeck monkey 
rail. 

The Birdsall was 145 feet 9 inches between per- 
pendiculars, 29 feet moulded beam, and 10 feet 6 



inches moulded depth to rail. Scale of the half-model 
is % inch to the foot. 

Given by the American Car and Foundry Com- 
pany, Wilmington, Delaware, successors to Jackson 
and Sharpe Company. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76074 

William F. Frederick 

The 3-masted, keel, coasting schooner William F. 
Frederick of Belfast, Maine, was built on this half- 
model by C. P. Carter and Company of that port in 
1874 for the \\'est Indian trade and for general coast- 
wise service. This keel schooner was much deeper 
than the centerboard 3-masters built by this distin- 
guished firm of shipbuilders and proved to be a fast 
and seaworthy trader, noted as a very easy vessel in 
heavy seas. She was built of hardwood, framed with 
laeech, maple, and birch, and with hackmatack top- 
timljers to save weight; her planking and ceiling were 
southern yellow pine, and her deck white pine. 
She was abandoned at sea, October 4, 1895, dur- 
ing a very severe northeast gale, while on a s'oyage 
from the Saltilla River, Georgia, to Belfast, Maine, 
with a cargo of yellow pine lumljer and marine stores. 
Her crew was rescued by the steamer Franklin. Be- 
cause the steamer's boats could not approach the 
vessel, the schooner's crew, at great risk to them- 
selves, had to jump into the sea and be picked up. 

The half-model shows a very deep ship-form hull, 
having rather marked and graceful sheer, straight keel 
with little or no drag, slightly raking and moderately 
flaring stem rabbet very slightly rounded at the fore- 
foot, a slightly raking post, short counter, wide and 
light elliptical transom, strongly raked, a rather sharp 




Lines of the 3-Masted Coasting Schooner William F. Frederick, built, 1873-74, at Belfast, Maine, for the 
coastwise and West Indian trades. Taken off the builder's half-model USNM 76074. 



472846— GO- 



BS 



and convex entrance with some hollow at forefoot, 
rather short body, and a moderately long and fine nm. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
rather quick, low bilge, and tumble-home in the top- 
side. 

Mounted with longhead, billet, trails, cutwater, keel, 
post, and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel measuring 135 feet 1 inches 
moulded length at rail, 120 feet on the keel, 30 feet 6 
inches moulded beam, 18 feet moulded depth to deck 
at side, 15 feet depth in hold, and 430.38 net tons 
register. Scale is % inch to the foot. 

Her spars measured: foremast 76 feet, mainmast 77 
feet, mizzenmast 78 feet, bowsprit 34 feet (22 feet 
outboard of the rabbet) jib boom 30 feet outboard of 
the cap, topmasts each 50 feet, fore and main booms 
each 35 feet, spanker boom 53 feet. 

Given by C. P. Carter and Company, shipbuilders, 
Belfast, Maine. 

THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1876 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311457 

Daniel S. Williai/is Jr. 

The 3-masted, keel, coasting schooner Daniel S. 
Williams Ji . was built on this model at Wilmington, 
Delaware, in IKld-ll by Jackson and Sharpe Com- 
pany. She was a large coaster for her date and was 
designed for the general coastwise trade, particularly 
for the transportation of lumber and coal. 

The half-model shows a coasting schooner hull 
having strong sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, 
raking and flaring stem rabbet with a slightly rounded 
forefoot, upright post, short counter, raking elliptical 
transom, sharp convex entrance with hollow at fore- 
foot, a rather long body, and a short but easy run. 
The midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, well rounded and rather easy bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. The bow sections have much 
flare. 

Mounted with longhead, billet, trails, cutwater, 
keel, post, rudder, and a quarterdeck rail about one- 
fourth the length of the hull, with a monkey rail and 
turned-stanchion-and-cap rail above. 

The Williams measured 165 feet 4 inches between 
perpendiculars, 34 feet extreme beam, 17 feet depth 
of hold, and 628.65 net tons register. Scale of the 
model is % inch to the foot. 

Gi\en by the American Car and Foundry Com- 
pany, Wilmington, Delaware, successors to Jackson 
and .Sharpe Company. 



THREE-MASTED COASTING SCHOONER, 1883 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76077 

Meyer and Midler 

The 3-inasted, centerboard, coasting schooner 
Meyer and Midler was built on this model at Belfast, 
Maine, in 1883 by C. P. Carter and Company, and 
was intended for the lumber trade between the South 
Atlantic coast ports and New England. The schooner 
also traded to the Gulf ports, Mexico, and Central 
America. Like many of her type she was a notable 
sailer. 

A somewhat similar schooner, the William C. French, 
was built at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in the same 
year by Atkinson and Filmore (her half-model w-as 
formerly in the Watercraft Collection, USNM 76048, 
but is now missing); she made three consecutive 
passages to Cape Breton from Boston, a distance of 
675 nautical miles, in 72, 56, and 66 hours, respec- 
tively, at the overall average speed of 10}^' knots. She 
also made the run from Philadelphia to Boston, dock 
to dock, in 56 hours, loaded with coal. This was a 
record in the trade. The French was 142 feet long. 

The half-model shows a wide, shallow-bodied, 
centerboard coasting-schooner hull having marked 
sheer, a straight keel with little or no drag, a curved, 
flaring, and raking stem rabbet with slightly small 
rounded forefoot, nearly upright post, a short and 
rather heavy counter with raking elliptical transom, 
a rather sharp, convex entrance with some hollow 
at forefoot, moderate length of body, and an excep- 
tionally long and easy run for a vessel of her type. 
The midsection shows a slight rise in the straight floor, 
a rather hard, low bilge, and moderate tumble-home 
in the topside. 

The Meyer and Midler was 163 feet moulded length 
at the main rail, 140 feet on the keel, 34 feet moulded 
beam, and 10 feet moulded depth. Her spars meas- 
ured: foremast 88 feet, mainmast 89 feet, mizzenmast 
90 feet, topmasts each 52 feet, bowsprit outboard of 
rabbet 24 feet, jib boom outside the cap 26 feet, fore 
and main booms each 41 feet, and the spanker boom 
52 feet, with its outer end aijout 12 feet outside the 
taffrail. Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by C. P. Carter and Company, shipbuilders, 
Belfast, Maine. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY THREE-MASTED SCHOONER, 

about 1890 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315854 

An unidentified 3-masted schooner was built for the 
lumber trade on this model in Wicomico County, 



86 




The 3-Masted Schooner Cactus, built at Bath, Maine, in 1890. Her register dimensions were 149.4' •'^ 34-7' ^ 
12.8', 534.59 gross tons. {Smithsonian photo 2-382-a.) 



Maryland, about 1890. These schooners, called 
"rams," were intended to pass through the locks of 
the old Chesapeake and Delaware Canal; they 
usually had a centerboard and were limited in beam 
and length by the size of the canal locks then existing. 
This type of schooner normally had a short, high 
quarterdeck and some had hunber bow ports. 

The half-model shows a rather long, narrow and 
shoal centerboard schooner hull having much sheer, a 
straight keel with little or no drag, a raking straight 
stem rabbet with small rounded forefoot, an upright 
post, short counter, and sharply raking and rather 
shallow, flat transom. The entrance and run are 
short and full; the hull is markedly parallel sided 
and boxlike for most of its length. The midsection is 
formed with a slightly rising straight floor, a low and 
sharply rounded (almost angular) bilge, and a straight 
and upright topside. 

The model, on a scale of Yi i"ch to the foot, is for a 



vessel 140 feet moulded length at rail, 25 feet moulded 
beam and 9 feet 3 inches moulded depth, to deck. 
Gift of James H. Allyn, Mystic, Connecticut. 

THREE-MASTED TRADING SCHOONER, 1920-21 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 316107 

Gaviota 

The three-masted trading schooner Gaviota was 
built on the lines of this model at Catano, Puerto Rico, 
by Guillermo Valello, in 1920-21 for the inter-island 
trade. Considered a vessel suitable for her trade, 
and of good model, the Gaviota capsized in San 
Juan harbor, September 13, 1928, during the hurri- 
cane "San Felipe," and was a total loss. 

The half-model shows a three-masted schooner hull 
having straight sheer (the model was made this way 
and so lofted; however, the hull was sheered after the 
frames were set up) a straight keel rabbet with mod- 
erate drag, angular forefoot, strongly raked stem 



87 



rabbet, raking post, short counter, and a flat and 
strongly raking transom. The model is to the deck 
line. The entrance is sharp and rather short, the run 
short but rather easy. The midsection shows a 
moderately rising straight floor, a full round bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in topside. The greatest 
beam is a little forward of midlength. 

Scale of the model is ji inch to the foot, for a vessel 
124 feet 6 inches. Moulded length at deck, 30 feet 
6 inches moulded beam, and 14 feet moulded depth. 
Dimensions of the Gaviota were: Register length 127.6 
feet, beam 31.1 feet, depth in hold 11.7 feet, and 287 
tons gross, 263 tons net. The vessel was apparently 
lengthened three frame spaces amidships. 

Gift of Jose E. Echevarria, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. 

PILOT-SCHOONER YACHT, 1806-1950 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315852 

This half-model is of a proposed schooner yacht 
whose lines were drawn in 1950 as a modification of 
an 1806-design by Samuel Humphreys called "Yacht 
for Canton." The proposed yacht was to be named 
Chasseur but was not built. 

The model represents a class of small pilot-boat 
schooners built in the United States in the early 19th 
century for any trade or purpose requiring fast sailing. 
The Chasseur was intended to test the hull form of 
these schooners in comparison with those of modern 
cruising yachts. 

The model shows a small schooner having rather 
straight sheer, a straight keel with drag, curved and 
raking stem rabbet, raking post, uppcr-and-lower- 
transom stern with square tuck, rather short and 
inoderately sharp entrance, and a long, easy run. 
The greatest beam is forward of midlength, the mid- 
section is formed with sharply rising straight floor, 
a high, easy round bilge, and some flare in topside. 

The half-model represents a schooner 54 feet 
between perpendiculars, 13 feet 1 inch moulded 
beam, and 6 feet 10 inches draft at post. Scale of 
the model is % inch to the foot. It is illustrated on 
p. 9. 

Given by \Villiam E. Geoghegan, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

PILOT SCHOONER, about 1812 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 316628 

Stiap Dragon 

The "pilot-boat" privateer schooner Snap Dragon 
was built on this model, about 1812, at Wilmington, 



North Carolina. Customhouse records of this schooner 
were destroyed during the Civil War. The Snap 
Dragon was one of the three privateer schooners, all 
pilot-boats, fitted out at Wilmington during the War 
of 1812, and the most successful. During her career 
she was commanded by Captains E. Pasteur, O. Burns, 
and N. Graham. In August and September 1813 
she captured the British merchant brigs Good Intent, 
Venus and Happy, the barque Reprisal, and the schooner 
Elizabeth. She later took the brig Ann with a cargo of 
drygoods valeud at about five hundred thousand 
dollars. She also captured the brig Jane, the brig 
Linnet, and an unnamed schooner laden with mahog- 
any. She was licensed as being of 147 tons, with 6 
guns. 

The half-model shows the hull of a typical pilot- 
boat schooner of the date having very little sheer, 
a straight keel with much drag, raking, curved stem 
rabJDet, raking post, round tuck, and a square stern. 
The rake of the bow and stern are pronounced: the 
rudder was outboard of the transom, which is wide 
and shallow. The entrance is of moderate length 
and is convex and sharp, the run long and easy. 
The midsection is formed with a rising straight floor 
with a barely perceptible hollow at the garboard, 
a high, round, and slack bilge, and a flaring topside. 
The quarters are very thin and there is some flare in 
the bow sections. The schooner had a low log rail 
when built, and sat low in the water. The half- 
model, which is to deck level, is made of a solid block 
and one top lift. To loft the schooner, the lines were 
probably taken from the block by use of a lead bar. 

Scale of the model is unknown. If 'i inch to the 
foot, it would produce a vessel about 58 feet 9 inches 
on deck, 17 feet 2 inches moulded beam, and 7 feet 
9 inches moulded depth. The model is one of the 
four known builders' models of American privateers 
of the War of 1812 and the only one of a Southern 
privateer. It is illustrated on page 11. 

Schooners of this size and model, heavily sparred 
and canvassed and very fast, were quite popular 
with American vessel owners in the \V'est Indian 
trade during the early 19th century. They usually 
had a curved stem, without knee or decorations, and 
with prominent knighthcads and hawse timbers 
extending well above the rails. When fitted for a 
privateer, bulwarks were probai^ly added, and a 
square course and topsail fitted on the foremast. 

Lent bv the U.S. Naval Historical Foundation. 



88 



NEW YORK PILOT SCHOONER, about 1835-43 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315932 

A large New York pilot schooner was l^uilt on this 
model, at some time between 1835 and 1845, for the 
Sandy Hook service. The name of the vessel is 
unknown. The model was preserved in the Brooklyn 
Athenaeum until taken possession of by the U. S. 
Navy Department and held at the U. S. Naval 
Academy. Annapohs, Maryland. 

The haH'-model is of a rather typical New York 
pilot boat of the period, having slight sheer, a straight 
keel of moderate drag, much rounded and well 
raked stem rabbet, strongly raking stern post ral)bet 
and an upper-and-lower-transom square stern, wide 
and shallow. The entrance is short but moderately 
sharp, the run is long and easy. The midsection is 
located well forward of midlength and is formed with 
sharply rising floors, slightly hollow at garljoard. and 
a well rounded and rather slack ijilge carried up roimd 
to deck level. The forward sections are nearly 
V-shaped. 

The model, made to a scale of J2 inch to the foot, 
represents a schooner 80 feet moulded length at deck, 
23 feet moulded beam, and 8 feet 9 inches moulded 
depth. Model is made to deck level, no bulwarks 
being shown. 

Customarily the New York pilot schooners of this 
date and type had a very low rail, and were often 
long, low flush-decked boats, heavily sparred and 
canvassed. Their working rig was a large jib, gafl- 
foresail with no boom and overlapping the main, and 
a gaff-mainsail with boom. A short main-topmast 
supported a main-topmast staysail. The area of the 
foresail was large and the l)oats usually worked under 
this sail alone on the pilot grounds, setting full sail 
only when racing to meet an incoming vessel. The 
New York pilot schooners were long noted for their 
speed and sailing qualities. 

Model lent by U. S. Navy Department. 

PILOT SCHOONER, 1853 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76032 

Dancing Feather 

The Boston pilot schooner Dancing Feather was built 
on this model by Dennison J. Lawlor at East Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1853. The model represented an 
extreme clipper schooner design for the date and the 
vessel was celebrated for her speed, weatherline.ss, 
and seaworthiness. She was deeper bodied than was 
then common in her type. The Dancing Feather 



carried the usual pilot-schooner rig of her date; in 
winter she had no foretopmast nor jib boom, so had 
neither fore gafif-topsail nor jib topsail. In summer 
she carried these spars and had mainsail, foresail 
without boom; with its clew overlapping the main; a 
large jib, main gafif-topsail, main-topmast staysail, 
fore gaff-topsail and a jib topsail. 

The half-model is of a pilot-schooner hull having 
moderate sheer, straight keel with great drag, a 
raking and slightly flaring stem rabbet moderately 
rounded at the forefoot, slightly raking post, short 
and light-round fantail stern with flaring bulwarks, 
a long, sharp, and slightly convex entrance with hollow 
at forefoot, and a long and very fine run. The mid- 
section is formed with a sharply rising floor with 
very slight hollow in the garboard, high and rather 
firm bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. Bow 
sections have rather marked flare. The model is 
mounted with a graceful longhead, billet, trails, cut- 
water, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model scales 67 feet 6 inches moulded length 
at rail, 19 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 8 feet 4 
inches moulded depth. Scale of model }i inch to the 
foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

PILOT SCHOONER, 1863 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76047 

Edwin Forrest 

The New York and Boston pilot-schooner Edwin 
Forrest, named after the noted American actor, was 
built at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 1865 hv 
Dennison J. Lawlor to replace the Edwin Forrest, 
Xo. I J, of New York, lost oflF Long Island in 1862. 
She became a celebrated pilot Ijoat. showing great 
speed on all points of sailing and was long considered 
a model of her type. -After Ijeing employed for many 
years at New York and Boston, she was sold to the 
Pensacola, Florida, pilots. 

The model shows a pilot-schooner hull ha\ ing 
moderate and graceful sheer, straight keel with strong 
drag, a much rounded forefoot, nearly straight and 
slightly raking stem rabbet, vertical post, strongly 
raking V-shaped transom gix'ing a short stern over- 
hang. The entrance is sharp and rather hollow, and 
the run is very fine and long. The midsection shows 
a sharply rising and slightly hollow floor, high and 
hard bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. There 
is little flare forward and the bow is noticeably wedge 
shaped. 



89 



Mounted with straight and shghtly raking stem, 
keel, post and rudder; the model has low bulwarks. 
Boats of this type had a low, long quarterdeck and 
a small cockpit aft; the freeboard was low. 

The half-model scales 68 feet 9 inches moulded 
length at rail, 19 feet moulded beam, and 7 feet 9 
inches moulded depth to deck at side. Scale is Jo 
inch to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 



PILOT SCHOONER, 1867 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76033 



Plot 



•euce 



The Boston pilot schooner Florence was built oci this 
model in 1867 at East Boston, Massachusetts, by 
Dennison J. Lawlor. She was of the relatively shoal 
bodied model that many pilots preferred, believing 
that shoal draft allowed the vessel to drift, in a storm, 
so that the hull received less punishment from the 
seas when hove to. The Florence, very popular at 
Boston, was a fast and extremely able vessel. 

The half-model represents a pilot-schooner hull 
having moderate and graceful sheer, low freeboard, 
a straight keel with heavy drag, slightly rounded fore- 
foot, straight and slightly raking stem rabbet, nearly 
upright post, a small overhang at stern formed by a 
sharply raking V-shaped transom, a long entrance, 
sharp and slightly concave below the load line, a ad 
a long, fine and rather straight run. The midsection 
is formed with a sharply rising and slightly hollow 
floor, high and firm bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. 

Mounted with a straight and raking stem, keel, post, 
rudder, and a low bulwark, the model being solid to 
the deck-at-side height. 

The model is for a vessel 71 feet moulded length at 
rail, 19 feet moulded beam, and 8 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth to deck at side. Scale of the model is 
y, inch to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

PILOT SCHOONER, 1868-1869 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76039 

Phantom, Pet 

The sister pilot schooners, Phantom and Pet, were 
built on this model by Dennison J. Lawlor, at East 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1868-1869 for the New 
York pilots. These schooners were considered models 



for their type and were handsome, able vessels with 
a great reputation for swiftness under sail. The 
Phantom was lost with all hands in March 1888; the 
Pet was wrecked in Narraganset Bay in 1889. 

The half-model represents a pUot-schooner hull 
having a graceful and strong sheer, low freeboard, 
straight keel with marked drag, well rounded forefoot, 
rather upright and curved stem rabbet, nearly upright 
post, a short overhang at stern formed by sharply 
raking and V-shaped transom, a long, sharp, and 
slightly concave entrance, and a long and very fine 
run. The midsection shows a sharply rising and 
slightly hollow floor, high and firm bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Model mounted with curved and nearly upright 
stem, keel, post, rudder, and low bulwark. 

The model is of a pilot-schooner hull 76 feet 6 
inches moulded length at raU, 19 feet 10 inches 
moulded beam, and 9 feet 2 inches moulded depth to 
deck at side. Scale of the model is ]!, inch to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 



PILOT SCHOONER, 1870 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 



Thomas Hoivard 



The Delaware Bay pilot schooner Thomas Howard 
was built on this model at Philadelphia in 1870. She 
was similar in form, size, and general appearance to 
the vessels used by the New York pilots at the time 
she was built. The Thomas Howard had a long career 
in the pilot service and was considered a fine example 
of her type. 

The half-model represents a pilot schooner having 
considerable sheer, straight keel with much drag, 
well curved forefoot with a straight, slightly raking 
stem rabbet above tlae load waterline. The post is 
upright, the transom is sharply raking and V- or 
heart-shaped, with the rudder stock passing through 
it. The entrance is long, sharp, and hollow; the run 
is long and very fine. The midsection is located abaft 
the midlength and is formed with a sharply rising and 
slightly hollow floor, a high, firm bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. The flare forward is very 
moderate. 

Mounted without appendages. 

The model, on a scale of ]i inch to the foot, is for a 
pilot boat 82 feet moulded length at rail and about 79 
feet between perpendiculars, 21 feet moulded beam, 
and 9 feet 3 inches depth. The frames were spaced 
24 inches on centers. The register dimensions of the 



90 



Thomas Howard were 79.2 feet length, 20.6 feet beam, 
and 7.6 feet depth in hold, 50.59 gross tons. 
Gift of James H. Allyn, Mystic, Connecticut. 



PILOT SCHOONER, 1876 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76038 



Lillie 



The Boston pilot schooner Lillie was built at East 
Boston, Massachusetts, on this model by Dennison J. 
Lawlor in 1876. She represented the trend toward 
deeper bodied pilot boats that appears to have started 
at Boston, beginning about this date and continuing 
into the 1880's. The Lillie was a very successful 
schooner in her business, and for many years was a 
well known Boston pUot boat. She was afterwards 
sold to the New York pilots and renamed Richard K. Fox. 

The half-model shows a pilot-schooner hull ha\dng 
considerable sheer, a low freeboard, straight keel with 
marked drag, well rounded forefoot, curved and 
nearly upright stem rabbet, vertical post, a short 
overhang formed by the sharply raking V-shaped 
transom, a long and sharp entrance with much hollow 
at forefoot, and a long and very fine run. The mid- 
section is formed with a sharply rising floor, quite 
hollow at garboard, a high and firm turn of bilge, and 
tumble-home in the topside. Very little flare fonvard 
and bow wedge shaped to a marked degree. 

Mounted with a cuived and upright stem, keel, 
post, and rudder, and with bulwark indicated by a 
lift. 

The model is for a pilot boat 73 feet \\% inches 
moulded length at rail, 66 feet 10 inches between 
perpendiculars, 19 feet 10 inches moulded beam, and 



10 feet moulded depth. Scale of the model is ]i inch 
to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

PILOT SCHOONER, 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76037 

Hesper 

The celebrated Boston pilot schooner Hesper was 
built on this model in 1884 by Dennison J. Lawlor at 
East Boston, Massachusetts. She was long consid- 
ered the fastest pilot schooner in America and was the 
favorite opponent of every new schooner, yacht, or 
fisherman launched in Massachusetts. The Hesper 
had unusually sharp lines; she was longer, and was 
deeper and narrower in proportion, than previous 
pilot boats. She was designed to have all her ballast, 
lead and iron, inside, some years after her launching 
some was placed on her keel, outside. The Hesper 
had much influence on the Massachusetts-built fishing 
schooners and was one of the vessels that made depth, 
in proportion to length and beam, very popular in the 
New England fishing fleet, after 1885, as well as in 
later Boston pilot schooners. The Hesper (see p. 54) 
when old was sold by the pilots, became a yacht for a 
few years, and was broken up sometime after 1910. 

The half-model is of a pilot-schooner hull having 
rather strong sheer, low freeboard, a rather short, 
straight keel with heavy drag, the fore end much 
curved and fairing into a well rounded forefoot, the 
stem rabbet becoming straight and upright at load- 
line. The post is vertical; the counter short, with a 
very raking V-shaped transom; the entrance long, 



/S^r^^ L/LUE 







Lines of the Boston Pilot Schooner Lillie, built at Chelsea, Massachusetts, 1876. Taken off the builder's 
half-model USNM 76038. 



91 



sharp, and hollow at the forefoot; and the run is also 
long and \-ery fine. In sailing trim the stem fell in- 
board slightly. The midsection shows a sharply rising 
and somewhat hollow floor, high and firm bilge, and 
tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted w ith straight stem, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a schooner 112 feet moulded length 
at rail, 22 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 13 feet 4 inches 
moulded depth, and drawing about 14 feet 3 inches in 
sailing trim. Scale of model ji inch to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

PILOT SCHOONER, 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160117 

The handsome pilot schooner Gh>i of Brunswick, 
Georgia, was built on this model at Noank, Connecti- 
cut, in 1884 from the design of G. L. DaboU. A num- 
ber of these pilot-schooners, of which this half-model 
is typical, were built for southern ports after the 
Civil War. Noank had a reputation for building fast 
vessels and, besides the sloop and schooner smacks for 
which the town was famous, built many yachts, 
schooner packets, and pilot schooners. The models 
used for yachts and pilot schooners had a strong re- 
semblance, although when the Glyn was launched, 
Noank-built yachts were usually shoal centerboard- 
ers. In the 1880"s the local trademark in schooner de- 
sign was a V-shaped stern with unusually heavy 
quarters and hea\ily flared sections at the bow, fea- 
tures that mark the model of the Glyn. This schooner 
was notably fast and was a very successful vessel in 
her business. 

The half-model represents a clipper schooner ha\- 
ing moderate and graceful sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, well rounded forefoot, a flaring and mark- 
edly raked stem rabbet, upright post, and a short 
counter ending in a strongly raked and flat V-shaped 
transom. The entrance is sharp and rather hollow, 
and the run is long, flat, and fine. The midsection 
shows a sharply rising floor, with hollow at the gar- 
board, a rather firm bilge, and little tumble-home in 
the topside. The bow sections flare strongly: the 
dead rise in the floors in the sections in the run is 
parallel, or of "constant deadrise," a feature found 
in the models not only of Daboll but also of Lawlor 
and other noted American designers. 

Mounted with a "long head, billet, trails, ciUwater, 
keel, post, bulwarks, and rudder. 

The model scales 79 feet 8 inches moulded lensjth at 



rail, 69 feet 6 inches moulded waterline length, 19 
feet 8 inches moulded beam, 8 feet 8 inches moulded 
depth to deck at side, and is for a vessel drawing about 
8 feet 3 inches in sailing trim. Scale of the model is 
]i inch to the foot. 

Given by G. L. Daboll. shipbuilder, Noank, C!on- 
necticut. 

PILOT-BOAT SLOOP, 1898 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311520 

A pilot-boat sloop was built from this half-model 
by "Bat" Fogarty in 1898 at Bradenton, Florida, for 
the pilots at Bay Rest, Florida. The model was in- 
tended for a swift-sailing sloop, and the form resembles 
that of sloop yachts of the period 1860-85. 

The half-model represents a yacht like centerboard 
sloop of moderate sheer, wide and shoal, having a 
keel-rabbet strais;ht forward btit sweeping up aft in 
a fair curve to the round fantail stern. A skeg is 
shown with an upright post well inboard the extreme 
stern. The bow rabbet rakes, and there was probably 
a long head; the entrance is long and sharp; and the 
nm long and fine. The midsection shows a rising 
floor, an easy turn of bilge, and a rather upright top- 
side. The greatest beam is about at midlength. 

The sloop measured 35 feet 7 inches moulded length 
at deck, 11 feet 10 inches moulded beam, and about 
4 feet moulded depth. Scale of model is 1 inch to 
the foot. 

Given by "Bat" Fogarty, boatbuilder, Bradenton, 
Florida. 

YACHT and PILOT SCHOONER, 1846 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76040 

Coquette 

The noted Boston schooner yacht and pilot schooner 
Coquette was built on the lines of this model at Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1846. She was designed ijy Lewis 
Winde, a Swedish naval architect who settled at 
Boston and was a member of the shipbuilding firm of 
Winde and Clinkard, which built many fast schooners, 
yachts, pilot boats, and coasters. This model was 
made from plans by Dennison J. Lawlor, who is said 
to have been employed in the Winde and Clinkard 
yard as a young man, and is probably accurate as 
to form, though in error as to head and other details. 

The Coquette was a very fast sailer and won wide 
attention by beating the big New York centerboard 
sloop yacht Maria in a match race to windward. 
The Coquette was later sold to the Boston pilots and 
was long a favorite boat with them; the pilots have 



92 



a fine painting of this schooner in their office at Boston. 
Plans of the vessel also exist and these and the painting 
show the errors in the model's longhead and details. 

The half-model shows a clipper schooner hull having 
rather straight sheer, a straight keel with strong drag, 
rounded forefoot, raking stem rabbet, a nearly straight 
and nearly upright post, and a short counter with 
raking elliptical transom. The entrance is sharp 
and convex, the run long and fine. The midsection 
shows a rising straight floor with much dead rise, a 
high and rather hard bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. 

Mounted with head, keel, post, and rudder. The 
vessel had a long, low quarterdeck and cockpit aft. 

The model measures about 67 feet moulded length 
at rail, 19 feet moulded beam, 8 feet moulded depth, 
and is for a vessel drawing 10 feet at post and about 
5 feet 6 inches forward. Scale of the model is % inch 
to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. La\\lor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

YACHT and PILOT SCHOONER, 1853 
Builder's H.\lf-Model, usnm 76035 

Olata 

The clipper schooner Olata was built on this model 
at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 1853 by Dennison 
J. Lawlor. It is believed that she was built on specu- 
lation and was intended for a yacht. However, very 
soon after her launching, she was employed as a 
packet, running between Boston and Provincetown, 
and in that service she attracted much attention 
because of the manner in which she outsailed fast 
yachts, pilot boats, fishermen, and coasters. She was 
chartered in 1856 to carry the American consul out 



from Boston to St. Thomas in the West Indies. Just 
before departure her foresail was so damaged that it 
could not be used, and she therefore sailed under her 
large jib and mainsail, making the passage in 7 days. 
In 1858 she was sold to the New Orleans pilots; her 
later career has not been traced. 

The half model represents a very extreme clipper 
schooner hull, of the yacht or pilot-boat form, having 
graceful sheer, a straight keel with moderate drag, 
well rounded forefoot, a rather upright and flaring 
stem rabbet, upright post, a short and rounded 
counter having flaring bulwarks, very sharp entrance 
with marked hollow particularly just abaft the fore- 
foot, and a very fine run. The midsection is formed 
with a very marked hollow at garboards and a sharply 
rising floor, the bilge is high and quite hard, and the 
topsidcs have a marked tumble-home. The bow sec- 
tions show marked flare. The Olala, which appears 
to ha\-e been flush decked, sat low in the water and 
had a graceful longhead, trails, billet, and head rails. 

Mounted with longhead, trails, cutwater, keel, post, 
and rudder. 

The model is for a vessel 73 feet 2 inches moulded 
length at rail, 69 feet 10 inches between perpendicu- 
lars, 20 feet 8 inches moulded beam. 9 feet 4 inches 
moulded depth, rabljet to underside of deck at side, 
and drawing about 10 feet at post. Scale of the 
model is % inch to the foot. 

The Olala is described as havino raking masts 
rigged "pilot-boat fashion," with a large single jib, 
loose-footed foresail (no fore-topmast), boomed main- 
sail, and with a main gaff-topsail and a main-topmast 
staysail. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 







Llnes of the Pilot Schooner .and Yacht Olala, built at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 1853. 
builder's half-model USNM 76035. 



Taken off the 



472S46— 60- 



93 



SCHOONER YACHT, 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76093 

This builder's half-model is a design for a very large, 
seagoing sailing yacht of topsail schooner or brigan- 
tine rig, exhibited at the World's Exposition, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, in 1884-85. No vessel was 
built from the design; the model represents an 
extreme clipper form- — deep, narrow, and sharp — 
intended for fast sailing. It is an interesting example 
of a yacht design by a Canadian builder, W. Powers, 
whose work was usually in commercial vessels. 

The half-model is of a large clipper yacht hull, 
having rather straight sheer, a straight keel with some 
drag, well rounded forefoot and raking stem rabbet, 
upright post, short counter with elliptical transom, 
long and very sharp entrance, and a very fine run. 
The midsection is formed with a strongly rising 
straight floor, high and rather hard bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. 

Mounted with a long and pointed head, billet, 
trails, cutwater, keel, post, rudder, stub masts, and 
bowsprit. The position of the masts suggests that a 
brigantine rig may have been intended. 

According to a card accompanying the model, 
it is for a vessel 125 feet on the load line, 25 feet 
moulded beam, and 12 feet moulded depth. The 
straight floor shows a dead rise of 20 degrees. Scale 
is li inch to the foot. 

Given by VV. Powers, shipbuilder, Kingston, On- 
tario. 

SCHOONER YACHT, 1880 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54462 

This builder's half-model is of a keel, clipper, fore- 
and-aft rigged schooner yacht of large size designed 
by C. B. Harrington, shipbuilder, of Bath, Maine, 
in 1880; no vessel was built on this design. The 
designer was locally prominent as a builder of fast 
sailing yachts. 

The half-model represents the hull of a sharp- 
lined schooner yacht having strong sheer, a straight 
keel with some drag, a raking straight stem rabbet 
with moderate round at forefoot, upright stern post, 
a long and round fan tail counter with flaring bul- 
warks, a sharp and long hollow entrance, and a 
long and extremely fine run. The midsection has a 
sharply rising straight floor, high and hard round 
bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. There is 
much flare in the forward sections, and the forefoot is 
very thin and fine. 



Mounted with longhead, cutwater, keel, post, and 
rudder. 

The model scales 100 feet moulded length at rail, 
26 feet moulded beam, and 9 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth. Scale is ji inch to the foot. 

Given by C. B. Harrington, shipbuilder, Bath, 
Maine. 

CENTERBOARD SLOOP, about 1905 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311522 

Eclipse 

The small centerboard sloop Eclipse was built on 
this model at Bradenton, Florida, sometime be- 
tween 1898 and 1910 by "Bat" Fogarty. This model 
was also used to build a number of sloops, names 
unknown, for the coastal fisheries and for general 
service. 

The half-model is of a centerboard sloop having 
moderate sheer, a rockered keel rabbet (the keel is 
straight with a large skeg aft), raking post, round 
fantail counter (the fantail is added to the model, 
which probably had originally a raking V-transom), 
a rather upright flaring stem rabbet, a short and 
rather hollow entrance, and a short but rather well 
formed run. The midsection is formed by a rising 
straight floor, a slack round bilge, and a flaring top- 
side. 

The scale of the model is believed to be 1 inch to 
the foot, at which scale it represents a sloop approxi- 
mately 29 feet 3 inches moulded length at deck, 11 
feet beam, and about 3 feet 6 inches moulded depth. 

Given by "Bat" Fogarty, boatbuilder, Bradenton, 
Florida. 

CENTERBOARD SLOOP, about 1910 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311521 

Mermaid 

The small centerboard sloop Mermaid was designed 
and built on this model by "Bat" Fogarty at Braden- 
ton, Florida, sometime between 1900 and 1915. 
Boats of this type were used in the Florida fisheries 
and for carrying produce alongshore. The sloop had 
a trunk cabin and large cockpit, and its form is that 
of American centerboard fishing sloops of similar 
size in the 1880's. 

The half-model represents a shoal centerboard 
sloop having moderate sheer, a rockered keel rabbet 
with a straight keel forming a skeg aft, raking straight 
stem rabbet, vertical post, overhanging stern formed 
by a raking flat V-shaped transom, with the rudder 



94 



stock passing through the apex of the V, a long and 
sharp entrance, and a rather short but well formed 
run. The midsection is formed with a markedly 
rising straight floor, high and firm bilge, and a 
nearly upright topside. 

The scale of the model is believed to be 1 inch to 
the foot, at which scale it represents a sloop about 
28 feet 6 inches moulded length at deck, 9 feet beam, 
and 2 feet 9 inches moulded depth. 

Given by "Bat" Fogarty, boatbuildcr, Bradcnton, 
Florida. 

CENTERBOARD SLOOP, 1903 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311240 

Pathfinder 

The centerboard sloop yacht Pathfinder was built on 
this model at Oxford, Maryland, in 1903 by Charles 
W. Langdon and was intended for cruising on Chesa- 
peake Bay. The Pathfinder was typical of a large num- 
ber of American centerboard sloop yachts of the 
period 1895-1906, a class which had trunk cabins and 
large centerboards. 

The half-model has moderate and graceful sheer, 
a rockered keel rabbet fairing into the overhanging 
and curved stem rabbet and into a rather long coun- 
ter, which ends in a flat and strongly raking transom, 
and a large skeg with the rudder hung on its after end. 
The entrance is sharp and convex, and the run long, 
flat, and easy. The midsection shows a short straight 
floor with some rise, a round and easy bilge, and a 
nearly upright topside. The dead rise is carried into 
the run with slight change. 

The model is for a sloop 31 feet 9 inches moulded 
length at deck, 9 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 2 
feet 9 inches moulded depth at side. Scale of the 
model is 1 inch to the foot. 

The usual rig in these sloop yachts was jib and gaff 
mainsail. Sometimes a topmast was fitted, or the 
head of the mast made with a long pole and a gafl' 
topsail and jib topsail could then be carried. 

Given by Charles W. Langdon, boatbuilder, Oxford, 
Maryland. 

CENTERBOARD SAILBOAT, 1920 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311256 

A shoal draft, centerboard sailboat was built on this 
model at Apalachicola, Florida, by Samuel Johnson, 
about 1920. The boat was probably sloop or cat 
rigged and intended for pleasure sailing. 

The half-model represents a centerboard sailing hull 
having a moderate sheer, a rockered keel rabbet, 



rounded forefoot, nearly straight and upright stem 
rabbet, raking flat transom, short and sharp entrance, 
and an easy run of moderate length and having a large 
skeg with rudder hung on it and the tran.som. The 
midsection shows a rising straight floor, a slack round 
bilge, and a nearly upright topside. 

The model is believed to be on a scale of f inch to 
the foot, at which scale it represents a boat measuring 
about 21 feet 7 inches moulded length at deck, 8 feet 
IK inches moulded beam, and 2 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, boatbuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

CENTERBOARD SLOOP, 1919 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 307423 

This half-model shows the hull form of a class of 
centerboard half-decked i-acing sloops built at Essex, 
Connecticut, in 1919 by Dauntless Shipyard, Inc. 
Known as the "Essex class," this popular form of 
small racing sloop in various designs, is to be found in 
most American yachting centers. 

The boats of this class were 15 feet 9 inches long 
over the gunwales, 5 feet 7 inches beam, and about 18 
inches depth. They had a jib and gafi'-headed main- 
sail rig. The mast stood about 15 feet above deck. 

The half model shows a centerboard sloop hull of 
marked sheer, the keel is rockered fore and aft and 
fairing into a rather upright curved stem rabbet, and 
the transom is flat and raking. The entrance is easy 
and the run flat and rather short. The midsection is 
formed with a rising straight floor, easy round bilge, 
and a slightly flaring topside. The bow sections show 
flare, but there is a slight tumble-home in the topsides 
as the transom is approached. The dead rise is at a 
constant angle in the run. Scale of the model is 1 inch 
to the foot. 

Given by Dauntless Shipyard, Inc., Essex, Con- 
necticut. 

CENTERBOARD SLOOP, 1922 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315703 

This model is a design for a small centerboard sloop 
for pleasure sailing made by Otis A. Palmer of East 
Moriches, Long Island, New York, about 1922. It is 
not known whether boats were built on this model. 

The half-model represents a jib-and-mainsail rigged 
centerboard boat basing rather straight sheer, a 
rockered keel rabbet, a curved, raking, and o\-er- 
hanging stem rabbet, and a small and flat raking 
V-shaped transom. The entrance is of moderate 



95 



length and convex. The run is long, easy, and 
slightly rockered in the buttocks. The midsection is 
forward of midlength and shows a short, straight and 
gently rising floor, slack round bilge, and slightly 
flaring topside. 

Scale of model 1 inch to the foot, for a vessel of 21 
feet moulded length at deck, 6 feet 5 inches moulded 
l)eam, and 1 foot 10 inches moulded depth. It was 
probably intended to carry a knockabout rig, with 
oval cockpit. Small sloops of this ispc were very 
popular in the period 1918-32 as a one-design racing 
class and for general pleasure sailing. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer. East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 



CENTERBOy\RD SLOOP, 1897 
Rigged Model, usnm 310829 



Arkl 



The Ariel was designed by Arthur Binney of Boston, 
Massachusetts, and built by George Lawley and Son. 
Neponset, Massachusetts, in 1896-97. She was a gaff- 
rigged, centerboard, knockabout sloop of a type popu- 
lar in the United States at the end of the 19th century 
and in the early years of the present century. 

The model represents a w^ooden, caravel-plankecl 
centerboard sloop of moderate sheer, having a short, 
straight keel with much drag (formed by a skeg), and 
the keel rabbet cambered fore-and-aft to fair into the 
overhanging bow and counter. The stem is curved 
and the coimter long and thin, ending with a wide, 
shallow, elliptical transom raking sharply. The en- 
trance is rather sharp and convex, and the run is long 
and easy. The bow sections are U-shaped. The 
inidsection has a rising straight floor, hard round 
bilge, and an upright topside. 

The model is mounted on glass representing water, 
and shows the boat in process of picking up or drop- 
ping her mooring. The topsides are white, bottom 
green, and deck varnished. The ouj.board sides of the 
trunk and the cockpit (elliptical in plan) are white, 
and the cabin trunk roof yellow. There is a slide 
hatch companionway for the cabin trunk. A small 
fiat-bottomed skiff-tender is shown in the case with 
the model. 

The model is fully rigged and details are well shown. 
The mast is forward of the trunk. There is no bow- 
sprit. The sails include a large jib with club laced to 
the foot, a gaff-mainsail with lioom laced, and a small 
club gaff-topsail. 

The Ariel was 38 feet overall, 10 feet beam, 23 feet 
length in the waterline, and drew 2 feet 4 inches with 



the centerboard raised and about 6 feet 6 inches with 
it lowered. Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 
Bequest of Major John W. Loveland, \\'ashington, 
D. C. 



J-CLASS RACING SLOOP, 1934 
Rigged Model, usnm 313627 



Kaiubow 



This is a model of the America's Cup defender Rain- 
hmv, Avhich sailed against the English challenger En- 
deavour in 1934, winning a series of six races, of which 
the Endeavour won the first two. This big sloop 
was designed by Starling Burgess, naval architect, and 
was built by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, 
Bristol, Rhode Island. Large sloops of this size and 
general type were built to race for the America's Cup 
which had been won in a squadron race at Cowes, 
England, in 1851 by the New York schooner-yacht 
America. 

The model shows a large racing sloop of the J-class 
of the Universal Rule having slight sheer, a very short 
and heavy ballast keel, a long, pointed bow v\ith some 
reverse curve in the profile below the load line, a rak- 
ing straight post, a long and thin counter ending in a 
small elliptical raking transom with an athwartship 
curve in its face, and no bulwarks but a low grab rail 
along the planksheer. The midsection is somewhat 
Y-shaped, with a thick ballast keel, or fin, and strongly 
rising floor, a slack and easy round bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside. The entrance is fine and convex, 
the run long and very fine. 

A dinghy is carried on deck at the stern, forward of 
which is a small hatch, steering wheel, and binnacle, 
companion hatch with skylights on each side of it, 
main skylight, mast, and a small hatch. The fore- 
stays come to deck well inboard of the stemhead. 

The Rainbow measured 126 feet 7 inches overall, 82 
feet on the waterline, 20 feet 11 inches beam, 14 feet 
1 1 inches draft, and had a mast 1 52 feet 6 inches, deck 
to center of halyard sheave in mast. The measured 
sail area was 7,549 square feet. .Scale of the model is 
% inch to the foot. 

Gi\'en by Chandler Hovey, Boston, Massachusetts. 

INLAND LAKE RACING SCOW, 1900 
Rigged Model, usnm 316086 

M.inne7jtka 

This model is of an early racing scow de\eloped for 
the Inland Lake Yachting .Association (founded in 
1898). an association of vacht clubs located on lakes 



96 




Inland Lake Yachting Association Rule racing 
scow Mintiezitka, built in i goo. Rigged model USNM 
316086. {Smithsonian photo ^^606-f.) 



in Wisconsin and Minnesota, with four more clubs 
situated in nearbv States. 

The racing scow first appeared as a fast, shoal, 
centerboard sloop in the early 1890's and the type 
had a period of popularity on the Atlantic coast, par- 
ticularly on Long Island Sound and in Massachusetts 
Bay. There has been international racing in this 
type, i^etween American and Canadian clubs, since 
1896. In the late 1890's it was introduced in a 
primiti\e form on the so-called Inland Lakes of Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, and also in lower Canada. 

The dexelopment of organized racing of scows was 
very rapid under the guidance of the Inland Lake 
Yachting Association and various classes of boats were 
established. In 1959 there were si.x classes: "A" 
2>7% to 38 feet in length, "E" 27% to 28 feet, "D" 19% 
to 20 feet, "C" 19% to 20 feet, "X" 15.83 to 16 feet, 
and "V" 18.83 to 19 feet. These classes produce the 
fastest sailing boats in the world, over a triangular 
racing course. 

The class "A" scow Minnezitka, was built in 1900 at 
White Bear Lake, Minnesota, by John O. Johnson. 
She was a candidate for an international race for the 
Seawanahka Cup, but was not chosen, though the 
fastest of the American candidates. A very successful 
boat in interclub racing for some years, she was 
jib-and-mainsail rigged, with a gaff-mainsail. 



The hull of the model has a sled-profilc bow, vertical 
flat transom, and straight sheer. The bottom is 
cambered, giving a flat run and entrance. On deck 
the hull is approximately rectangular, the how Ijeing 
square across but narrower than the stern transom. 
The sides are on a long, fair sweep in plan, and the 
hull is deliberately designed to sail at a given angle 
of heel. The midsection shows a nearly flat floor, 
with the bilge on a long sweeping curve, and a 
curved and flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. The boat 
was 38 feet overall, 7 feet 9 inches beam and 1 foot 
5 inches deep at side. 

Gift of John O. Johnson, boatl)uilder. White Bear 
Lake, Minnesota. 

INLAND LAKE RACING SCOW, 1959 
Rigged Model, usnm 316087 

This model is the 1959 version of the class "A" 
Inland Lake racing scow. Boats built on this plan 
have been successful in club racing and are con- 
sidered very fine craft of their type for competition 
sailing. It is claimed that a modern scow has been 
timed at 28 miles per hour with wind on the quarter. 




Inland L.^ke Yachung .Assouaiion Rule class .\ 
racing scow, 1959. Rigged model L'SXM 316087. 
(Smithsonian photo 4^606-g.) 



97 



These boats plane under suitable conditions and 
usually are very weatherly under all sailing condi- 
tions. The scow is entirely an American develop- 
ment in racing types of sailing yachts, and the 
designer-builder appears to have introduced bilge 
boards and to have introduced features that mark 
the modern Inland Lake scows. 

The model shows the usual scow form, but with a 
sharp bow (both pointed and square bows are em- 
ployed). The sheer is straight, the deck heavily 
crowned. The bottom is rockered, fairing into a 
curved, raking stem. The flat transom is vertical. 
The greatest beam is just a little abaft midlength. 
The midsection is formed with a short, flat floor, 
a sweeping bilge hardening in curve outboard, and 
a curved and flaring topside. 

The model has bilge boards — two centerboards 
abreast, each in the bilge and so arranged as to be 
nearly vertical when the hull is heeled to the designed 
sailing angle. It is rigged with a jib-headed main- 
sail; the end of the main boom and the foot of the 
forestay are well inboard of the hull ends. 

Scale of the model is Y4 inch to the foot, for a boat 
37 feet 10)^ inches overall length, 8 feet 2 inches beam, 
and 1 foot 9 inches depth at side. 

Gift of John O. Johnson, boatbuilder, White Bear 
Lake, Minnesota. 

WHITEHALL BOAT 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 25001 

The Whitehall boat, a type of rowboat once very 
popular in the United States, originated in New York 
City and was developed for the professional boatmen 
of that port. From the place of its origin on Whitehall 
Street, hence the name, the Whitehall boat spread to 
Boston and other eastern ports and to the Pacific 
Coast. It is believed that the type came into existence 
soon after the War of 1812 and that the model was 
developed from naval gigs built at the old New York 
Navy Yard. By 1825 the Whitehall was fully de- 
veloped and was used by watermen of all classes, 
boarding-house rininers, mercantile brokers, sales- 
men, ship-news reporters and others who required a 
boat in their business in the large ports. The boats 
varied to some extent in form and appearance and in 
size according to their intended use. The length was 
commonly between 14 and 18 feet but occasionally 
was as long as 22 feet. They were rowed by one to six 
oarsmen, depending on their size. Some were caravel 
planked, but most were clench planked. Some were 
fitted with sails and centerboards. Late in the 19th 



century the Whitehall boat was much used for pleas- 
ure rowing and as tenders for large yachts. The type 
is now extinct. 

The model represents a caravel-planked 4-oar row- 
ing boat of moderate sheer, having a straight keel, 
upright stem with rounded forefoot, and a slightly 
raking heart-shaped transom stern. The entrance is 
long, fine, and slightly hollow, and the run is also 
rather long and very fine. The midsection is formed 
with a slight rise in the straight floor, a round, slack 
bilge, and a slightly flaring topside. The rudder is 
hung outboard on the transom and is operated by a 
yoke and steering lines. The model has four thwarts, 
with sternsheets and backboard, and a bow grating 
forward of the foremost thwart. 

The model is of a boat of rather common size, 1 8 feet 
long at gimwale, 4 feet 9% inches beam and 19 
inches deep from ceiling alongside keel to top of 
gunwale, with oars 11 feet 6 inches long. Scale of 
model is 2 inches to the foot. 

Gift of Nash and Sons, boatbuilders. 

ADIRONDACK SKIFF, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 25053 

This model represents an open, double-ended skiff", 
from the Adirondack Mountain area of New York, 
which was developed for fishing on the lakes and 
streams and was also employed by hunters. The 
model varied somewhat according to the ideas of the 
builders. Some used caravel planking but most boats 
of the type were clench built of thin white cedar. The 
-Adirondack skiff became a popular hunting boat dur- 
ing the last quarter of the 19th century and was pro- 
duced as a stock boat by many small-boat builders in 
Northern New York State. It was usually light enough 
to be carried by two men, the common length being 
14 to 16 feet at gunwale. Some of these skiffs were 
fitted with centerboards and rigged for sailing, usually 
with a small boomed spritsail with mast well forward. 

The model shows a light, open, double-ended skiff 
of moderate sheer, having a straight keel, rather up- 
right stem, slightly raking post, and a fine entrance 
and run. The midsection has a slight rise in the 
straight floor, a slack round bilge, and a slightly flar- 
ing topside. The model is not fitted for sailing and 
appears to represent a pleasure boat, not one used by 
guides for hunting or fishing. Fitted to row with 
two pairs of oars it has thwarts and seats; at each end 
is a very short deck. 

It represents a skiff 22 feet long, 3 feet 10 inches 
beam, and 12 inches depth amidships, an unusually 



98 



long boat of the type. Scale of model 1 % inch to the 
foot. 

Given by Cornwall and Weston, boatbuilders, 
Alexandria Bay, New York. 

NEW JERSEY SNEAKBOX, 1890 
Rigged Model, usnm 26623 

This type of hunting skiff was developed by com- 
mercial duck hunters, during the 19th century, on 
Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, and was intended to be 
rowed or sailed. The boat carried a single gunner 
and his gear, including a large-bore gun, ammunition, 
decoys and supplies for at least a day. The boats, 
built of white cedar, w-ere about 12 or 13 feet long 
and were light enough to be dragged over the mud 
flats. 

The sneakbox was a fast sailer, having many of the 
characteristics of a racing "scow," and has continued 
in use, not only as a gunning skiff but also (in modified 
form) as a racing sailboat and afternoon sailer on 
Barnegat Bay. Some are rigged as jib-and-mainsail 
sloops. Like the melon seed, the sneakbox steered 
with a yoke and steering lines. Folding oarlocks were 
employed. The rig was a single boomed spritsail, 
the mast stepped well forward in the boat. 

The model shows a square-sterned caravel-planked 
skiff, fitted with a dagger-type centerboard and docked 
except for a small cockpit about amidships. The 
sheer is nearly straight and the deck much crowned, 
the keel is rockered, and there is a small skeg, the 
rudder being hung outboard. The stem is formed by 
the keel being brought up in a sweep to meet the 
sheer. The transom is upright and flat. In appear- 
ance the entrance is somewhat like the end of a tea- 
spoon; the run is easy and flat. The midsection, 
which shows a moderate rise in the floor, a very slack 
round bilge, and much flare in the topside, may be 
described as "dish-shaped." Washboards are shown 
fitted along the gunwale aft to hold decoys from falling 
overboard. The spray cloth for the cockpit and its 
hatches are shown. 

The model represents a skiff about 1 1 feet 9 inches 
long, about 4 feet 3 inches beam, and nearly 13 inches 
depth to crown of deck. Scale of model is probably 
1 J4 inch to the foot. 

Given by J. D. Gilford. Tuckerton, New Jersey. 

AU SABLE RIVER SKIFF, 1877 
Rigged Model, usnm 25899 

This model represents a fishing skiff" of a type once 
used in the Au Sable River region in Michioan for 



trout and grayling fishing in rapid streams. The boat 
was related in form to the lumbermen's drive boat, 
or lumbermen's bateau. It is described in Forest and 
Stream (vol. 3, August 1877, p. 33) by Thaddeus Nor- 
ris, author of The American Anglers' Book. 

The model is of an open, double-ended, flat-bot- 
tomed skiff or plank canoe which was made of white 
pine; the bottom in profile is somewhat rockered; the 
sheer is moderate and the stem and stern are strongly 
raked; the sides have marked flare. The bottom is 
flat athwartships. A small live-well, usually about 2 
feet long, was built about one-third the length from 
the bow; the model shows widely spaced floor timbers, 
one at a semibulkhead abaft the well and two at the 
well bulkheads. Breasthooks are fitted bow and stem 
at the gunwale, and inboard of these at the gunwale 
hand grips are cut through the sides, port and star- 
board, bow and stern. The bottom is planked fore- 
and-aft. The sides are each of a single plank and the 
bottom of two or three planks. No side frames are 
shown nor are there gunwale stringers or chine 
timbers. 

The boats usually had two or three thwarts. When 
used on lakes these boats were sometimes fitted with 
oarlocks or tholes and some were fitted to sail with a 
small spritsail and a shifting leeboard. The construc- 
tion was that of the "drive boat," or dory, and was 
quite light; these boats could usually carry a fisherman 
and guide and about 200 pounds of baggage or gear. 
Normally the boats were paddled or poled. 

The scale of the model is 2 inches to the foot, so 
that the skiff represented was 18 feet 6 inches long at 
gunwale, 3 feet 6 inches extreme beam, and 1 foot 1 % 
inches deep amidships. 

Given by D. A. Fitzhugh, Jr. 

EGG HARBOR MELON SEED, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 25658 

The Egg Harbor melon seed, a name apparently 
suggested by the shape of the hull, was a type of wild- 
fowl hunting boat developed at Egg Harbor, New 
Jersey, for use on lower Barnegat Bay. This form of 
sailing-rowing skiff, particularly designed for use in 
rough-water shooting, was developed by professional 
duck hunters who sold game to commercial markets 
during the last half of the 19th century. Designed 
to be manned by a single gunner, the melon seed 
gunning skiffs were excellent sailing boats and rowed 
well; they were lightly I)uilt of cedar, and tiie rudder 



99 




Egg Harbor Melon-Seed Gun- 
ning Skiff from lower Barnegat 
Bay, New Jersey. Rigged model 
USNM 25658 showing a typical 
boat of this type. {Sinithsonian 
lihoto 4^6gy~a.) 



was controlled Idv a yoke and steering lines, as in 
the sneakljox. 

The model shows a sqiiare-sterned caravel-planked 
centerboard boat having a moderate sheer, rockered 
keel \vith skeg. ciir\ed stem, raking transom with 
rudder hung outljoard, sharp entrance, and an easy, 
well formed run. The midsection shows a slightly 
rising straight floor, slack rounded bilge, and flaring 
topside. The centerboard is of the curved dagger 
type, not pis'oted. The boat is decked except for 
small cockpit nearly amidships which has covers and 
a spray cloth. 

The rig is a single boomed spritsail, the mast well 
forward as in a catboat. 

The model is of a skifl' 13 feet AK inches extreme 
length at gunwale, 4 feet 3 inches beam, and about 
13,![; inches depth from rabbet to centerline of deck 
amidships at fore end of cockpit. Scale of model is 
2 inches to the foot. 

Given by P. Brasher. 



WOODEN CANOE, 1880 
Full-Sized Boat, usnm 160315 



Sa/rej' Gcimp 



This very small canoe was built by J. H. Rushton 
of Canton, New York, about 1880 for George W. 
Sears, who, under the pen-name "Nessmuk,"' wrote 
for American sporting magazines about woodland 
tra\el, hunting, and fishing. The canoe was designed 
to be as light and small as was practical for a single 
woodsman to carry and use in long expeditions in 
the forest. Its notable builder specialized in canoes 
and light rowing craft. The Sairey Gamp (named for 
the midwife and nurse in Charles Dickens' Alarlin 
Chiizdewit) was the third and last of a series of such 
canoes built for the owner. 

The canoe, clench-planked of thin white cedar, is 
a small double-ender of moderate sheer, having a 
straight keel and moderately raking stem and stern 
posts. The stem has a slight curve in profile and is 



100 



slightly rounded at the forefoot. The ends are sharp 
and the entrance is slightly longer than the run. 
It has a shallow outside keel, a very slight rise in the 
straight floor amidships, a rather easy round bilge, 
and a slightly flaring topside. The canoe has two 
thwarts, placed to leave the middle third of the hull 
clear of obstruction, and no seats. The frames are 
slight and steam-bent. 

The canoe is 9 feet in overall length, 26 inches beam, 
6% inches deep inside, and weighs 11 pounds, dry, 
without equipment. The paddles exhibited are one 
very small single-bladed hunting-and-fishing sneak 
paddle, 17 inches long with a blade 3 inches wide, 
and a double-bladed traveling paddle with jointed 
shank, 6 feet 1 inch in length. 

This canoe is described in some detail in the well- 
known book. Woodcraft, by "Nessmuk." 

Donor not recorded. 



WOODEN CRUISING CANOE, li 
Rigged Model, usnm 76083 



Capital 



This model represents a wooden, sailing and 
paddling canoe, decked and with small cockpit, of a 
type that was popular in the 1880's for racing and 
cruising. These canoes, developed in the 1 870"s out 
of adaptions of the Eskimo kayak, had become more 
a sailing boat than a paddling canoe. The user 
could sleep in the hull, whether afloat or ashore, by 
crawling partly under the deck, the cockpit being 
then covered with a tent or canopy. These canoes 
were fitted with two masts and lateen sails and steered, 
when sailing or being paddled, by a rudder fitted 
with a yoke and steering lines; the latter were fitted 
to a foot yoke inboard so the user could steer with 
his feet while paddling and with his hands or feet 
while sailing. 

The model shows a clench-planked double-ended 
canoe hull, decked except an oval cockpit located 
about amidships. The boat has a long, sharp en- 
trance and an easy sharp run, a straight keel, a stem 
nearly vertical and with very rounded forefoot, a 
raking straight post, and graceful sheer. The mid- 
section is formed with a slightly rising straight floor, 
an easy round bilge, and an upright topside. 

The model, representing the canoe Capital, which 
was built at Washington, D. C, by J. Passeno, an 
amateur builder, shows a craft 18 feet 10 inches 
overall length, 3 feet 6 inches beam, and 1 foot 5 
inches extreme depth, and having the foremast 6 feet 



IK inches above deck, fore yard 14 feet 7)i inches 
and the fore boom 12 feet long, the mainmast 3 feet 
4}^ inches above deck, main yard 7 feet 8 inches 
and main boom 6 feet 9 inches long. The double- 
bladed paddle scales 9 feet 3 inches long. Scale of 
the model is 2 inches to the foot. 
Given by J. Passeno, Washington, D. C. 

CANVAS-COVERED WOODEN CANOE, 1907 
Rigged Model, usnm 248063 

This model represents a type of canvas-covered 
wooden canoe, manufactured by the Old Town 
Canoe Company, Old Town, Maine, about 1907. 
This class of canoe was intended for propulsion by 
paddle only and was used for pleasure as well as for 
hunting, fishing, and for woodland travel. In gen- 
eral form they resembled the birch-bark canoes of the 
American Indians, and the first of them produced at 
Old Town for general sale were built by Penobscot 
and Malecite Indians, but the model shown more 
nearly resembles the last birch-bark canoes built by 
the Chippewa and St. Francis tribesmen. The con- 
struction, as developed, employed wide and thin, 
closely spaced bent-frames overlaid with a complete 
planking system and made watertight by a cover of 
canvas stretched over and tacked to the hull. 

The model represents a canoe having a sharp en- 
trance and run, straight keel with ends semicircular 
in profile, and a sheer strong at the bow and stern 
and moderate in the midbody. The midsection is 
rather U-shaped, having an almost flat floor, an easy 
round bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 
The middle third of the length is unobstructed; on 
each end of this open space are narrow thwarts and 
caned seats, with two more thwarts and seats near 
each end of the hull. Gunwales are formed of two 
strips each, one inside the frames and one applied 
over the canvas co\er. In the model is a cap rail 
over all, producing a "closed gunwale," but the cap 
rail was normally omitted; woodsmen preferred the 
"open gunwales," which allowed the canoe to be 
easily cleaned of sand or mud that collected inboard. 

Scale of the model is 3 inches to the foot (':,' fidl 
size), so that the model represents a canoe about 16 
feet 4 inches overall length, 3 feet extreme beam, and 
1 foot 2 inches depth. Model is painted green out- 
board with \arnished outer gunwale, cap, and 
exposed inboard surfaces. 

Gi\en by the Old Town Canoe Company, Old 
Town, Maine. 



101 



SINGLE-SCULL RACING SHELL, 1897 
Full-Sized Boat, usnm 311024 
Oars, usnm 311395 

This single-scull, or one-man racing shell, was used 
by Edward Hanlon Ten Eyck to win the "Diamond 
Sculls" at Henley, England, in 1 897. E. H. Ten Eyck 
was the son of the professional oarsman James Ten 
Eyck and was the fastest amateur sculler of his day. 
After winning a large number of races in America he 
entered the Diamond Sculls at Henley, England in 
1897, rowing as a member of the VVachusett Boat 
Club of Worcester, Massachusetts, his home. He 
was then 18 years old and won the race in record 
time. He trained in a professional manner and this, 
and other conduct, led the English to refuse his entry 
in 1898, apparently on the grounds of semiprofession- 
alism. Ten Eyck continued rowing and was unbeaten 
until he retired from active competition in 1901. 

The boat was built by J. H. Clasper at Putney, 
England, for the owner and to his specifications. 

Craft of this class and model were developed to 
allow the highest possible speed under oars in smooth 
water, and the boat exhibited is of the type rowed by 
a single oarsman using two sculls, or oars, and 
steering with his feet. 

The boat is a long and very narrow double-ended 
hull having a U-shaped midsection, cambered keel, 
straight sheer, curved and very raking stem, shallow 
upright post, and a very sharp entrance and run. 
The hull is built of veneer (some were built of paper) 
and has steam-bent ribs of very small scantling, 
closely spaced. The deck is of varnished muslin or 
cotton, the cockpit has flaring side coamings, with 
a V-shaped breakwater at the fore end. Also pro- 
vided are a sliding seat for the rower and oarlocks 
outrigged on each side by means of a tublar frame. 
The hull is 31 feet 6 inches long, \0% inches beam, 
and weighs 30 pounds, dry. Oars are 9 feet 5% inches 
long; the blades are 2 feet long and spoon-shaped in a 
hollow curve to give a better grip on the water. 

Given by James A. Ten Eyck. 



OUTRIGGED ROWING BOAT, 1890 
Full-Sized Boat, usnm 309501 



Saunterer 



This boat is of a type once much employed in 
pleasure rowing by skilled oarsmen who had been 
trained in outrigger shells with sliding seats. Known 
as working boats, or "wherries," they had a wide seat 
aft for a cockswain or passenger and were capable of 



great speed in smooth water. Such boats were used 
for training crews for pair-oars racing shells, or for 
pleasure rowing. 

The Saunterer, very lightly built of thin cedar plank 
and slight, bent frames, has a straight keel, curved 
and upright stem, raking and very narrow V-shaped 
transom about 6 inches wide at gunwale, very slight 
sheer, and a long and very sharp entrance and run. 
The midsection has a slight rise in the straight floor, 
a slack round bilge, and a flaring topside. There is 
a stern seat with cane back, two sliding seats, each 
outrigged on both sides, for rowers and a seat facing 
aft at bow. The boat steered with a rudder having a 
yoke (missing) and steering lines. Outriggers are of 
tubing and rod. 

The boat is 24 feet long, 3 feet V/i inches beam at 
gunwale, 5 feet 5 inches over the outriggers, and 
depth of the hull amidships about 1 1 inches. 

Gift of Charles G. Warden, Washington, D. C. 

PISCATAQUA RIVER PACKET BOAT, 1865 
Rigged Model, usnm 311147 

This model, made by the donor from memory, is one 
of the last of a type of small sailing packets once 
used on the Piscataqua River, in New Hampshire, 
to carry passengers, mail, and light freight to the river 
villages above Portsmouth, N. H. These small 
packets, which remained in use until about 1870, 
were in fact the marine counterpart of the stagecoach 
in this area. The boats, some of which were fast 
under sail, usually operated between Portsmouth and 
an individual village, each boat serving a given 
section in the Great Bay region. The regular river 
packet service had been in larger sloops and schooners 
until steam packets came into use in the 1850's on 
the rim between Portsmouth and Dover. 

The model represents a hull having the form of a 
ships' yawl-boat of more than usual depth. It has 
slight sheer, a straight keel with some drag, an 
upright stem with a slightly rounded forefoot, raking 
post, and a heart-shaped flat transom with rudder 
stock inboard. The entrance is full and convex and 
the run rather easy but short. The midsection is 
formed with a rising straight floor, a firm round 
bilge, and a nearly upright topside. The model, 
roughly made, represents a boat with lines somewhat 
fuller than was usual in this type. The deck arrange- 
ment however, is typical; the mast is well forward 
in the "eyes" of the boat, with its heel over the fore 
end of the straight part of the keel. On this short 
mast a triangular lateen-type sail is shown slung from 



102 



a strong halyard, the heel secured by a tack tackle 
setting up on the face of the stem and with fall leading 
inboard. Abaft the mast is a small square hatch 
and well abaft amidships is a companion hatch; 
here the deck is lowered to form a shallow cockpit. 
The boat steered with a tiller, now missing in the 
model. The loose-footed sail is brailcd to reef. 
Sweep locks, fitted amidships to permit rowing in a 
calm, are omitted in the model. The raised portion 
of the deck had a low log rail, or chock rail, carried 
to the transom, where there was an iron mainsheet 
horse. 

The scale of the model is uncertain, probably % 
inch to the foot, and the boat was therefore about 26 
feet long, 10 feet 9 inches beam, and about 4 feet. 

Given by Captain Edward H. Adams, Adams' 
Point, New Hampshire. 

PISCATAQUA RIVER GUNDALOW, 1886 
Rigged Model, usnm 31H48 

Fanny M. 

This model represents the Piscataqua River gunda- 
low Fanny M. built at Adams Point, New Hampshire, 
in 1886 by Edward H. Adams for his own accovmt. 



The buildcr-owncr desired an improved vessel and 
made this model to carry out sailing tests. When 
tests showed the model would sail fast, the model's 
lines were taken off and used to build the full-sized 
gundalow. 

The history of the development of the gundalow is 
not fully known. It is believed that this type devel- 
oped from ordinary river scows in colonial times and 
that the rig was a gradual evolution from a Icg-of- 
mutton to allow the mast and sail to be quickly and 
easily lowered to pass under low bridges. This form 
of gundalow (the name was applied to many forms of 
flat-bottomed craft in America in the 18th and early 
19th centuries) was a river freighter having a charac- 
teristic sail plan and a single leeboard. The early 
gundalows were open boats and some were no more 
than ordinary square-ended scows having the single 
leeboard and peculiar rig shown in this model. Later 
many gundalows had large single hatches and were 
partly decked. The last built, and the largest gunda- 
lows like the Fanny M., were decked and had only a 
small entry hatch to the hold, being deck-loading. 
These sailing gundalows carried coal and freight from 
Portsmouth upriver to Dover and into Great Bay, 




Lines and Arrangement of Piscataqua RrvER Gundalow Fanny M. built at Adams Point, New Hampshire, 
in 1 886. Drawn from builder's model, and under supervision of the builder, by the Historic American Mer- 
chant Marine Survey. (HAMMS 2-171-A.) 



103 




Sail Plan of Piscataqua River 
gundalow Fanny M., showing rig- 
ging details. Drawn, under super- 
vision of the builder of the gunda- 
low, by the Historic American 
Merchant Marine Survey. 
(HAMMS 2-171-B.) 



returning to the coast with manufactured goods, farm 
produce, and timber. Sometimes gundalows ven- 
tured along the coast to York, Maine, but usually 
confined themselves to the river trade. 

The model is correct as to hull form and to hull 
and sail proportions but does not show details accu- 
rately. Drawings of the Fanny M. made from this 
model and measurements of the full-sized gundalow 
are in the Historic American Mercliant Marine Survey ma- 
terial (see bibliography) and show this gundalow in 
great detail. 

The model represents a shoal, ffat-bottomed, scow- 
like hull ha\ing ends much like the tip of a teaspoon, 
a slight sheer, slightly rounded bilges, and a flaring 
topside. A single leeboard on the port side only is 
held to the side by an iron staple or rod. There is a 
false cutwater at the bow. Tlic hull is decked, with 
mast well forward, and a small hatch just abaft. The 
high, removable side boards on the cargo deck amid- 
ships are not shown on the model, which shows aft on 
this space a small hatch the full-sized gundalow did 
not have. Near the stern is a small trunk cabin with 
a large iron mainsheet horse astraddle it. At the 
extreme stern is a steering wheel and tiller, the rudder 
post coming up through the stern overhang inboard 



the rail. The greatest beam of the hull is abreast the 
mast: the sides from this point to the trunk are nearly 
straight in plan, but with decreasing beam. On a 
skeg at the stern a nearly rectangular rudder is hung. 

The rig is characteristic of the Piscataqua gundalow. 
The mast is very short; its height being determined 
by the lowest bridge clearance which, for many years, 
was that of the long wooden bridge at the mouth of 
Great Bay now replaced by the modern "General 
Sulli\an Bridge." From the stub mast was slung by 
a chain halyard a long yard with a triangular sail, 
loose footed and fitted with both brail lines and reef 
points. To the yard head extended a single vang; 
the mainsheet was of peculiar lead. A heel tackle 
topped the yard so that it stood almost vertically. In 
some gundalows the heel of the yard was counter- 
weighted to aid in raising the spar and sail after 
passing under a bridge. It is common to consider 
the gundalow sail as a lateen but it had so little sail 
fonvard of the stub mast that it cannot be properly 
so classed. The plan of the Fanny M. shows this more 
correctly than the model. 

The cargo deck of large guticlalows like the Fanny 
M. were covered with an asphalt surface to protect 
the wooden deck. The gundalows of the largest class 



104 



usually worked with a captain and one or two hands; 
the Fanny M. worked very often with only the owner 
and his wife aboard. The crews were often French 
Canadians who were not sailors but only roustabouts. 
The model is on a scale of ]i inch to the foot and 
represents a gundalow about 67 feet 6 inches long on 
deck, 18 feet beam, and about 4 feet 6 inches depth. 
The vessel's hull was built of hewn logs edgebolted 



and secured to heavy single-futtock frames, the con- 
struction being marked by massive strength. The 
gundalows were very fast sailers and were very handy 
in narrow waters. They were fitted with two long 
sweeps with tholes forward of the mast, to permit 
them to be rowed in calm weather. 

Given by the builder, Edward H. Adams, .Adams' 
Point, New Hampshire. 




105 



Side-Wheel Steamer Orizaba Built at New York by Jacob & ^V■ESTERVELT in 
1 854, 1 ,355 TONS. (Photo courtesy Union Title Insurance Company, San Diego, California.) 




MERCHANT STEAM 



107 



AMONG THE EARLY CX- ^ 

^ periments in the con- 
struction of steamboats the 

American efforts were ^ ^ 

probably the most im- 
portant and efl'ective. The _^ ^ 
earUest known American 

experimenter was the gun- * -K 

smith Wilham Henry, of * * 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 

who in 1763 proposed a steamboat, though little is 
known of the engine or of the method of propulsion 
he planned, other than that he proposed using pad- 
dle wheels. Apparently he accomplished little; at 
least his efforts drew little attention. 

James Rumsey has usually been credited with being 
the first successful experimenter in America, but this 
is doubtful. A house-builder and miller at Berkeley 
Springs, Virginia, he made a working model of a "me- 
chanical boat" or "stream boat," about 1784, which 
he showed to visitors; this was not a steamboat but, 
rather, a mechanically driven craft employing setting 
poles. In 1787 he was able to construct a steamboat: 
the boiler and engine were built by the Catoctin Iron 
Furnace in Frederick County, Virginia. 

Rumsey employed a pump, operated by a steam 
engine, to propel the boat by means of a primitive 
hydraulic jet which drew I'll water at the bow and 
expelled it at the stern. He had some success and, 
after dismantling his boat, he went to England to ob- 
tain financial backing. Here he designed an im- 
proved boat and started construction, but died before 
the craft was completed. The boat, when finished, 
was exhibited on the Thames and apparently was 
considered successful, but nothing further de\'eloped 
from this experiment. 

Thus it appears that not until 1787 did Rumsey pro- 
duce a steamboat. But in 1785 John Fitch had de- 
\eloped an idea for a steamboat and had built models. 
as well as a manually operated boat employing paddle 
wheels. Papers, including the specifications, and a 
model of a steamboat were presented to the American 
Philosophical Society in August of 1785. 

Fitch organized in 1786 a steamboat company and 
in July of that year completed a skiff with a steam en- 
gine operating a bank of oars on each side of the boat. 
This boat he placed in operation to demonstrate the 
invention, and in the following month jjegan a secoixi 
boat, 45 feet long, which was demonstrated in August 
1787, when a run was made in the presence of members 
of Congress at Philadelphia. In 1788 a third boat, 60 



feet long and 12 feet beam, was built and fitted with 
stern oars, as illustrated. She made 14 trips to Bur- 
lington and back, from Philadelphia, covering between 
2000 and 3000 miles, by the spring of 1790. A fourth 
boat, about the same size as the third, was started in 
the fall of 1790 but this boat was wrecked in a storm, 
and never repaired. 

It is not clear that Fitch used the mechanical rowing 
system of propulsion in all his boats, for he experi- 
mented with endless-chain paddles and paddle 
wheels, as well as with the mechanical oars usually 
associated with his boats. In 1793 Fitch went to 
France and left plans there which Robert Fulton later 
saw. Fitch returned to the United States and died 
in 1798. 

It will be seen that Fitch had a steamboat con- 
structed a year before Rumsey, thus making him the 
first American to produce an operating steamboat. 
Others were interested in steamboats; Samuel Morey 
about 1790 built a steamboat, with a paddle wheel at 
the bow, that was tried out on the Connecticut River; 
a few years later he built another steamboat with a 
stern paddle wheel which made about 5 miles per 
hour. This he showed to Chancellor Robert Liv- 
ingston, who was later associated with Fulton. Morey 
patented a steam engine in 1795 which was intended 
to operate paddle wheels. In 1797 he built a boat 
with two paddle wheels on each side. Nicholas J. 
Roosevelt also experimented with paddle wheels; he 
built a small boat, or large model, propelled by paddle 
wheels operated by a spindle on the axle, which was 
revolved by a cord attached to a wood-and-whalebone 
spring. His experiment took place sometime prior 
to 1798 and Roosevelt sho\ved this boat to Chancellor 
Livingston. 

It should be noted that a number of other Ameri- 
cans were active in steam engine construction and in 
steam propulsion problems after 1800. Oliver E\-ans 
built many experimental engines and finally produced 
the "grasshopper" engine in some number after 1820. 
It was employed in a couple of American steamboats 
but did not become very popular in America, though 
a number of early French steamboats were fitted with 
this type of engine. Evans was the first American to 
produce a standardized steam engine. The walking- 
beam engine was tried in America, but the first suc- 
cessful design was imported from England, and after 
about 1832 this type of engine became very popular in 
American steamers. 

The lack of proper tools and of facilities for working 
large masses of metal appears to have caused the early 



108 







\: 



, J-^-u' v>v (<J .•^" 5-' 






; 






^■^<>^ {£4, (A*- '.-'Mfc.... .-. £-«-- J- 



lit-l 









fc™._. 6j_.... 




Patent Granted to John Fitch by Louis X\'I of France, November 29, 1791 (the original is in the Water- 
craft Collection USNM 130032). Propulsion is by "duck leg" paddles from the stern. The paddles are 
operated by cranks and pitman rods, driven by a chain, sprockets, and cranks from the steam engine. {Smit/i- 
sonian photo ^4/gj-a.) 



American experimenters great difficulty in producing 
suitable engines for steamers. Hence early engines 
employed in steamboats were crude, of lovs' power, and 
slow turning. Americans gave much atteition to 
boilers; Fitch apparently had designed a water- tube 
boiler in 1785 and others worked on this idea. 

John Stevens of Hoboken, New Jersey, probably 
began experimenting about 1791; his first attempt 
was with the hydraulic jet but he soon turned to a 
screw propeller. Stevens was a very brilliant man 
and invented, among other things, a tubular boiler 
(patented in P91) and improvements (in 1805). In 
1803-04 he built a twin-screw steamboat or rather, 
launch, with which he made tests on the Hudson in 



the spring of 1804 and his boat reached a speed of 
about 4 miles per hour. He apparently had trouble 
with the engine and as a result, turned to side paddle 
wheels in place of screws and in 1807-09 built 
the steamboat Phoenix. While Stevens was still con- 
structing his engine, Fulton and his backers obtained 
a monopoly on the use of steamboats in New York 
waters, and Stevens had no recourse but to send the 
Phoenix to the Delaware River. This vessel in making 
the passage by the coastal route, became the first 
American steamer to venture on the open sea. In 
spite of his own pioneering work Stevens gave full 
credit to Fulton for ha\ing produced the first practical 
paddlewheel steamboat. 



109 



Stevens retained his interest in the screw propeller 
but his inability, with the tools and skills available, 
to obtain a fast-turning engine, caused him to give up 
the experiment. In 1844, after some repairs and 
replacements of parts had been made, his original 
engine and boiler, with screws, was placed in a new 
hull, and a speed of 8 miles per hour was obtained, 
showing that the principles of Stevens' designs were 
sound. Stevens plans called for use of a multitube 
boiler, high-speed engine, and 4-ljladed propellers, 
in a twin-screw installation, gear-driven in opposite 
directions. His experimental machinery has been 
preserved in the U. S. National Museum. 

A Practical Steamboat 

Robert Fulton's success in producing the first 
practical steamboat in America has given him popular 
credit for "inventing" the steamboat but in fact. 



as has been shown, many experimental steamboats 
able to run satisfactorily for a short period had been 
built previous to his. Fulton's boat, however, was 
able to operate for a prolonged period, though the 
hull was rebuilt during the first winter (1807-08) 
after her launching. 

Fulton had studied the problem of constructing a 
steamboat for some years and had gone to England 
and France in an effort to obtain financial backing 
for experiments. While in France he had built a 
small boat, but this was not successful because the 
engine was too heavy for the hull. However, he 
succeeded in purchasing a Boulton and W'att steam 
engine, the third the British government allowed to 
be exported, and with this he was able to construct 
his steamboat at New York, aided by his backer 
there. Chancellor Robert Livingston. He and his 
associate were also able to obtain a state monopoly 



Patent Drawing Submitted in i 790 by John Fitch and Henry Voigt to the New Jersey State patent office. 
It represents the Experiment, Fitch's third boat, 60 feet long, 12 feet beam, built in 1788. By 1790 this vessel 
had traveled over 2,000 miles in river packet service between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey. The 
patent drawing shows clearly the mechanical arrangement of paddles in Fitch's French patent. The flag 
shown flying on the vessel was presented to Fitch on September 4, 1 790, by the President of Pennsylvania, the 
secretary of the State, and several members of the Pennsylvania Council. It is one of the earliest known con- 
temporary representations of the flag of the 1 3 States. (Smit/isonian photo 45539.) 















^.f-/^ li^J U «- iJuiSf >fUii- O^-f/U .t^tt. ti^trui^ ■ a. A^/UC^iX- ISli.^ <^*4t. ytt^iS /it.l^>t. ^ anU-a, j^tU^. j-ttcc* ef^A ivat,. 



Add) ^< CbAd a.t£r rrta-t^ txia^ J*te <Ma«* I 




>.o_-^ <(*{-^— -^X.^ / t._A_f*-ii^ o,w3a,^t"-<t-^ 



110 










f''*)'^ 



CoxTEMPORARV \'iEVV OF Fulton's Steamboat. 1 hc .Xortfi Riui-r (popularly known as the (.Ucrmontj passing 
West Point, showing the vessel as rebuilt in 1807-08 with figurehead, wheelboxes, and leeboards. From a 
lithograph by F. Berthaux, Dijon, of a work attributed to Saint-Memin. {Photo courtesy of Xew Tork Public 
Library.) 



on steamboat navigation that gave them time to 
perfect their boat and its operation without financial 
trouble. Apparently Fulton had intended his boat 
for operation on the Mississippi, and although he 
later began operations there, the more profitable 
opportunity for the boat in New York waters diverted 
him at the time from any western navigation. 

The e.xact dimensions of the boat as first built are 
unknown; one report gives her dimensions as 133 
feet long, \6]i feet beam, and 7 feet deep. She was 
apparently a "Durham boat"; this type was used, 
with some variations in detail, in Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and New York for inland water navigation under 
oars and sail — having a long, narrow, shoal, flat- 
bottomed hull with little sheer, the bottom straight 
or nearly so fore-and-aft and flat athwartships, the 



sides somewhat flaring and sometimes curved verti- 
cally, the bilges angular, with chines, or very slightly 
rounded, and the stem and post raking, the stem 
sometimes having the same curve as the side frames. 
This form of hull was called a "praam" in some parts 
of Europe and was widely used there for craft oper- 
ating in shallow water. When rebuilt in 1807-08 
Fulton's vessel measured 149 feet between perpen- 
diculars, 17 feet 11 inches beam, and 7 feet depth of 
hold. She does not appear ever to have been named 
Clermont; originally known as "The North River 
Steamboat of Clermont" she was registered after 
her rebuilding as the North River. 

The model of this vessel in the Watercraft Collec- 
tion was reconstructed for the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration of 1907. 



Ill 



The second Fulton steamer, the Raritan, was built 
in 1808 by Charles Brown of New York after Fulton's 
design; a plan of this vessel has survived and shows 
that the Durham boat hull form was retained in her. 
The plan of the Rarilan in Griffiths" Marine and jYaval 
Architecture shows a flat-bottomed hull ha\ing' a stem 
curxed in profile, raking post, no rocker in the bottom, 
slight sheer, short and rather full entrance, and a 
short nm. The stern is square and has the same 
type of platform used in the North River. The side 
frames amidships are straight vertically and the 
sides flare markedly. The crude plan shows that 
the side paddle wheels were housed and placed well 
forward and that the hull was trussed in way of the 
engine and boiler. The vessel was about 124 feet 
overall and 21 feet beam at the gimwale, and about 
5 feet 6 inches headroom was allowed in the cabins. 
The wheels were about 15 feet in diameter and the 
paddles were about 3 feet 9 inches wide. (Custom- 
house dimensions: 124' .\ 21' x 6'8", 16393^5 tons, 
eagle figurehead, round tuck, square stern, no 
galleries.) 

She was followed by the Car of Neptune, of 295 tons, 
157 feet long on the bottom, 171 feet 6 inches on deck, 
22 feet beam on the bottom, and 26 feet on deck. 
This vessel was built in 1808 by Brown, who also 
Ijuilt the Fulton-designed Paragon, of 331 tons, in 1811. 
Another steamer, the Firefly, was built in 1812, as was a 
ferryboat of 118 tons, with ramps at each end. 



Fulton also designed and supervised construction of 
the first steam man-of-war for the United States 
Navy, a catamaran with the paddle wheel between 
the hulls, 156 feet long, 56 feet beam and 20 feet deep. 
The paddle wheel was 16 feet diameter and the blades 
were 12 feet wide. The ship made 5'i miles per hour. 
Wood \vas used for fuel in these boats; the first known 
use of coal was in the Car oj Neptune in 1816. 

After Fulton's \essels had demonstrated the steam- 
boat to be practical, a large number of steamers were 
built in the United States. Fulton's monopoly in 
New York did not last long, and his patents were 
worthless, so there were soon competitors. Speed in 
steamboats was important very early; the first race 
between steamers on the Hudson occurred in 1809. 
The first boats were all relatively narrow for their 
length but soon the beam was increased and the ends 
sharpened, to give a more easily driven form. 

All the early American steamers were built for use 
in rivers or in relatively protected waters such as 
Long Island Sound. Delaware Bay, and the Chesa- 
peake, the greatest number being built for river 
service. By 1832 Hudson River steamers were 
being built in lengths between 250 and 272 feet, with 
beam between 22 and 26 feet. Robert L. Stevens 
took much interest in the Hudson River steamers 
and through his experiments the models were much 
improved. In 1836 vessels for Long Island Sound 
were as large as 212 feet 6 inches long and 27 feet 10 







Rigged Model (USNM 309409) 
of a reconstruction of Robert Ful- 
ton's \orth River, commonly called 
the Clermont. The reconstruction 
was built for the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration of 1909. For a view 
forward, see p. 126. (Smithsonian 
plwto 44g57-a.) 



112 



!^ 



Steamer Built for Livingston and Fulton in i8i i, 
the Paragon. She was the third steamboat built for the 
Hudson River service, and the fourth designed b>- 
Fulton. A flat-bottom vessel like the Cl'.rmont and 
Raritan, her register dimensions were 167' x 26'io" x 
7'g". She was built by Charles Brown. From D. T. 
Valentine's y\/aWM/, 1852. {Smithsonian photo 447gi-a.) 




inches beam. The construction of steamboats spread 
very rapidly; two had been built on the St. Lawrence 
by 1813. The first steamer for Mississippi River 
service was built in 1811. After about 1835 lars;er 
diameter side wheels with narrow blades came into 
use and experiments were made with blade shapes 
and feathering buckets or blades. 

L. M'Kay in his Practical Shipbuilder shows the lines of 
a steamer of 1838, a sharp river vessel 173 feet long 
which he descriJDes as "being only" that length, sug- 
gesting that she was small for the time and service. 
She was 161 feet between perpendiculars, 20 feet 
moulded beam and 12 feet 3 inches moulded depth. 
The plan shows a long, narrow, low, shoal-draft \'essel 
diagonally strapped (apparently with iron) along her 
sides inboard above the bilge, straight sheer and keel, 
upright stem with rounded forefoot, vertical post, 
upper-and-lower transom, and round tuck. The 
midsection is formed with slightly rising straight 
floor, a low and hard bilge, and a vertical, straight 
topside. There is no flare at bow, the sections there 
being slightly V-shaped, with moderate curve from 
rabbet to rail. The entrance is very long and sharp, 
and convex, and the run is also long and very fine, 
but shorter than the entrance. The designed mid- 
ship section is abaft midiength, about 64 feet from 
the after perpendicular, and the deadflat extends 
from here forward for about 12 feet. 

The paddle-wheel shaft is about 61 feet from the 
after perpendicular and the w^heel diameter is nearly 
24 feet. The deckhouse extends from within some 
6 feet of the extreme stern to about 109 feet forward, 
leaving a long forward maindeck uncovered by any 
structure; the small pilothouse is at the fore end of 
the deckhouse, on its roof. A large boat on davits 
was carried on each side, well aft. The side wheels 
were operated with a walking beam and the stacks 
and boilers were probably forward of this on the 



guards, as in the Empire of Troy, to trim the boat. 
This plan is interesting in that it shows how early a 
good form had been developed in the Hudson River 
type of river steamer, a form that changed remarkably 
little for seventy years. By 1838 some river steamers 
were capable of a speed of 20 miles per hour. 

Ocean Steamers 

Americans were much slower than the English to 
develop ocean-going steamers. The need for swift 
river transportation over long distances and for 
coastal services in relatively protected waters was, 
of course, the reason why American steamers were 
built almost entirely for such work; sailing vessels 
that were large, well built, and cheap to operate, 
were already in use in the ocean trade and as ocean 
packets. In England there were no long navigable 
rivers and little protected water; the nearby Conti- 
nent was the attractive destination which required 
open sea operation. Hence the early English steamers 
were designed for ocean service. 

However, in 1818 an attempt was made to produce 
an American ocean-going steamer. In that year a 
company, formed under the name of the Savannah 
Steamship Company, of Savannah, Georgia, pur- 
chased a coastal packet ship under construction at 
New York by Francis Fickett; one of the leading 
builders of this class of vessel. The ship was fitted 
with an inclined, direct-acting, low-pressure 9G-horse- 
power engine made by Stephen \'ail at the Speedwell 
Iron Works at Morristown, New Jersey. The boilers 
were made by Dod, at Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

Side paddle wheels without wheelboxes were fitted; 
and as it was expected that the ship would have 
trouljle with the w heels in heavy weather, these were 
designed to be readily dismounted at sea. Each wheel 
had eight arms pivoted to the hub flanges; on these 



13 



flanges were two fixed arms with blades. To keep 
the pivoted arms open, a chain was secured to the 
arms near the blades, from arm to arm. Thus the 
paddle wheel could be folded fanwise in two sections, 
one on each side of the hub and parallel to the load 
line. In addition, the folded wheels could be un- 
coupled and lifted on deck. The stack had a movable 
hood or elbow which was intended to be rotated to 
prevent sparks reaching the rigging. 

This ship was named the Savannah; when complete 
she was taken to Savannah, Georgia, and she sailed 
from there May 22, 1819, for Liverpool, England, 
where she arrived on June 20. She did not steam the 
whole distance, sailing most of the way. Under 
steam, in smooth water, she could make but 5 or 6 
knots and had insufficient fuel capacity. The vessel 
visited Sweden and Russia and then returned to 
Savannah. The venture was unsuccessful financially, 
and therefore the engine and boilers were removed 
and the ship employed as a sailing packet between 
Savannah and New York until her loss by stranding 
on Fire Island, off Bellport, Long Island, in 1821. 
She was apparently a typical packet ship and quite 
fast under sail; her low-powered engine was rather 
ineffective so far as speed was concerned. 

The only drawings of the ship that have been found 
are of the engine and wheels, and of the ship's profile 
above the waterline: these are contained in the 
Memoire sitr les Bateaux a Vapeur dcs Elats-Unis d' A)nerique, 
\)Y the French naval constructor Marestier, who in 
1824 made a report on American steamers. The 
Marestier drawings show that an existing rigged 
model of this ship in the Watercraft Collection, of the 
U. S. National Museum, and also a picture accom- 
panying it, do not represent correctly the ship or her 
details. 

The next attempt to build a commercial steamer 
for ocean trade in the L'nited States was in 1843, 
when the Massachusetts, of 751 tons, was fitted as an 
auxiliary packet ship for service between Boston and 
Europe. This ship was fitted with an Ericsson screw 
(abaft the rudder) which pivoted on a strut that 
allowed the wheel to be swung sidewise and upward 
to above the load line for sailing, the propeller shaft 
being off center and alongside the sternpost. The 
ship was a regular packet model of good form, 157 
feet 5 inches between perpendiculars, 32 feet moulded 
beam, and 20 feet depth of hold, built by Hall, at 
Boston, Massachusetts. Her stack was between the 
main and mizzen mast on a long quarterdeck that 
reached almost to the mainmast. The ship was not 



a financial success, for auxiliary steamers were usually 
unable to compete with sailing vessels in ocean trade, 
not only because of their higher initial cost btit also 
because the auxiliary cost more to operate. The 
Massachusetts was sold to the U. S. Government and 
became a storeship, with her engine removed, under 
the name Farralones. Later she became a merchant 
ship under the name Alaska, in the wheat trade. 

In 1847 two ocean-going steamers, the Washington 
and Hermann, of 230 and 241 feet length on deck 
respectively; side-wheel auxiliary steamers; were built 
at New York for the New York and Europe packet 
run. These were subsidized by mail contracts. Two 
more steamers, the Franklin and Humbolt, side-wheel 
auxiliaries 263 and 292 feet long on deck, respectively, 
were built in New York in 1850 for the New York to 
Bremen run. They were employed in the Le Havre 
nm, however. In 1847 the Webb-built steamer 
United States entered the trans-Atlantic service also. 
With the establishment of these projects, a steam packet 
line to Liverpool was set up by Edward K. Collins. 

With mail contracts available and with the intent 
of producing steamers that could serve as men-of-war 
when necessary, Collins built four side-wheel steamers; 
the Arctic, Atlantic, Baltic, and Pacific. These ships, 
of over 2700 tons and larger than competing English 
steamers then in the North- Atlantic service, were 
all about 280 feet or more on the main deck and made 
the run to Europe, or the return voyage, on an average 
of 1 1 days 3 hours. The ships were built at New 
York, the Arctic and Atlantic by William H. Brown 
under the supervision of Henry and George Steers, 
who probably designed them, and the Baltic and 
Pacific by Brown and Bell. 

The Arctic was lost, with heavy loss of life, through 
a collision at sea in 1854 and the Pacific disappeared 
in 1856 on the way home from Liverpool. Collins 
in 1855 replaced the Arctic with the Adriatic, a huge 
wooden sidewheeler, designed by the Steers brothers, 
of over 4000 tons, 345 feet long, and 50 feet beam. 
She once ran from St. Johns, Newfoundland, to 
Galway, Ireland, in 5 days, 19^^ hours and would 
have been capable of making the New York to Liver- 
pool run in a few hours over 8 days. The with- 
drawal of the mail contracts by the U. S. Government 
in 1857, a year of great economic depression, put the 
American steamship lines out of business, for the 
British continued to subsidize their steamer lines. 

Commodore W. K. V'anderbilt for a short time 
beginning in 1856 operated a single steamer, the 
Vanderbilt, in the European run and afterwards added 



114 



nvo more ships to the run, but this Hne was not 
profitable and the ships were withdrawn. After the 
Civil War, in 1866, a Boston to Liverpool line was 
established with the Erie and Ontario, two large screw 
steamers built at Newburyport, Massachusetts; how- 
ever, the English operators soon lowered their freight 
rates and after a few voyages this line also withdrew. 
In 1873 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company began 
operation from Philadelphia to Liverpool with four 
iron steamers built by Cramp, at Philadelphia, and 
in 1874-75 a number of iron steamers were built 
at Chester, Pennsylvania, for the trans-Pacific trade 
and two were built for a short-lived South American 
trade run. Other individual ships were built for 
ocean trade. Steel slowly replaced iron in United 
States shipbuilding beginning about 1878. 



York. The next steamer was built on the Canadian 
side, and the third steamer on the American side, 
the Walk-in-the-Waler at Black Rock, New York, in 
1818. These were followed by other steamers and 
in the next 10 years about 20 steamers were afloat 
on the Lakes. When the Welland Canal was opened, 
soon after 1829, the width and length of its locks 
fixed limits to the dimensions of steamers and sailing 
vessels alike for many years, particularly after 1831. 
The construction of large steamers began about 1 845, 
when fast side-wheelers were built for the passenger 
trade. After 1857 propellers rather than side paddle 
wheels were used, the first being on the Vandalia, 
built in 1841 at Oswego, New Y'ork. 

The growing trade in iron ore, grain, lumber, and 
coal produced a special type of lake steamer whose 




Plan of a Small Hudson River Steamer of About 1838, Showing Diagonal Strapping and Sharp-Ended 
Form. After plate 7, in L. M'Kay, Practical shipbuilder, New York, 1838. 



The American steamers of the 1840's and 1850's 
were of a distinctive national character, but those 
built of iron and steel, after the Civil War, of necessity 
resembled English steamers, for Britain had taken 
the lead in producing such ships. American pro- 
duction of seagoing steamers was very limited until 
the first World War when a large number of freighters 
were built and a few passenger vessels as well. From 
then to the second World War the mnnber of Ameri- 
can-built ocean steamers steadily increased in all 
classes. 

Inland and Coastal Steamers 

Coastal and inland steamers developed rapidly in 
the L^nited States after Fulton had shown that serv- 
iceable steamboats were possible. On the Great Lakes 
steamboat construction began in 1816 with the 
Ontario, of 232 tons, built at Sackett's Harl)or, New 



dimensions were controlled by the changes made in 
the Welland Canal and by other restrictions. This 
vessel had its machinery well aft; it was a flat-floored, 
wall-sided, rather straight-sheered vessel with short, 
full ends; the hull was long and narrow and was heav- 
ily trussed to give longitudinal strength. The design 
was largely established by the steam barge, which 
had a long and narrow, full-ended hull of moderate 
sheer with short counter, usually round or elliptical, 
a vertical straight stem, and was schooner rigged with 
two to four masts, but without a bowsprit. The en- 
gine and boiler was right aft, where there was a 2-deck 
superstructure. Many of the barges carried top- 
masts and some of the 4-masters had no sail on the 
after mast, it being employed as a derrick mast only. 
About 1880 wooden shipbuilding became very ex- 
pensi\e on the Lakes and there was a gradual shift to 
iron and then to steel construction. Late in that 
decade the use of sail on lake steamers went out of 



115 




First Steamship To Cross the Atlantic, the Savannah, as drawn by the French naval constructor Marestier in 
1820 and published in 1824 in his report on American steamers. {Smithsonian photo 4^434-a.) 



fashion and within a few years the forerunner of the 
modern ore and Isiilk cargo carrier of the Lakes ap- 
peared, with pilothouse right forward and the engine, 
boiler, fuel, and a deckhouse for crew's quarters at 
the extreme stern. 

The steamboats of the Ohio and Mississippi and 
their tributaries have had a remarkaljle development. 
Fulton and Livingston had built the Orleans at Pitts- 
Ijurgh in 1811 in hopes of obtaining a monopoly in 
steam navigation on the Ohio as they had on New 
York waters. The Orleans was fitted with side paddle 
wheels and was of aljout 200 tons, measured for regis- 
ter. She was fitted with masts and sails. The hull 
was probably like that of the Ranlan in form; the 
cabins were in the hold and there were port holes in 
the sides. According to a contemporary description, 
the vessel had one stack and no superstructure. 

A stern-wheeler, the Comet was built at Pittsburgh 
in 1813. Fulton built the Vesuvius there in that year, 



and steamboat construction soon spread along the 
Monongahela and the Ohio, the boats gradually in- 
creasing in power as they began to take the now well 
known form of the Mississippi River steamboat. Rac- 
ing of these steamers began in about 1830, the size of 
vessels rapidly increased as it had on the Hudson, and 
after about 1839 cabins on top of the deckhouse came 
into fashion and high-pressure boilers were usually in- 
stalled. On the lower Ohio and on the Mississippi 
the side-wheeler was popular; on the upper Ohio and 
on the tributaries the stern-wheeler was preferred. 

By 1852 steamers on the lower rivers had become 
very large. The Eclipse, built that year, was 363 feet 
long, 36 feet beam and 9 feet deep; she was capable 
of making 16 miles per hour against the cvirrent, so 
that her speed in still water must have been about 
19-20 miles per hoiu\ In model such side-wheelers 
were shallow hulls having a straight keel, a curved 
and slightly raking stem, short \erlical post with 



116 



round counter, the entrance sharp and long, and the 
run long and easy. The midsection was formed with 
little or no rise to the floor, a firm round bilge, and 
some flare in the straight topside. The side wheels 
were abaft midlength and were 40 to 42 feet in di- 
ameter, covered iiy wheelhouses, or wheelboxes, the 
latter name being the shipbuilders' term. \'essels 
such as the Eclipse had a cabin atop the main deck- 
house with a pilothouse on the cabin roof abaft the 
stacks, which were two abreast. These river packets 
were well finished and fitted; they attracted much at- 
tention at home and abroad. Stern-wheelers of some- 
what lesser size and magnificence were built on the 
Ohio and Missouri and innumerable small side-wheel 
and stern-wheel freighters were built. 

During the Ci\il War some river steamers were con- 
verted to ironclad gunboats by both the Federal and 
Confederate navies. The construction of iron vessels 
began on the upper Mississippi and Ohio during the 
war, though iron vessels had been built at Pittsburgh 
as early as 1840. After the war, large river steamers, 
including the famed Robert E. Lee and the Natchez, 
were built, and the river trade boomed. 

Stern-wheel towboats had been built on the Ohio in 
the 1840's, and after the Civil War these grew in size 
and power, as the river barge traffic increased. By 
1880 highly developed stern-wheel towboats or "push- 



ijoats" were being built of wood or iron and steel; the 
bow was long and sharp and the run short and straight, 
or formed with a tunnel with skegs at the sides. Early 
in the 20th century the tunnel-stern screw-propelled 
boats were developed, and these have taken the place 
of stern-wheelers, particularly after the introduction 
of the diesel engine. 

In the last 45 years great efforts have been made to 
de\elop better river craft and to improve the rivers 
for inland navigation, with the result that towboats 
are now of even greater power than the old steamers 
and can draw more water, which allows the use of 
screw propellers, many modern boats having as many 
as four. Few major changes, other than the tunnel 
stern, have been introduced to alter the basic hull 
design of river craft, already well developed at the 
time of the Civil War. 

The number of steamers in the coasting trade in 
the East gradually increased after the Civil War. Ves- 
sels were built for coastwise passenger service, and 
those intended for such voyages as from New York to 
Charleston, Savannah, or Jacksonville, resembled the 
oceangoing steamers of their time and were usually 
screw propelled. The side-wheelers remained popu- 
lar in some coastal trades for a few years after the 
Civil War, but the screw gradually replaced them. 
Manv notable steamers were built for the Lonsf Island 



Side-Paddle-Whf.el Steamer Fulton, from a French print in the Watercraft Collection (USNM 1 60010). 
Built bv Smith and Dimon in 1 856 for the New York-Le fiavre service, her register dimensions were 290' x 42'4" 
X 3i'6", 2,300 tons. She was broken up in 1861. {Smithsonian photo 4^628-e.) 




472S4C — 60 



117 



'C f tv 




.SlIlI'VAKD Hi 1111. .\l\\ i,.\L.LA.ND iSHU'UL ILUl.M . (, :iJ,\ll'A.\ \ , IjUlll, MjUir, 111 1 Ol-)U. LiilIci CUIlSlrUCtiuil IS lllC 

Steamer Portland, lost with all hands November 26-27, '898 in a storm that became known as the "Portland 
Gale." A 3-masted coaster is building in background. (Smithsonian photo 44^^2-6.) 



Sound service, New York to Fall River for example. 
After 1880 few wooden steamers were btiilt, and the 
then still popular iron vessels soon gave way to steel. 
Vessels employed as freighters were the last coasting 
steamers to be built of wood. 

The Pacific Coast shipbuilding industry was late 
in developing and it was not until after the Civil 
War that many yards were established. The ship- 
builders and carpenters were mainly from the East, 
and in the 1880's the yards were producing from 
native timber vessels having local characteristics. 
The sailing craft of the Pacific Coast were often very 
handsome and some were notable sailers. Likewise, 
the Pacific Coast shipbuilders produced for both 
coastal and ocean trade, a number of very fine 
wooden steamers whose form was much admired at 
home and in Europe. Steel shipbuilding did not 
become well established on the Pacific Coast until 
the 1890's. 

On the Gulf of Mexico shipbuilding was largely 
centered at New Orleans and the nearby region. 
In the years after the War of 1812, New Orleans 
shipyards had produced small, fast sailing vessels 
of the Baltimore -clipper type and a few freighting 



vessels of fuller model. After 1825 a few small 
steamers were also produced, but after the Civil 
War shipbuilding almost ceased and only small craft 
were built — luggers, sloops, schooners, scows, barges, 
and tugs. 

In the 1890's some of the coastal trades began to 
feel the competition of the railroads, as did some of 
the river steamship lines, and between 1888 and 1910 
the railroads obtained control of many lines, as well 
as many ferries, liquidating those that competed with 
their rail traflic. Some roads laid their rails up both 
banks of a river to cut ofT the steamers from their 
shore connections, and thus force them to cease 
operations. A common practice was to purchase a 
controlling interest in a coastal or river steamship 
line and then, by raising the water freight rates, put 
the line out of business. Another practice was for 
the railways to reduce their freight rates to a ruinous 
level, so that the steamship lines had to cease opera- 
tions, for they were commonly small companies 
dependent upon a limited area of coast for their 
income whereas the railways, drawing support from 
operations elsewhere, could take a loss in a limited 
area for a long period. 



118 



After 1918 the improvement of highways and the 
use of automobile trucks and, later, of prime-movers 
and trailers, not only gave serious competition to 
the railroads but also to the remaining small-vessel 
coasting trades. By 1935 the trucking operators had 
eliminated the small-vessel coasters in nearly all 
areas, and the American coasting trades were prac- 
tically extinct. All that now remains of these once 
prosperous operations are some small coastal tanker 
runs and a moderate amount of barge transportation 
on the intercoastal waterways. Highway competition 
with door-to-door delivery on the one hand and 
controlled freight rates on the other have prevented 
any rebirth of the coasting trades, even at times when 
governmental stimulus is being given the ocean 
freight trades. 

Special Types 

Several of the many special types of steamers devel- 
oped in various parts of the United States require 
particular mention. Tugboats in great numbers were 
built in the United States after steamboat construction 
started. The earliest steamers built for towing were 
small side- wheelers built in the 1830's and employed 
to do harbor towing and to supply ships with fresh 
water; two of these were in service at New York in 
1839. In the 1840's a large number of side-wheel 
steamers were built as towboats and the hull form and 
fittings of such boats became somewhat standardized. 
The early side-wheel tug usually had a low-sided hull 
with sharp ends; the wheels were abaft midlength and 
the boat was fitted with a deckhouse extending from 
about a quarter the length of the hull abaft the stem 
to a little more than that short of the stern. The 
pilothouse might be either part of this superstructure 
but somewhat raised or a small house atop the deck- 
house. The boats usually had one stack and the 
hulls had heavy guards. Some old river steamers 
were cut down in their old age and converted to tow- 
boats, with reduced superstructures. Screw tugs were 
built in the late 1840's but powerful paddle-wheel 
tugs remained quite numerous until after the Civil 
War. 

The first vessel to have Ericsson screw propellers 
in America was the small iron steamer Robert F. 
Stockton, built at Lairds, Birkenhead, Liverpool, Eng- 
land, in 1838 for the private account of Captain 
Robert F. Stockton, LI. S.N. This vessel had twin 
screws. After running her trials she was fitted as a 
topsail schooner and was brought to the United States 



where, in 1840, she was sold to the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal Company and, shorn of her sailing 
rig, was employed as a tug on the canal and on the 
Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. She was capable 
of 11 to 12 miles per hour running free and could tow 
four scow coal-barges at SY-, miles per hour. The 
success of this boat as a tug undoubtedly influenced 
many to build screw tugs, and soon after the end of 
the Civil War the standard American harbor tug 
had been developed. This had a rather narrow 
deep-draft hull, having drag to the keel, a more or 
less upright stem with rounded forefoot, a nearly 
vertical post, round or elliptical counter, strong sheer, 
sharp ends, a rising straight floor at the midsection, 
with a firm round bilge and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. A long deckhouse was placed on the 
main deck; the pilothouse might be part of this or be 
mounted on the deckhouse roof. Usually the boats 
had a single stack and two pole masts, but a few large 
tugs used in coastal towing had two stacks and some 
had a schooner rig without a bowsprit. American 
builders of tugs had developed great skill in the 
design of these craft and by 1875 there were many 
fine wooden tugs at Boston, New York, and elsewhere 
on the coast. 

\''arious attempts to build high-speed passenger 
steamers in the United States were made in the 1850's. 
George Steers and John W. Griffiths each prepared 
designs for "7-day steamers" intended to cross the 
Atlantic either way in less than a full week. A 
vessel was started from Griffith's design but was not 
completed as planned and so was not suitable for 
such a run. In appearance the two designs were 
somewhat similar to the cross-channel express steamers 
the British had begun building, but the American ships 
were to have been larger, more powerful and faster 
than any channel steamer then afloat. However, 
the high speed reached in river steamers led to the 
construction of some fast coastal passenger ships as 
early as the 1830's. In the 1880's and 1890's some 
very large and fast Long Island Sound steamers 
were built as well as some express boats for the 
Chesapeake. 

On the Lakes, in the 1890's the curious "whale- 
back" freighters were built; their hulls were rather 
cigarshaped \vith a pilothouse and deckhouse for- 
ward and another deckhouse aft, over the engine 
and boilers. These boats were intended to cheat 
the tonnage laws and had a short vogue; they all 
were built of steel, and all but one of these ships were 
bulk carriers. 



119 



After the first World War liquor smuggling became 
very active on the coasts of the United States and 
many fast motorboats were built for this illegal busi- 
ness. These boats were often 50 to 125 feet long; 
long, low straight-sheered boats capable of high speed 
and fitted with high-speed gasoline engines of great 
power. Some large boats were double-enders and 
of moderate speed; these brought cargoes to offshore 
rendezvous where they were met by fast "runners" 
which attempted to land the cargoes clandestinely. 
Liquor smuggling became highly organized during 
the 1920's and in this respect resembled the organized 
smuggling in Britain at the end of the 18th century. 

Engineering and Design 

In the period directly after the Civil War the mari- 
time interests of the United States had reached a low 
ebb, yet a great deal of ingenuity was being shown in 
marine engineering and shipbuilding. In the 1870's 
Americans were experimenting with cycloidal pro- 
pulsion and geared propeller shafting; quick-steaming 
and "flash" boilers and high-speed reciprocating 
engines were produced. Many patents were granted 
to American inventors for improvements in marine 
engineering and for deck equipment. 

The introduction of gasoline engines into marine 
propulsion occurred in the last quarter of the 19th 
century. There is evidence that the earliest applica- 
tion of the gasoline engine in the marine field was at 
San Francisco, California, where Daniel Regan and 
Mora Barrett began to build and sell marine gasoline 



engines sometime in the 1 880's. These were small 
engines. In the 1890"s a large number of experi- 
menters were at work developing gasoline and kerosene 
engines and by 1906 a large number of practical 
engines were on the market. 

During the first two decades of the 20th century 
gasoline and kerosene engines gradually replaced 
steam in small commercial craft. These motors 
were particularly suited for auxiliary power in 
schooners, fishing and coasting. As increased power 
became available, these engines were employed in 
other small craft. 

The use of oil engines in American commercial 
craft developed most lapidly after the introduction 
of the diesel engine. At the present time practically 
all small commercial craft, ferries, tugs, small coastal 
tankers, excursion boats, and small freighters, as 
well as most fishing craft above launch size, are now 
diesel powered. However, large diesel-powered ships 
are less popular in the American merchant marine 
than abroad and relatively few such vessels have 
been built in this country. 

The development of the geared-turbine propeller 
drive and the introduction of oil-burning boilers 
early in the 20th century were perhaps the most im- 
portant improvements before the first World War. 
The American merchant marine was not in a state 
to play much part in the development of these until 
during the first World War, when the American 
merchant marine was quickly expanded. Since that 
time the use of reciprocating engines has almost 
ceased in large American vessels, though in the 




ifti 



Rigged Model (U.SNM 203712) 
made in the National Museum 
about 1900, to represent the popu- 
lar concept of the appearance ol 
the first steamboat Fitch tried out 
on the Delaware River, in July 
1786. [Smithsonian photo 2Syj6-k.) 



120 



second World War the need of quick expansion of the 
merchant fleet caused these to be employed in the 
"Liberty Ships." The modern American merchant 
marine employs the turbine-electric drive as well as 
geared turbines, and marine engineering has reached 
a high level of effectiveness in the United States. 

Though the speed of ships has increased, much of 
this increase has been due to improved powering and 
engineering rather than to better hull design. The 
difficulties in designing an efficient hull were recog- 
nized very early in the development of modern naval 
architecture. In Europe, in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies, the idea was put forward of using models of 
ships to predetermine the performance of full-sized 
vessels and a number of experiments were made; in 
1721 the first known proposal for the use of towed 
models was made by Swedenborg but without effect. 
About the middle of the 18th century Chapman, an 
eminent Swedish naval architect, carried out some 
model experiments. Others were Bird in 1756, 
Benjamin Franklin in 1764, and d'Alembert, Con- 
dorcet, and Bossut, who built a test tank in 177,S at 
the Paris Ecole Militaire; this was operated at least 
until 1779 and perhaps longer. In 1790 a "Society 
for the Improvement of Naval Architecture" was 
formed in England and between 1793 and 1798 
Beaufoy carried out experiments for the Society in 
the Greenland Dock at London which were reported 
privately in 1799. Charles Gore continued these 
experiments and reported upon the effect of length 
in proportion to beam; he designed a large, 3-mast 
lugger to illustrate the application of the results of 
his tests. 

About 1830 Alexander Hall and Company, at Aber- 



deen, Scotland, established a private model-testing 
tank and as a result of experiments this firm built 
some very fast sailing vessels. At about the same time 
Robert L. Stevens was carrying out extensive model 
testing at New York with both sailing and towed 
models; using the latter method he also experimented 
with steamboat hull forms. Other experimenters used 
model testing in various ways; among them William 
Froude, who began testing models privately in 1862- 
63. In 1870, obtaining aid from the British Admi- 
ralty, he established a model testing tank at Torquay. 
Froude's work and general methods may be said 
to have established the basis for modern model-testing 
techniques. In 1886 a larger tank was built in Eng- 
land; by that time one was in use in Holland and 
another in Scotland. 

The first model tank in the United States was estab- 
lished at the Washington Navy Yard in 1 900 and was 
operated under the supervision of Rear Admiral David 
W. Taylor. Since that time many model-testing tanks 
have been established in this country, at the University 
of Michigan, Northwestern University, \Vebb Insti- 
tute of Naval Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Newport 
News Shipbuilding Company, and the very large test- 
ing facility operated by the United States Navy at 
Carderock, Maryland — the David Taylor Model 
Basin. 

The use of these test facilities has raised the stand- 
ards of boat and ship design in the LTnited States. 
Although there is still much to be done, not only in 
tests but in improvement of testing technique, Amer- 
ican designers now ha\e facilities for scientific study 
equal or superior to any country in the world. 



Catalog of the Collection — Merchant Steam 



JOHN FITCH'S STEAMBOAT, 1786 
Rigged Model, usnm 203712 

This model was made in the Museiun to represent 
the first steamboat Fitch tried out in July 1786 on the 
Delaware River. The boat is supposed to have been 
about 34 feet long and was propelled by two banks 
of oars, one on each side, operated by a ratchet-chain- 
and-drum drive. In August 1786 a second boat, 45 
feet long and 8 feet beam, was begun and in 1788 a 
third boat, 60 feet long and 12 feet beam, was 



launched. A fourth boat was started in 1790 Ijut was 
wrecked before its trials and never repaired. The 
third boat ran as a packet between Philadelphia and 
Trenton. She is described as having stern oars, as 
indicated in the drawing for the French patent granted 
Fitch (see p. 109). This is apparently the steamboat 
referred to by a Philadelphia newspaper. She was 
named Experiment. 

In its issue of Monday, July 26, 1790, the Federal 
Gazette and Philadelphia Daily Advertiser had the 
following notice: "Tfe Steamboat sets out tomorrow at 



121 



10 o'clock from Arch Street Ferry, in order to take 
passengers from Burlington, Bristol, Bordentown and 
Trenton, and return the next day." It is probable 
that the maintenance of Fitch's boats caused much 
trouble and expense, for the steamboat packet service 
appears to have lasted only three or four months and 
then was not resumed. 

The model represents a double-ended open boat 
having a straight keel, raking cvirved stem, raking 
straight post with rudder hung on it, moderate sheer, 
sharp entrance and run, midsection with some rise in 
the floor, firm round bilge, and an upright topside. 
There is no authority to be found for the hull form 
of this model; the engine in it does not agree with 
contemporary descriptions. 

The model scales 34 feet overall length, 8 feet beam, 



and 3 feet 6 inches depth; the oars six to a side, are 
each 12 feet long. Scale of model 2 inches to the foot. 

The boat was driven by the oars, which were stroked 
by a crank and rod arrangement, the crank being 
driven by a gear and endless chain operated by the 
engine. The many moving parts in this mode of 
propulsion, as well as the crude workmanship com- 
mon to machinery of the period, must have made 
maintenance difficult, so that in a short time the 
boats became unreliable. 

The model was made in the Museum. 

JAMES RUMSEY'S STEAMBOAT, 1787 
Rigged Model, usnm 203711 

This model is a reconstruction of the steamboat 
that James Rumsey of Berkeley Springs, Virginia, 



Rigged Model (USNM 20371 1) of reconstruction of 
James Ramsey's steamboat. His vessel was built in 
1787 and tested in 1788 on the upper Potomac River 
near Berkeley Springs. {Smithsonian photo -14440.) 




122 



invented in 1787 and experimented with the follow- 
ing year on the Potomac River. The boat was driven 
by a steam pump on the hydraulic-jet principle and 
its trials appear to ha\-e been considered successful. 
Rumsey is usually credited with inv^enting this boat 
in 1784 but recent research indicates that his first 
boat was probably mechanically propelled and 
intended to demonstrate only a mode of propulsion 
employing setting poles. After Rumsey completed 
the tests of his steamboat he went to England and 
obtained backing that permitted him to start con- 
struction of another boat there. However, he died 
before it was completed. The boat was tried out on 
the Thames by his backers but the demonstration 



did not impress onlookers enough to create any 
great interest, and nothing developed from this 
final experiment. 

Supposed to represent the second boat, built for 
the Potomac River trials, the model is no more than 
a rowboat somewhat like a contemporary ship's 
loiigboat. having a full entrance, a short and heavy 
run, and a square stern with the rudder hung out- 
board. The engine and other details arc not in 
agreement with contemporary descriptions. The 
authority for the form of the model is unknown. 
Scale of model is 2 inches to the foot. 

The model was made in the Museum. 





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Scale Drawing of Multitubular Boiler Designed by Stevens and used by him in liis steamboat, 1804. 
Original boiler (USNM 181 179) is in the Watercraft Collection. {Smithsonian photo 45368.) 



123 




Rigged Model (USNM 160306) 
is a reconstruction of the twin- 
screw steamboat, or launch, tried 
out by Stevens in 1804 in New 
York Harbor. The original boat 
used the engine and boiler 
( 1 8 1 1 yg) in the Watercraft Collec- 
tion. {Snnlhwnian photo r^nro.) 



STEX'ENS' MULTITUBULAR BOILER, and STEAM 

ENGINE, 1804 
Full-Sized Machinery, usnm 181179 

The machinery consists of the original boiler and en- 
gine employed in a twin-screw steamboat designed 
by Colonel John Stevens and built at Hoboken, 
New Jersey, in 1803-04. The boat was tested in 
in New York Harbor in May 1 804, when a speed 
of 4 miles per hour was obtained. 

The boiler is of the multitubular design patented 
by Stevens in 1791 and 1803, having 28 copper tubes 
each Iji inches in diameter and 18 inches long. The 
boiler has a small rectangular chest, 14 tubes project 
from each of two sides of it. The grate is at one end 
of the projecting tubes; the heat passes around these, 
under the chest, and then around the tubes at the 
opposite end and to the smokestack. The Stevens 
boiler was designed for higher pressure than the 
Watts boilers used in England, and his boilers were 
the forerunners of the American high-pressure boilers 
used later on American locomotives and steamboats. 

The engine is a single-cylinder, high-pressure type, 
having a cylinder 4li inches in diameter and a stroke 
of 9 inches, noncondensing and fast turning. The 
engine and propeller shafts are in one unit. 

The difficulties that discouraged Stevens from fol- 
lowing up the tests of 1804 with a larger boat can 
be understood bv inspection of the engine and 
boiler. Both are crudely built. There were at that 
time neither tools nor skilled workmen in the L^nitcd 
States that would enable him to produce machinery 
and boilers well enough made to withstand high- 
pressure steam and to produce the speed of engine 
revolution desirable in Stevens' plan of using twin- 
screw propulsion. 

In 1844 the boiler and engine were repaired, only 
defects in workmanship being corrected and these 
were identified by being painted yellow. Many of 
these defects were in soldered pipe joints. Some 



worn parts were duplicated and replaced. A test 
was then made, on the Hudson in October 1844, 
of the machinery installed in a new hull, and a speed 
of 8 miles per hour was obtained. 

The exhibit was preserved in the Stevens Institute 
I'rom 1844 until it was exhiliited in the World's 
Oolumbian Exposition in 1892, after which it was 
transferred to the Smithsonian Institution and placed 
in the Watercraft Collection. 

STEVENS' SCREW PROPELLER, 1804-05 
Full-Sized Copy, usnm 180397 

This full-sized copy of an experimental screw pro- 
peller designed by John Stevens complies with a 
description written by Stevens to Dr. Robert Hare of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, dated November 16, 
1805. The wheel has blades separately attached to 
the hub by a bar or shank fitting into a hole in the 
hub. The pitch could be adjusted by turning the 
blade on its shank and the wheel could be tried with 
two or four blades. 

Stevens had made numerous trials of the screw 
propeller, using manually operated cranks to turn 
the propellers, before attempting his steam engine 
trials of 1804. Stevens' letter to Dr. Hare shows he 
knew the value of pitch in propeller design as well 
as the desirability of curved faces on the blades as 
opposed to flat surfaces. Stevens tests apparently 
included a long screw but before his twin-screw 
tests of 1804, he had concluded that this modern- 
style short screw was the better. 

Purchased. 

STEVENS' TWIN-SCREW STEAMBOAT, 1804 
Rigged Model, usnm 160306 

This is a model representing a twin-screw steamboat 
designed by Colonel John Stevens and built at 
Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1803-04. The steamboat 
was tried in the spring of 1804 in New York Harbor 



124 



and made a speed of 4 miles per hour. The great diffi- 
cuhies Stevens met in the construction of the high- 
pressure, fast-turning engine, required for his screw- 
propulsion, discouraged his work in this direction, 
and he turned to paddle-wheel propulsion in his first 
large steamboat, the Phoenix. 

The model may not represent the form and appear- 
ance of the orginal boat accurately but the model's 
boiler and engine, etc., are based on the original 
machinery now preserved in the Watercraft Collec- 
tion (U.SNM 181179). 

The model is of an open boat having a straight keel 
and skeg, curved stem, rather upright flat transom, 
nearly straight sheer, rather full entrance and run, 
twin screws set abaft the post, and with the iron 
rudder set off from the transom on outriggers to 
clear the wheels. Engine and boiler are located a 
little abaft amidships. The boat is rather fiat floored, 
with a firm round bilge and upright side. Xo draw- 



ings or pictures of the original boat exist and all that 
is known about the hull is that it was of a then common 
rowing Whitehall type, which this model does not 
represent, being probably of a longer boat. 

Under the direction of Colonel Stevens' sons, the 
boiler and engine were overhauled in 1844 by Isaac 
Dripps, who was Superintendent of Machinery on the 
Camden and Amboy Railroad and afterwards held 
the same position on the Pennsylvania Railroad. He 
was under strict orders not to change or improve 
upon the original but merely to correct damaged 
parts. A new hull was built, and in October 1844 
boat and machinery were tested on the Hudson 
River; a speed of 8 miles per hour was obtained. 

The model represents a boat 24 feet 8 inches over- 
all, 6 feet 1 inch beam, 4 feet 11 inches width of 
transom, 2 feet A]i inches depth. Scale of model is 
2 inches to the foot. 

Model made in the Museum. 




Engi.ne .WD Boii.ER i_LS.\M 181179J Desig.ned bv John .Siene.ns and used in ins liiM sicduibuai, u-sied in 
New York Harbor, 1804. The propeller (USNM 180597) is a full-sized replica of the one used in tests in 
1804-05. {.Smilhsonian photo 6if;i.) 



472S4C — 60- 



-10 



125 




Rigged Model USNM 309409 
Reconstruction of the North River. 
commonly called the Clermont. 
built for the Hudson-Fulton Cele 
bration of 1909. For a view aft, 
see p. 112. (Smithsonian photo 44957 ■) 



ROBERT FULTON'S STEAMBOAT, 1807-08 
Rigged Model, usnm 309401 

North Kiver^ ex Clermont 

This model, an attempt at reconstruction of Robert 
Fulton's steamboat Clermont after her rebuilding 
during the winter of 1807-08, represents the full- 
sized reconstruction made for the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration in 1907. The rebuilding corrected 
fatilts in both machinery and in hull revealed by the 
experimental runs started in August 1807 and altera- 
tions were made. 

The model shows a "praam" type vessel, flat 
bottomed athwartships and fore-and-aft, having 
chines instead of a round bilge. The sides are slightly 
flaring and in section these are apparently all on the 
same moderate curve. There is a shallow external 
keel. The stem is nearly ttpright and slightly cur\ed, 
the post straight and raking. At the stern is a false 
counter, made by a "bustle," a structure somewhat 
like the "patent stern" of the later Chesapeake Bay 
bugeyes, that makes the sharp stern into a square 
stern at deck, the stern structure ending in a wide, 
shallow, rectangular transom with the whole of the 
false counter being well above the load line. The 
sheer is almost straight and the entrance convex and 
sharp, the run the same but finer. An open rail along 
the sheer is formed by a turned-stanchion-and-cap- 
rail. The vessel is decked; forward is a low cabin 
trunk and the foremast, the latter with topmast, yard. 



gaff, and boom. About amidships is the engine space, 
with engine, boilers, and drive machinery. The gear- 
driven fixed-blade paddle wheels are just forward of 
midlength and the high stack just abaft midlength. 
The paddle wheels have no guards or wheelboxes; 
after her rebuilding guards and wheelboxes were 
fitted. Aft is a long, low cabin trunk and the main- 
mast, which has only a boom and gaff. A tiller is 
right aft. The vessel appears long, low, and narrow. 

This model is in error in not having guards and 
wheelboxes, in having outboard flywheels, and in 
the omission of leeboards. The eagle figurehead has 
also been omitted. 

The register dimensions of the North River, as the 
Clermont was renamed after the rebuilding of 1807- 
08, were 149 feet between perpendiculars, 17 feet 
11 inches extreme beam, and 7 feet depth in hold. 
Scale of model is ]i inch to the foot. 

From the Hudson River Day Line. 

STEAMBOAT, 1807-09 
Rigged Model, usnm 160303 

Phoenix 

This model is a reconstruction of the steamboat 
Phoenix that was built under the personal supervision 
of Col. John Stevens in 1807-09. Originally the 
vessel had a crosshead engine \\ith twin condensing 
cylinders, 16 inches in diameter and 36 inches stroke. 
The boiler was set in l)rick\\ ork and was a cylindrical 
shell with one return flue. After makinsf the run from 



126 




Contemporary View of Fulton's Steamboat (see also p. in). The .North River after her reconstruction in 
1807-08, with leeboards and figurehead omitted. From a watercolor said to have been made by Simeon De 
Witt under the supervision of the North River's engineer. {Smithsonian photo 37g77.) 



Sandy Hook to Philadelphia in the summer of 1808 
the double cylinders were replaced by a single cylinder 
24 inches in diameter and a fly\\ heel was added to the 
engine. The Phoenix was under construction soon 
after Fulton returned from Europe with the engine 
made for him by Watt in 1806; the third steam engine 
that Britain allowed to be exported; which Fulton 
used in the Clermont. As a result of having the English 
engine Fulton was able to complete and test his boat 
a short time before Stevens could fit out the Phoenix 
and therefore obtained a monopoly of steam naviga- 
tion in New York waters. Ste\"ens sent the Phoenix 
to Philadelphia by sea, making her the first steamboat 
to navigate in American coastal waters, and \-ery 
generously gave credit to Fulton as the first to apply 
paddle wheels to a steamboat and the first to produce 
a useful vessel, in spite of his own lengthy pioneering 
work with steam propulsion. Stevens had primary 
interest in the screw propeller, but his inability to 
build a good engine with the tools and -ivorkmen avail- 
able in the United States had caused him to turn to 
paddle wheels in the Phoenix. 

The Phoenix, which had been employed as a packet 
between Philadelphia and Trenton since her arrival 
on the Delaware River in 1808, was wrecked in 1814 
near Trenton, New Jersey. 

The model shows a steamboat having side paddle 
wheels in wheel bo-xes protected fore and aft by short 



overhanging guards, the wheels slightly forward of 
midlength, a straight keel, stem curved and raking, 
with small gammon knee head, an upright post, and 
a round tuck, and an upper-and-lower transom square 
stern. The entrance is moderately sharp and the run 
rather short but straight. The midsection is formed 
with a slight rise in the straight floor, a hard turn of 
bilge, and a rather upright topside. The sheer is mod- 
erate and the hull is flush-decked, with a small pilot 
house forward, a single stack of very small diameter, 
and the companionway to cabins well aft. Square 
ports are shown in the sides of the hull. 

Rigged with two masts, with a square course on the 
foremast and a boomed gaff-sail on the mainmast. 

The Phoenix was about 101 feet long on deck, 16 
feet beam, and 6 feet 9 inches depth. Scale of model 
is J2 inch to the foot. 

Made in the Museum from a supposedly contempo- 
rary picture of the vessel; the data on which the model 
was built was inadequate. The hull is very poorly 
formed, and in this respect, at least, the model is un- 
doubtedly incorrect. 

SIDE-WHEEL STEAMER, 1816 
Rigged Model usnm 316742 

Chancellor Livingston 

The Chancellor Livingston was built by Henry 
Eckford at New York for Robert Fulton and asso- 



127 



ciates, the North River Steamboat Company, and 
was launched in 1816. She was the last vessel for 
which Fulton planned; he died early in 1815. The 
hull was designed by Eckford in consultation with 
Isaac Webb and was built by the latter under a 
subcontract. The engine was of the Fulton type, 
designed by Fulton's foreman Charles Stoudinger 
and built by James P. Allaire, with whom Stoud- 
inger had entered a partnership. Her joinery was 
done by David Cook, of New York. Costing $1 20,000, 
she was considered the fastest and finest steamer that 
had yet been built at the time of her launch. 

She was intended for service on the Hudson River 
and, as originally fitted, had a single stack. Her 
engine was rated at 75 horsepower, having a cylinder 
40 inches in diameter and a stroke of 60 inches. 
The boiler was copper, 28 feet long and 12 feet 
front, and weighed about 44,000 pounds. There 
were two 14-foot diameter flywheels, and the pad- 
dlewheels were 18 feet in diameter and 5 feet 10 
inches wide. Her speed was about 8)^ miles per 
hour and under normal conditions she carried 25 
to 30 pounds of steam in her boiler. Her fuel con- 
sumption was about 1 ^2 cords of hardwood per 
hour. 

In the fall of 1827 she was rebuilt and provided 
with new engine and boilers. Her new engine, 
rated at 120 horsepower and also built by Allaire 
had a cylinder 56 inches in diameter and a stroke of 
72 inches. She was also fitted with three small 
boilers and three stacks placed athwartshlps, and 
in addition was provided with a jib boom, three 
masts with topmasts, and a 3-mast schooner rig with 
a square course on the foremast. In 1828 she was 
placed on the New York-Providence run, where she 
made three round trips weekly during the next 
five years. Sold in 1832, she underwent extensive 
alterations, after which she was placed on the Provi- 
dence-Boston run. In 1834 she was again sold, 
and in the fall of that year ran onto a rock in Boston 
Harbor and was abandoned to the insurance under- 
writers. Her engine, salvaged in 1835, was fitted 
to a new- vessel, the Portland, owned by the C'uraber- 
land Steam Navigation Company and operated on 
the Boston-Portland run. 

The Chancellor Livingston was about 165 feet long 
on deck, 157 feet long on the waterline, 154 feet on 
the keel, 33 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 10 feet 
3 inches depth, 7 feet 3 inches service draft, and 494 
tons register. She was built of oak, cedar, and 
locust, copper fastened and copper sheathed. Her 



principal cabin was 54 feet long, the ladies cabin 
was 36 feet long, and the forward cabin 30 feet 
long, with 38 berths in the principal cabin, 24 in 
the ladies cabin, and 56 in the forward caljin. Scale 
of the model is ji inch to the foot. 

The model shows the vessel as originally built and 
using wood for fuel. (She burned coal as early as 
September 8, 1816.) The hull is formed with rather 
straight sheer, straight keel with slight drag, short 
and moderately full entrance, short but fine run, 
and raking stem rabbet with head and man's bust 
figurehead, trails, and headrail. The stern is square, 
with round tuck and quarter galleries. The mid- 
section has a slightly rising straight floor, firm round 
bilge, and vertical topsides. The sponsons, formed 
by carrying the deck beams outboard, extended 
nearly the full length of the hull. 

Built for the museum by F. Van Loon Ryder horn 
plans in Marestier's Me/noire sur les Bateaux a Vapeur 
des Etats-Unis d'Amcrique, Paris, 1824. 

IRON, SCREW CANAL TUG, 1838 
Rigged Model, usnm 160404 

Robert F. Stockton 

This model is a reconstruction of the iron, screw, 
steam canal tug Robert F. Stockton built at the Birken- 
head Ironworks in England in 1838 and fitted with 
Ericsson's screw propeller, to the order of Lt. Robert 
F. Stockton, LT.S.N., to serve as a canal tug on the 
Raritan Canal, in the construction of which Lt. Stock- 
ton was interested. When the vessel was completed 
she was schooner rigged, the propeller unshipped, 
and the voyage from Lixerpool to Ne%\' York was made 
under canvas. The vessel was owned by the Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal Company and she was built 
under the super\ision of F. B. Ogden, American con- 
sul at Liverpool. The Stockton \\as 40 days in making 
the Atlantic crossing, leaving Liverpool on April 11 
and arriving at New York May 21, 1830. Her crew 
consisted of C^aptain Crane, four men, and a boy. 
On arrival her propeller was shipped and she was 
employed in towing canal boats and vessels. She was 
renamed New jersey when an Act of Congress, May 8, 
1840, admitted her to American registry. 

The model does not agree with contemporary pic- 
tures of the Stockton in many respects and the informa- 
tion employed to construct this model has not been 
found. It shows an iron, single-screw steamer having 
straight keel, nearly straight rakiag stem with angular 
forefoot, slightly raking post, round fantail counter 
with vertical bulwarks, sharp entrance and full run, 



128 



slightly rising straight floor, full round bilge, and verti- 
cal topside amidships. A high stack of small diam- 
eter is shown. 

The Stockton was 63 feet 5 inches overall, 10 feet 
beam, 7 feet depth, 33 tons register, and 30 horse- 
power. The model is ){^ full size. 

Model built in the Museum. 



SCREW STEAM PACKET, 1844 
Builder's H.'^lf-Model, usnm 76055 



Decatur 



The steam screw packet Decatur was built on this 
model by Stephen Jackman at Newbury, Massa- 
chusetts, about 1844 for the Boston-Newburyport 
service, to carry passengers and freight. The half- 
model is of importance in that it shows the hull-form 
of a very early screw coasting vessel. No information 
is given on the power and speed of this steamer. 

The half-model shows a steam, screw, coasting 
\-essel hull having very straight sheer, straight keel, 
upright straight stem rabbet very slighdy rounded 
at forefoot, upright post, short round stern counter, 
sharp but short and convex entrance, long body, 
and a short and somewhat full run. Midsection has 
very slightly rising straight floor, a well rounded 
and easy bilge, and an upright topside. 

The model scales 132 feet moulded length at rail, 
24 feet 4 inches moulded beam, and 8 feet 8 inches 
moulded depth. Scale is ^g inch to the foot. 

Presented by Sumner, Swazey, and CXn-rier. New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. 



SIDE- WHEEL STEAM PACKET, 1846 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76056 



Ohio 



The side-wheel steam packet Ohio was built on this 
model in 1846 by Stephen Jackman at Newbury, 
Massachusetts, for the Boston-Newburyport run, to 
carry passengers, mail, and freight. She was a shoal, 
full-ended vessel with wide, full-length guards and 
represents a class of steamer popular in some coastal 
trades in the 1840's. 

The half-model has straight sheer, straight keel, 
upright straight stem rabbet very slightly rounded 
at forefoot, upright post and very short overhanging 
round stern, a short and full convex entrance, long 
body, short and full run. Midsection has a flat 
floor, a short, quick, almost angular turn to the bilge, 
and an upright topside. Model shows the wide 
guards running the length of the hull. 



The model is for a vessel 1 33 feet 4 inches moulded 
length at gunwale, 29 feet 8 inches beam over the 
guards, 19 feet 4 inches moulded beam at gunwale, 
and 6 feet 8 inches moulded depth. The Ohio was 
225 tons register, old measurement. .Scale of model 
is % inch to the foot. 

Given by Sumner, Swazey, and Currier, Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts. 

HUDSON RI\T;R steamer, 1852 
Rigged Model usnm 316204 

Francis Skiddy 

The Hudson River steamer Francis Skiddv was built 
by George B. Collyer, at New York in 1848-49 for 
the day run between New York and Albany. She 
was intended to have a rotary type engine but 
failures in its manufacture not only delayed the 
vessel's completion but also led to the substitution of 
a vertical beam engine. In 1852 she was completed 
as the General Taylor but before her first run she was 
renamed the Francis Skiddy. Considered the hand- 
somest Hudson River steamer that had yet been 
built, she was capable of averaging 23 to 24 miles 
per hour, and was for many years considered the 
fastest and finest steamer of her type. In 1855 the 
Skiddy was rebuilt into a night boat, another cabin- 
deck being added. This slowed her somewhat, so 
she was again changed by building another hull 
around the old one, but after the changes she was 
never as fast as when built. On November 25, 1864, 
the Skiddy hit a rock 4 miles below Albany and was 
then beached and stripped. 

The model shows a 4-stack, side-wheel Hudson 
River passenger steamer having a shoal hull with 
rather straight sheer, straight keel with no drag, 
rounded stem, vertical sternpost with small overhang 
to the stern and transom, a very sharp, long entrance, 
and a long and fine run. The midsection has a 
slightly rising straight floor, firm bilge, and nearly 
upright topside. The hull is fitted with a low super- 
structure with boilers on the guards. The model 
shows the boat as first built, as a day boat. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. The vessel 
was 325 feet long, 322 feet on deck, 312 feet 7 inches 
on the keel, 38 feet 10 inches beam, 10 feet 4 inches 
depth in hold, and 5 feet 6 inches draft, and was fitted 
with a Belknap and Cunningham vertical beam en- 
gine having a 70-inch cylinder with a 14-foot stroke 
Four iron boilers, two on each side, operated at 40 
pounds pressure; each was supplied with a small 



129 




Famous Hudson River Steamer Francis Skiddy. Launched in 1849, she was capable of steaming 23-24 miles 
per hour. Wrecked in 1854. Rigged model USNM 316204. {Smithsonian photo 4^666-h.) 



Steam blower. Paddle wheels were 40 feet in diameter 
and had 26 buckets 11 feet wide and 33 inches deep. 
The vessel was 1,235 tons, old measurement. 

Built for the Museum from the builder's lines by 
F. Van Loon Ryder. 

SCREW STEAM FRIGATE, 1858 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160139 

General Admiral 

The single-screw, wooden steam frigate General 
Admiral was built on the lines of this half-model at 
New York by William H. Webb in 1858 for the Im- 
perial Russian Navy. .She carried 64 guns and at the 
time of her launching was one of the largest and 
most powerful ships of her class in the world, being 
then considered the finest man-of-war to have iDcen 
built in the United States. She was full ship-rigged 
with a large spread of canvas and was intended to 
steam fast and sail swiftly. Her lines and other draw- 
ings are shown in Weblo's Plans of Wooden Ships. 

The half-model shows an auxiliary steam frigate 
hull having little sheer, a straight keel with little or no 
drag, straight and slightly raking stem rabbet, slightly 
founded at forefoot, upright post, short counter with 
round stern, long and sharp entrance, short body, 
long and easy run. Midsection shows a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low hard bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. Model mounted with long- 
head, billet, trail, cutwater, keel, post, and rudder. 

The model is for a frigate 316 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at rail, 302 feet 10 inches load waterline 
length, 54 feet 6 inches extreme beam, 34 feet depth, 



22 feet draft loaded, 4600 tons measurement. Scale 
)i inch to the foot. 

Given by William H. Webb, shipbuilder, New York, 
N. Y. 

WOODEN, SCREW STEAMSHIP, 1864 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76045 

Meteor 

The ship-rigged, wooden, single-screw clipper 
steamship Meteor was built on this model at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, and was launched May 
21, 1864, apparently under the name of U. S. Grant. 
She was designed by Dennison J. Lawlor and her 
building was financed with funds raised by subscrip- 
tions from vessel-owners and merchants of Boston, New 
York, and other ports. She was built for the purpose 
of destroying the Confederate States' raiders like the 
Alabama, then preying on American shipping, and 
it was intended to present her to the United States 
Navy as an armed seagoing cruiser of great speed 
and heavy armament. The vessel was the result of 
a designing competition in which were entered three 
of the best known American ship designers and build- 
ers, Henry Steers and William H. Webb of New 
York City and Dennison J. Lawlor of East Boston 
and Chelsea, Massachusetts. Lawlor's design was 
considered most suitable but he did not build the 
vessel himself; she was built by Tobey and Little- 
field, at Portsmouth, N. H. 

The ship was designed to have a large cruising 
radius and to be capalile of great speed under either 
steam or sail or both. She was to carry one heavy 



130 




Su.wi ,S' KLw (. i ii'i'iR, From a Painting i.\ the VVatercraft Collection (USNM 761 13). The Mctcur, 
represented in the collection by builder's half-model USNM 76045, was built at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
in 1864 by Tobey and Littlefield from a design by Dennison J. Lawlor. Intended for a cruiser to capture 
Confederate commerce-destroyers, she was not completed in time to be of service, and was sold to South 
America, where she took part in the war between Chile and Peru. There she was scuttled to prevent capture. 
{Smithsonian photo ^^6^g.) 



11 -inch muzzle-loading pivot gun amidships on her 
lower deck, placed just forward of the mainmast 
and firing through long ports on either side, or, as 
an alternative, to have two 10-inch guns there, firing 
on the broadside. Forward of this she was to have 
two gunports on each side for 8- or 9-inch muzzle- 
loading Dalgren guns, and abreast the engine hatch 
abaft the mainmast two more ports on each side for 
24- or 32-pounder muzzle-loading columbiads or 
howitzers. On her spar deck forward she was to 
have two 30-pounder rifled Parrott guns, muzzle- 
loaders, as chase guns. She had four tubular l^oilers 
and an engine having two 62j2-inch by 30-inch 
cylinders; her propeller was 13 feet 6 inches in diame- 
ter and 23 feet pitch. All her machinery and her boil- 
ers were built in Scotland. She was about 400 tons 
register larger than the Confederate steamer Alabama, 
and with a speed of about 13 knots was considered to 
be the fastest ocean-going screw steamer in America 
at the time she ran her trials off New York. She 



was also said to have been very fast under sail alone; 
she had a Forbes rig and was heavily sparred. 

The vessel \vas completed too late to be of service 
in the Civil War. She made several short voyages 
as a merchant ship but was thought too fast and 
expensive to operate for that purpose, and was then 
laid up. There v\-ere no buyers when she was offered 
for sale in 1865, but on January 23, 1866, she was 
seized by the U. S. Marshal at the request of the 
Spanish Ambassador, it being alleged that negotiations 
were then underway for her purchase by revolution- 
ists of the rebelling Spanish colonies in South and 
Central America. The court actions growing out of 
this incident lasted almost three years. The steamer 
was sold, however, ostensibly for use in China, but 
she did not reach there; eventually she took part in 
the war ijetween Chile and Peru under another 
name and was destroyed to prevent capture. 

The Meteor was much admired, when iiuildinfi;. for 
her hull form, which was considered a great acK ancc 



131 



on that of all previoiis steamers designed for swif;ness, 
such as the U. S. S. Niagara, designed by George 
Steers and built before the Civil War. 

The half-model shows a wooden, single-screw, auxil- 
iary steamer hull having very moderate and graceful 
sheer, a straight keel with slight drag, upright stem 
rabbet with a much rounded forefoot, upright post, 
short roimd counter with flaring bulwarks, a very long 
and sharp entrance with marked hollow adjacent the 
forefoot, a short body, and a very long and rcmarkedly 
fine run. The midsection is large, having a very 
slightly rising floor, a quick, low turn of bilge, and 
moderate tumble-home in the topside. 

The Meteor was rigged as a ship, having the Forbes 
rig and a large spread of sail, comparable to that of 
some of the earlier clipper ships, it being intended that 
she sail equal to any sailing vessel in the world, as 
well as that she steam faster than any ocean-going 
steamer of ecjual gun power then afloat. There were 
then some side-wheel steamers faster under steam, but 
the Meteor would have been their superior in fighting 
qualities. She resembled some of the fast wooden 
cruisers built for the U. S. Navy at the end of the 
Civil War. 



The model is for a ship 198 feet moulded length at 
rail, 48 feet moulded beam, 1 8 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth, and 1440 tons register. Scale of model is ]i 
inch to the foot. 

Given by the designer, Dcnnison J. Lawlor, ship- 
builder, Chelsea, Massachusetts. 

IRON, PASSENGER and FREIGHT STEAMER, 1878 
Rigged Model, usnm 160201 

Cuba 

The iron single- screw steamer Cuba was built in 
1878 by Neafie and Levy at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, for freight and passenger service in the Phila- 
delphia-Havana run. The museum records state that 
the model also represents the Oriental, built Ijy the 
same firm over ten years earlier, but this is not sup- 
ported by the register dimensions. 

The model is of a single-screw, iron steamer, brigan- 
tine rigged, having a moderate and flush sheer, a 
straight keel with slight drag, upright straight stem 
with rounded forefoot, vertical post, round fantail 
counter, long sharp entrance, and a long and easy 
run. The midsection shows a slightly rising straight 



Rigged Model, US.NM 160201 , of 
the iron screw steamer Cuhu, built 
in 1878 at Philadclijhia to carry 
passengers and frciglit in Havana 
trade. {Smithsonian pliotos — top, 
4495S-I; bottom, 4^956-g.) 




132 



floor, a hard, round bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. There are short whaleback 
decks at bow and stern. 

A long main deckhouse with the pilothouse and 
a small deckhouse on its roof, a single stack, venti- 
lators, skylights, a life raft, fire buckets in a rack, 
and six lifeboats in davits are shown. The maindeck 
rail is an open one without bulwarks. 

The Cuba was 246 feet 9 inches overall, 28 feet 
4 inches beam, 17 feet 3 inches depth. The spar 
dimensions were: foremast above deck 51 feet, fore- 
topmast heel to truck 36 feet, fore yard 49 feet 4 
inches, fore topsail yard 42 feet 9 inches, fore top- 
gallant yard 38 feet 3 inches, mainmast above deck 
53 feet 3 inches, main topmast heel to truck 36 feet 
9 inches, and main gaff 34 feet 4 inches. The boats 
were 19 feet 4 inches long and 5 feet 9 inches beam. 
Scale of model ]{ inch to one foot. 

Given by the Cuba's builders, Neafie and Levy, 
shipbuilders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

AUXILIARY, SCREW STEAMER 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311456 

Amiral de Joie 

This half-model of a fast auxiliary steam screw 
vessel named Amiral de Joie, having dimensions in 
French and with an indistinct flag and seal or coat 
of arms on the backboard, was found in the shipyard 
of the Jackson and Sharpe Company. No record of 
the vessel having been built there has yet been 
found; the model is a decorative one representing 
a fast, wooden steamer, probably rigged as a 3- 
masted topsail schooner haxdng a single screw. 
The model may represent a dispatch boat or govern- 
ment mail packet of 1853-65 belonging to the French 
government. The general appearance is that of a 
British Navy dispatch vessel of about 1858. 

The half-model shows a hull having a strong, grace- 
ful sheer, a straight keel with drag, and a raking and 
flaring stem rabbet with rounded forefoot. The stem 
is fitted with a longhead and trails, the post is vertical 
and the stern formed with a round fantail with flaring 
bulwarks, the entrance is rather long and quite sharp, 
and the run is fairly long and very fine. The mid- 
section is formed with a rising straight floor, a rather 
slack round bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. 

The model is mounted with stub masts, and a stack 
on a round boiler housing located between the fore 
and main masts; the general deck arrangement is 
indicated. The lettering on the backboard states 



that the vessel was "175 pieds" length between per- 
pendiculars, "30 pieds" beam, and "18 pieds" depth. 
The scale is apparently ]{ inch to the foot, giving 
in English feet a moulded length at rail of about 192 
feet, 32 feet moulded beam and 18 feet moulded depth, 
rabbet to rail, by measurement. 

Given by the American Car and Foundry Company, 
Wilmington, Delaware; successors to Jackson and 
Sharpe Company, shipbuilders. 

WOODEiSI, OCEAN STEAMER, 1870-85 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 

This half-model of an unidentified wooden, ocean- 
going steamer is in the Watercraft Collection, without 
markings or information as to source or donor. The 
model resembles the steamer Mexico built by Dickie 
Brothers, San Francisco, in 1881, whose lines are 
shown in Hall's Report on Shipbuilding. It is of a 
smaller ship, however, judging by the apparent scale, 
which is believed to be % inch to the foot. 

The half-model shows a wooden, single-screw steam- 
er hull having marked sheer, a straight keel with little 
or no drag, a straight upright stem rabbet with slightly 
rounded forefoot, upright post, round fantail counter 
with flaring bulwarks, sharp convex entrance of mod- 
erate length, a rather long body and a short and well 
formed run. The midsection shows a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low and hard round bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Assuming the scale to be Y^ inch to the foot and the 
lift lines spaced at 24 inches, the vessel would have 
been about 202 feet 8 inches moulded length at rail, 
30 feet 8 inches moulded beam, and 24 feet depth, 
rabbet to rail cap. 

SCREW CARGO STEAMER, about 1880-90 
Exhibition Half-Model, usnm 313330 

Calderon 

This is a decorative half-model showing deck struc- 
tures and layout of an iron or steel steamer, probably 
English built, of about 1 880-90. No information on 
this vessel has been found in the Museum. 

The model is of a single screw steamer having 
moderate sheer, a straight keel, cutaway forefoot, 
upright straight stem, upright post, round fantail 
counter, and an easy entrance and run. The body 
is long and the midsection is formed with a slightly 
rising straight floor, a hard round bilge, and a slight 
tumble-home in the topside. 

The model shows a short raised forecastle and poop, 
with a short island amidships. There is one deck- 



133 



house, a pilothouse and bridge, two masts, and one 
stack. 

Model may be on a scale of % inch to the foot 
making the measurements about 261 feet 10 inches 
overall, 33 feet 4 inches beam and 23 feet 4 inches 
depth. 

Given by U. S. Post Oflice Department. 

SIDE-WHEEL MISSISSIPPI RIVER STEAMER, 1871 
Rigged Model, usnm 308426 

James Howard 

The flat-bottomed, side-wheel Mississippi River 
steamer James Howard, was huilt at Jeffersonville, 
Indiana, by the Howard Shipyards and Dock Com- 
pany in 1871 for the St. Louis-New Orleans run. She 
was intended to carry both freight and passengers as a 
river packet and was the largest vessel of her type 
when built. 

The model represents a wooden Mississippi Ri\er 
steam packet having side paddle wheels and a straight 
keel, slight sheer, curved upright stem, upright post 
with round fantail counter, wide guards extending 
out to outer face of wheelboxes, a sharp and long 
entrance, and a short easy run. 

The wheels are about one-third the hull length from 
the stern, and there is a two-deck house with a pilot's 
wheelhouse on its roof ai^aft the twin stacks set abreast 
one another. There is a short forward deck, and the 
guards are carried fair from the bow to the fantail rim. 

The vessel was 330 feet long, 56 feet beam over the 
guards, 10 feet depth, and had two engines with pis- 




RiGGED Model (USNM 308426) of the Mississippi 
River packet steamer James Howard, built at Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana, 1871, for the St. Louis to New 
Orleans run. (Smithsonian photo jog^g-b.) 

tons 34 inches in diameter by 10 feet stroke, 7 loco- 
motive-type boilers 42 inches in diameter and 32 feet 
long; the sidewheels were each 32 feet in diameter and 
15 feet wide at the blades. Scale of the model is ^g 
inch to the foot. 

Given by Howard Shipyards and Dock Company, 
Jeffersonville, Indiana. 

SIDE-WHEEL OHIO RIVER STEAMER, 1892 
Rigged Model, usnm 160323 

Grej Eagle 

The side-wheel wooden packet steamer Gxy Eagles 
represented by this model, was built at Jeffersonville, 
Indiana, in 1892 as a river packet and she ran for 
some years on the Ohio River, between Louisville and 




.•>'■ •"<•*. 



L^fe-^ 







Ohio River Mail and Passenger Packet Grey Eagle, built at Jeffersonville, Indiana, in 1892, and employed 
in the mail run between Louisville and Henderson. Rigged model LISNM 160323. (Smithsonian photo 23168.) 



134 



Henderson, Kentucky, carrying mail, freight, and 
passengers. The Grey Eagle, typical for her date of 
building, was similar in every way to the famous 
Mississippi River side-wheel packet steamers. This 
type had become well developed by 1850 and played 
an active part in river operations by both the Con- 
federate and Federal armed services during the 
Civil War. These packets were often fast, and on 
both sides some were converted into steam rams. 
The great period of these river packet steamers was 
in the 1850's but for at least 25 years after the Civil 
War the packet trade was prosperous on the Ohio, 
Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, as well as on the 
Tennessee and Red Rivers. With the development 
of the railroads, the packets slowly disappeared; 
the last survivor ceased operations some time about 
1955. 

The model shows a shoal-draft, side-wheel, wooden, 
river steamer having a straight keel, curved stem, 
vertical post, a round fantail counter, slight sheer, 
a moderately sharp convex entrance, and an easy 
run: The midsection is formed with a flat floor, 
an easy round bilge, and a flaring topside. The 
hull, at the main deck, is fitted with wide overhanging 
guards fairing almost round into the stem and counter. 
The side paddle-wheels are about one-foiu'th the 
length of hull from the stern. 

The model has a large deck structure consisting of 
a 2-deck house reaching from the stern to a point 
about one-fifth the hull length from the bow, the 
lower portion of the house being quite high. This 



was the main-deck freight space, on which were also 
the boilers, engine, and fuel space; the upper deck 
contained a promenade, cabins, and saloon; and the 
long deckhouse on its roof also contained cabins. 
On the deckhouse roof are two high stacks side-by- 
side and another small house, containing cabins or 
public spaces, on which is the pilot or wheelhouse, 
well abaft the stacks. The two decks fitted with 
promenade areas have turned-stanchion-and-cap rails, 
with ornamental posts, or columns, supporting the 
upper deck. 

The Grey Eagle measured 250 feet long, 40 feet 
beam at gunwale, 60 feet 6 inches beam over the 
guards, 5 feet 6 inches depth of hold, and about 54 
feet extreme height from rabbet to roof of pilothouse. 
Scale of model is ){ inch to the foot. 

Model made in the Museum from plans not now 
in the Museum files. It was built to float and was 
intended to be self-propelled, but was never completed. 

SIDE-WHEEL HUDSON RRTIR EXCURSION 

STEAMER, 1906 
Rigged Model, usnm 309408 

Heiidrick Hudson 

The Hendrick Hudson was a steel, side-wheel Hudson 
River excursion steamer built in 1906 by the Marvel 
Shipbuilding Company at Newburgh, New York, 
under subcontract with W. and A.. Fletcher, of New 
York, who built her engines. The steamer was de- 
signed by Frank E. Kirby and was built for the Hud- 



TopsiDE Detail of Rigged Model 
(USNM 160323) of river packet 
Grey Eagle. {Smithsonian photo 
32867-a) 




135 




.1, »Uf *u« ^- __.._^"-'^_ 

nnniinnMi|||iplH|^i^ii^^||ii|||||aBBMHBBH||ii||agiI|iHliail| 




The Steel SiDE-^VHEEL Hudson River Steamer Htndiick Hudson was built by the Marvel Shipbuilding Com- 
pany, Newburgh, New York, in igo6. Licensed to carry 5.500 persons, she ran for many years between New 
York City and Albany. Rigged model USNM 309408. iSmit/iiuiiuiii Ji/mlo ^jzfc.) 



son Ri\-er Day Line of New York. She ran for many 
years on the New York City to .-Mbany run and was a 
well know^n vessel in her day. She was licensed to 
carry 5500 persons. 

The model represents an excursion steamer having 
three flush decks running from bow to stern. On the 
upper deck is a deckhouse, extending about three- 
fifths the hull length, on which is a 2-deck bridge-and- 
wheelhouse structure, a small 1-deck house, and two 
stacks in line fore and aft. Wide guards, with expased 
iron braces to the hull sides below, house feathering 
paddle \vheels forw ard of midlength. The guards are 
faired into both bow and fantail rim. The keel is 
straight with no drag; the forefoot is much cut awav 



and rounded, and the stem is straight and upright 
abo\e the load line; the keel aft is cut up in a straight 
line for a considerable length; and there is a short 
vertical post with a balance rudder himg on it and a 
short, roimcl, fantail counter above. The sheer is 
slight, the entrance is long and very sharp, and the 
run is long and very fine. The midsection had a 
nearly flat floor, an easy round bilge, and an upright 
topside. 

The Hendruk Hudson was 400 feet long, o\-erall, 
379.1 feet between perpendiculars, 45.1 feet beam at 
gimwales and 82 feet over the guards, 14 feet 5 inches 
moulded depth, her depth in hold was 13.4 feet, and 
lier draft 7 feet 6 inches. The vessel had a 3-cvlinder 



i~iim 



■^ ^ 










\ 



Sier.n-Wheel Ru'ek Sie.\.\ilr Blu.i ue Wood at Ai'ALachicola, Florida, in igoi. The Thomas A. Edison 
is represented in the Watercraft Collection by builder's half-model USNM 31 1260. {Smithsonian photo 34422.) 



136 



compound direct-acting engine of 6200 indicated 
horsepower and made 23 statute miles per hour on 
trials. She had a register tonnage of 2847 gross tons, 
1598 net tons. .Scale of model 'i inch to the foot. 
From the Hudson River Day Line. 

STERN- WHEEL RIVER STEAMER, 1908 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311260 

Thomas A. Edison 

A stern-wheel steaniljoat for river navigation in 
Florida was built on this model about 1908 by Samuel 
Johnson at Apalachicola, Florida, and named the 
Thomas A. Edison. The model represents an attempt 
to improve upon the usual hull-form of this type of 
vessel, and is supposed to have been made from plans 
furnished the builder by the engine manufacturer. 

The model shows a shallow, flat-bottomed hull hav- 
ing nearly straight sheer, a straight keel tucked up aft 
to form a short but easy run, an upright straight stem 
rabbet, a slightly rounded forefoot, vertical flat tran- 
som, long and sharp entrance, flat floor, a hard bilge 
on a short radius, and an upright topside. The flare 
becomes very marked near the bow and stern, as the 
bilges are made easy there. It was thought that a 
slack bilge aft would make the vessel turn quickly, a 
desired characteristic in these river steamers. 

The model is for a vessel 80 feet moulded length at 
gunwale, 20 feet moulded beam at gunwale, and 3 
feet 6 inches moulded depth. Scale of model is K inch 
to the foot. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, boatbuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

WOODEN, STERN- WHEEL RIVER STEAMER, 1908 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311526 

Uneeda 

The wooden stern-wheel river steamer Uneeda was 
built by H, Hansen on this model on Orange River, 
near Fort Meyers, Florida, in 1908, for local river 
service. The model shows a very shoal stern-wheel 
steamer hull having straight sheer, a straight keel 
with the run formed by an angular rake, or ''tuck-up," 
aft, the stem rabbet slightly curved and rather up- 
right, the transom wide, flat, and upright. The 
entrance is short but rather sharp; the run formed 
by the tuck-up is straight, but short. The deck 
outline, in plan, shows almost parallel sides from 
the stern almost to the bow. The midsection is 
rectangular, the bilges being rounded on a very 
small radius to save labor in building. 



The model is believed to be on a scale of % inch to 
the foot and the vessel would then measure about 84 
feet 6 inches moulded length, 20 feet 6 inches beam, 
and 3 feet 6 inches moulded depth. 

Given by Captain H, Hansen. 

STEEL, SCREW LIGHTHOUSE TENDER, 1893 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311829 

Maple 

This is the plating model used in building the single- 
screw, steel, steam lighthouse tender Maple for the 
L'.S. Lighthouse Service by Samuel L. Moore & Son 
Co. at Elizabethport, New Jersey, in 1893, The 
steamer replaced a sailing-schooner tender of the same 
name. 

The half-model represents a steel, single-screw 
steamer hull having moderate sheer, a straight keel 
with little drag, an upright straight stem slightly 
rounded at the forefoot, a vertical post, a round fan- 
tail counter with flaring bulwarks, easy entrance, and 
a short and full run. The midsection is formed with 
a moderately rising straight floor, a firm round bilge, 
and a nearly straight and vertical topside. 

The model is to the main rail and indicates the 
short open space in them forward used to bring buoys 
aboard with minimum lift. 

The Maple was 155 feet between perpendiculars, 30 
feet beam, and 12 feet depth; she was 392 gross tons 
register, and had a 650-horsepower reciprocating en- 
gine. She was employed on the northern Atlantic 
coast during most of her career. Scale of model is }^ 
inch to the foot. 

Given by LT. S. Coast Guard, 

STEEL, SCREW LIGHTHOUSE TENDER, 1903 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311828 

Larkspur 

This half-model was used for laying ofT the plating 
of the steel single-screw, steam lighthouse tender 
Larkspur built at Port Richmond, N, Y. in 1903, 
Vessels of this type were employed to supply light- 
houses along the coast, for attending lifesaving sta- 
tions, and for maintaining buoys and other navigation 
marks. 

The half-model represents a hull ha\ing strong 
sheer, a straight keel with little drag, upright curved 
stem, vertical post, round fantail counter, sharp 
entrance of moderate length, and easy run. The 
midsection shows a rising straight floor of moderate 



137 



dcadrise, an easy round bilge, and a rather upright 
topside. 

A long deckhouse, reaching from a little forward 
of midlcngth to witliin a short distance of the stern, 
is shown, and on the deckhouse roof is a pilothouse, 
with a small house abaft. 

The Larkspur measured 162 feet length between 
perpendiculars, 30 feet beam, and 14 feet depth; she 
was 685 gross tons; and had a 750-horsepower recip- 
rocating engine. Scale of model is ]{ inch to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

STEEL, SCREW LIGHTHOUSE TENDER, 1903 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311830 

Heather 

This is the plating model employed by Moran 
Bros. & Co. in building the steel, steam, single- 
screw lighthouse tender and buoy boat Heather for 
the U. S. Lighthouse Service at Seattle, Washington, 
in 1903. 

The half-model to main-deck height only, is of a 
hull having moderate sheer, a straight keel, an up- 
right and nearly straight stem, vertical post, roimd 
fantail counter, a sharp entrance of moderate length, 
and an easy short run. The midsection is formed 
with a moderately rising straight floor, a firm round 
bilge and an upright topside. 

The Heather measured 165 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 28 feet beam, and 15 feet depth; she was 631 
gross tons register and had a 685-horsepower recipro- 
cating steam engine. Scale of model is ]{ inch to 
the foot. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

STEEL, SCREW LIGHTHOUSE TENDER, 

1906 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311831 

Aspen 

This is the plating model for the steel, steam light- 
house tender Aspen, built at Toledo, Ohio, in 1 906 for 
service on the Great Lakes. 

The half-model shows a steel, single-screw steamer 
having strong sheer, with a short, high raised deck at 
the bow, a straight keel with some drag, an upright 
post, a short round fantail counter like that of a tug 
but with upright bulwarks, an upright and curved 
stem, a rather short but sharp entrance, and an easy 
run. The midsection is formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low hard bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. 



The Aspen was 118 feet between perpendiculars, 25 
feet beam, 12 feet depth, and had a 440-horsepower 
reciprocating engine; she was 227 gross tons register. 
Scale of model is ){ inch to the foot. 

Given by LT. S. Coast Guard. 

STEEL, STERN-WHEEL LIGHTHOUSE TENDER, 

1924 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311886 

Greenbrier 

This is the plating model of the river lighthouse 
tender and buoy boat Greenbrier built at Charlestown, 
West Virginia, in 1924 for service on the Ohio and 
upper Mississippi Rivers. She was used to supply 
lighthouses and to attend to the buoys and navigation 
aids along these rivers. 

The half-model represents a steel, stern-wheel, river 
steamer of traditional type, having moderate sheer, 
straight keel, upright and nearly straight stem, 
shallow square stern, sharp entrance of moderate 
length, and a short straight run formed by a tuck-up 
of the bottom close to the stern. The midsection is 
formed with a flat floor, a quick hard bilge formed 
on a short radius, and a vertical topside. There is 
very great flare in the forward sections to form the 
almost rectangular deck outline forward. 

A large deckhouse and stern wheel are shown. 

The Greenbrier measured 140 feet between perpen- 
diculars, 32 feet beam, and 5 feet depth; she was 
305 gross tons register and had 350-horsepower 
engines. Scale of model is Yi inch to the foot. Her 
plans are in the Watercraft Collection. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

U. S. LIGHTSHIP 82, 1908 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311832 

This is the builder's plating model of the U.S. Light- 
ship 82, a single-screw, steel steamer. She was built 
at Muskegon, Michigan, in 1908 and sank on the 
Buffalo station. 

The model shows a lightship hull having much 
sheer, a straight keel with drag, a strongly curved and 
raking stem, upright post, round fantail counter with 
flaring bulwarks, a turtleback deck at the bow, and 
an entrance and run both short and full. The mid- 
section is formed with a slightly rising straight floor, 
a round and easy bilge, and a slight tumble-home in 
the topside. The model shows the lo\\ hawse at the 
bow common in American lightships. 

The length of the vessel was 80 feet, beam 21 feet, 



138 



depth in hold 8 feet 1 1 inches, and she was powered 
by a 90-horsepower steam engine. Scale of model is 
% inch to the foot. 
Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

U. S. LIGHTSHIP 89, 1908 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311835 

This is a builder's plating model employed in the 
construction of the U.S. Lightship 89, a steel, steam 
single-screw vessel, built in 1908 and employed on 
the Great Lakes at Martin Reef and North Manitou. 

The half-model shows a lightship hull having strong 
sheer, a straight keel with some drag, rather upright 
and curved stem, vertical post, round fantail counter 
with flaring rail, moderately sharp entrance, and a 
short and full run. The midsection is formed with a 
rising straight floor, a low firm bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. 

The length of the vessel was 80 feet, beam 21 feet, 
depth in hold 10 feet, and she was powered by a 90- 
horsepower steam engine. Scale of model is % inch 
to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

U. S. LIGHTSHIP 98, 1914 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311834 

This is the builder's plating model for U. S. Light- 
ship 98, a steel, steam single-screw lightship of mod- 
erate size. She was built in 1914 and employed at 
Buffalo, Lansing Shoals, and Handkerchief Shoal. 

The half-model shows a lightship hull having strong 
sheer, straight keel with drag, a curved and flaring 
bow, upright post, a round stern with flaring bul- 
warks (the overhang of the fantail counter is short), 
and a full entrance and run. The midsection is 
formed with a slightly rising straight floor, a low, 
round, and rather easy bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. A large mooring hawse is shown low in the 
bows. 

The length of the vessel was 101 feet, beam 23 feet 
6 inches, depth in hold 11 feet 5 inches, and she was 
powered with a lOO-horsepower steam engine. 
Scale of model is ^i inch to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

U. S. LIGHTSHIP 99, 1920 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311833 

This is the builder's plating model of the U. S. 
Lightship 99, a steel, single-screw vessel, employed on 
Poe Reef. 



The half-model shows a lightship hull having much 
sheer, a straight keel with marked drag, a curved 
and raking stem rabbet, upright post, round fantail 
counter with upright bulwarks, and a short and full 
entrance and run. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, a low full bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. The large moor- 
ing hawse low in the bow that marked many of the 
steel lightships is shown. 

The length of the vessel was 91 feet 8 inches, beam 
22 feet, depth in hold 10 feet, and she was powered 
with a 125 horsepower oil engine. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Coast Guard. 

TRANS- ATLANTIC LINER, 1889 
Rigged Model, usnm 271111 

Philadelphia, ex City of Paris , ex Yale 

The trans-Atlantic liner City of Paris was built by 
James and George Thompson at Clydebank, Glasgow, 
Scotland, in 1889 for the Inman Line. One of the 
distinctive liners built for this British firm during the 
1880's, having lines like a steam yacht and a clipper 
bow, she was purchased by the International Mer- 
cantile Marine Company and transferred to the 
American flag under the name Philadelphia. In 1898, 
when under charter at $2,000 a day to the U. S. Navy 
during the Spanish-American War, she was renamed 
Tale and employed as an auxiliary armed cruiser. 
After the war she was returned to her owners and 
renamed Philadelphia. In 1900, after running ashore, 
she was rebuilt at Belfast, Ireland, and much altered, 
the number of stacks being then reduced from three 
to two. She ran between New York and Liverpool 
for about 18 years before being broken up. 

The model shows a twin-screw, steel passenger 
steamer having a straight keel with little or no drag, 
graceful clipper bow with trails, false rails and scrolls, 
vertical sternpost, fantail counter with much over- 
hang, propeller shafts housed, and the housings 
faired into the hull. The vessel has a long, sharp and 
hollow entrance, a \'ery short body, or dead flat, and 
a long and very fine run. The sheer is moderate and 
unbroken. The midsection is foimed with a slightly 
rising straight floor, a hard bilge, on a short radius 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside, above the 
main deck. 

The forecastle and quarterdecks are connected by 
a continuous boat deck, though the rail line is broken 
at the ends of the forecastle and quarterdecks. 



139 




Morgan Line Packet, the Coastwise Steamship Louisiana, built by John Roach & Son, Chester, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1880 for the New York to New Orleans run. Length 320', beam 39', depth 28'6". (Smilhsoman 
photo 33 1 1.) 



A long deckhouse on the boat deck, domed forward 
over the main saloon, reaches from the foremast to 
abaft the mainmast. On this are upper and lower 
bridges, a wheelhouse, two stacks, and trunk gratings. 
On each side the vessel carries four boats on davits 
with gratings out to them from the top of the deck- 
house. Between the main and mizzen masts are 
two small deckhouses and four boats in davits, two 
on each side. 

The vessel measured 576 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 63 feet beam, and 10,786 tons register. She 
had two triple expansion engines. Scale of model is 
ji inch to the foot. 

The vessel is rigged as a 3-masted schooner with 
pole bowsprit and standing gaffs; the sails are furled 
to the masts. This inodel shows the ship after her 
rebuilding in 1900, with two, instead of three stacks. 

Transferred from the U. S. Post Office Department. 



TRANS- ATLANTIC LINER, 1907 
Rigged Model, usnm 311006 



Mauretania 



The Maurelania was built by Swan, Hunter, and 
Wigham Richardson in 1907 at Wallsend-on-Tyne, 
Scotland, for the Cunard Line. Tiu-bine driven, she 



was coal-biu'nina; when built, and was converted 
to oil fuel in 1919. The Mauretania held many speed 
records in her da\' and was, for many years, a popular 
liner on the trans-Atlantic nm out of New York. 
The ship was broken up in 1935. She was one of 
the famous "four-stackers" of the Cunard Line, and 
was a sister-ship of the Lusitania. 

The model shows a large, four-stack, quadruple- 
screw liner, having a straight keel with no drag, 
upright straight stem slightly rounded at forefoot, 
which is cut away slightly, at an angle to the keel, a 
vertical post, a round fantail counter with a "bustle" 
above the rudder, steam-yacht fashion, a balanced 
rudder, shafts without struts, housed and faired into 
the hull. The entrance is long and sharp, the run long 
and fine. Midsection formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, a hard bilge on a short radius, and a 
nearly vertical topside with a slight tumble-home near 
the main deck. The sheer is broken, the long fore- 
castle and its deck extending almost to the stern. 

The model is shown with two masts, four raking 
stacks, and a long double-deck deckhouse, with 
bridges and wheelhouse forward. 

The vessel ineasured 790 feet overall, 87 feet 6 
inches moulded beam, and 60 feet 6 inches depth to 



140 




Rigged Model USNM 3 1 1 006, of the Trans-Atlantic Liner Maurelania, built at Wallscnd-on-Tyne in 1 907 
for the Cunard Line. When a passenger hner suffers a disaster, it is customary to change the name of the model 
to that of her sister ship. The claim is made that this model was originally of the Lusitania. {Smithsonian 
bhoto 22o6g.) 



upper deck. Her gross tonnage was 31,940. Scale 
of model is '4 inch to the foot. 

Her indicated horsepower was 70,000 and her 
service speed 25 knots. Her maiden voyage to New 
York in November 1907 was accomplished in 5 days, 
5 hours and 10 minutes, then a record. In March 
1909 she ran from Queenstown to New York in 4 days, 
12 hours and 6 minutes, and for years held the speed 
records for both eastward and westward passages 
imtil the North German Lloyd liner Bremen made 
her maiden voyage in July 1929. She was later 
employed for cruising service out of New York, 
and made her last voyage in the fall of 1934. Ex- 
clusive of wartime service, she made 269 double 
crossings of the Atlantic. Affectionately known as 
the Grand Old Lady of the .\tlantic, she was broken 
up at Rosyth. 

Given by Franklin D. RoosexcJt. 

SINGLE-SCREW STEEL FREIGHTER, 1919 
Rigged Model, usnm 306999 

American Merchant ^ ex Camhrai^ ex Shohokin 

This model of a steel single-screw freight steamer 
represents a class of 12 prefabricated army transports, 
built by the American International Shipbuilding 
Corporation at Hog Island in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, for the LT. S. Shipping Board, Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, of which 1 1 were delivered to 
the U. S. Army and one to the LT. S. Navy. The 
model is of the Shohokin: her keel was laid November 
9, 1918. and she was commissioned October 30, 1920. 
The design was intended to produce a swift freighter 
and transport for wartime use. Later named Camhrai, 



the \essel was renamed American Merchant when trans- 
ferred to private operators. 

The model shows a steel single-screw cargo steamer 
having a straight keel with no drag, straight sheer 
with well decks forming a 3-island deck arrangement, 
an upright straight stem with slightly rounded fore- 
foot, vertical sternpost, upright cruiser stern slightly 
rounded at deck, keel cut ofT at an angle at sternpost, 
dagger-type rudder. The entrance is short and sharp, 
with some hollow at forefoot; the run is rather long 
and hollow; and the dead flat is about one-third the 
total hull length. The midsection is formed with a 
slightly rising straight floor, a hard bilge on a small 
radius, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

On the long deckhouse ainidships is the bridge, 
pilothouse, a single stack, boats, and ventilators. 
The four pairs of derrick masts, cross-trussed in pairs, 
carry 14 cargo booms in all. 

Scale of model is )i inch to the foot. 

The vessels measured 450 feet overall, 58 feet 
moulded beam, and 40 feet depth to upper deck: the 
loaded draft was 28 feet. Weight of steel hull was 
3400 tons, machinery with water 760 tons, joinery 
and outfit 300 tons, giving a total ship's weight of 
4460 tons; the displacement loaded was 12,460 tons 
and the estimated measured gross tonnage 6200 tons. 
These ships had six boilers, each of 1740 horsepower, 
and a single turbine of 6000 shaft horsepower. The 
l)oilers burned oil, the tankage capacity was 1600 
tons, the consumption of fuel on trial 70}2 tons in 24 
hours, and the cruising radius 8132 nautical miles. 
Maximum speed was 15 knots. 

Model transferred from U. S. Senate Committee 
on C'ommerce. 



141 



TWIN-SCREW TRANS-ATLANTIC LINER, 1924 
Rigged Model, usnm 311900 

St at cud am 

The SUiiendam was a twin-screw liner laid clown in 
the Harlan and Wolff, Ltd., shipyard at Belfast, North 
Ireland, in 1921. A depression in the shipping business 
delayed construction and the hull was not launched 
until 1924, after which work ceased on the ship until 
1927, when the hull was towed to Holland and the 
vessel completed in Wilton's Yard, at Rotterdam, in 
1929. The steamer owned by the Holland-America 
Line and employed on the North Atlantic run, was 
destroyed by the Germans at Rotterdam on May 
10, 1940. 

The model is of a vessel with straight keel, a straight 
upright stem slightly rounded at forefoot, upright 
post and cruiser stern, with the propeller shafts housed, 
a sharp entrance, long body and moderately long 
run, and broken sheer. The long deckhouse bears 
three stacks, two masts, and two sets of derrick posts. 
The midsection is formed with a very slight rise in the 
straight floor, a hard bilge on a small radius, and a 
slight tumble-home high in the topside. 

The liner measured 698 feet extreme length, 91 feet 
moulded beam, 34 feet depth, and 28,291 gross tons 
register. She was gear-turbine driven, and her speed 
was 20 knots. Scale of model is ]i inch to the foot. 

Given by Holland-America Line through Franklin 
D. Roosevelt. 

MAIL and PASSENGER LINER, 1924 
Rigged Model, usnm 308324 

Empress of Asia, Empress of Russia 

These quadruple-screw turbine-driven passenger 
and mail steamers Empress of Asia and Empress of 
Russia were launched in 1924 at the yard of the Fair- 
field Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd., 
Glascow, Scotland. Built for the Canadian-Pacific 
Railway Company's trans-Pacific service they were 
two of a series of Empress liners popular in the pas- 
senger service. 

The model shows a large, quadruple-screw liner 
having a straight keel, upright straight stem, vertical 
post, cruiser stern, balanced rudder, propeller shafts 
with housings faired into the hull, and a rather straight 
sheer breaking off just short of the stern. The en- 
trance is long and sharp, the dead flat is about three- 
fifths the hull length, and the run is both long and 
fine. The midsection is formed with a slightly rising 



straight floor, a sharp turn of bilge on a small radius, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

The long deckhouse has a dome at its after end; on 
this deckhouse are a bridge structure and wheelhouse, 
three raking stacks, and two raking pole masts. 

The vessels measured 592 feet overall, 68 feet 4 
inches moulded beam, 46 feet moulded depth to upper 
deck, and 16,700 gross tons register; the trial speed 
was 21 knots. Scale of model % inch to the foot. 

Model loaned by the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company. 

FREIGHT and PASSENGER STEAMER, 1925 
Rigged Model, usnm 308363 

President Polk 

The President Polk, one of a standard design of freight 
and passenger steamer established by the U. S. Ship- 
ping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation, and known 
as the 502 Class, was built in 1925 by the New York 
Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, for 
the United States Lines. These ships were intended 
to serve as army transports in time of war. 

The model represents a twin-screw, combination 
freight and pa.ssenger steamer having straight sheer, 
a straight keel, upright straight stem, upright post, 
and upright cruiser stern. The entrance is sharp, the 
dead flat is about one-third the hull length, the run is 
fine, and the propeller shafts are fitted with a strut. 
There is a balanced rudder. The midsection shows a 
slightly rising straight floor, a hard bilge on a small 
radius, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

The vessel is well-decked, with three islands: a short 
forecastle; a low middle island, at the fore end of which 
is a 3-decked bridge-and-wheelhouse structure, and 
abaft this a 2-decked house with a stack on it and with 
a wireless house abaft the stack; and a short raised 
poop. There are five pairs of derrick masts and six 
cargo hatches. 

The ship measured 522 feet 8 inches overall, 62 feet 
beam, 42 feet moulded depth to upper deck, and 
10,633 gross tons register; her speed was 14 knots. 
Scale of model is ji inch to the foot. 

Model transferred to Museum from U. S. Shipping 
Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

GREAT LAKES ORE and BULK CARRIER, 1925 
Rigged Model, usnm 312827 

William G. Mather 

The steel single-screw Great Lakes ore and bulk 
carrier William G. Mather was built by the Great Lakes 



142 



-etei-jT 




Single-Screw Griai I.aki.s Ore and Bulk Carrier William G. Mallur, built at River Ruugc, Michigan, in 
1925. Rigged model USNM 312827. {Smithsonian photo 3671 o-b.) 



Engineering Works, River Rouge, Michigan, in 1925 
for the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Vessels of this class made about 30 trips a 
season. 

The model shows a long, almost straight-sheered, 
narrow, bargelike steamer having a straight keel, 
straight upright stem, vertical post, round fantail 
counter, a short and full entrance, an abnormally long 
and parallel-sided body, and a very short and full 
run. Midsection is almost rectangular, with a very 
slight rise in the straight floor, the bilge on a very 
short radius, and a wall-sided topside. 

Forward is a short raised deck on which is a 
2-decked bridge-and-wheelhouse structure bearing a 
light signal mast. At the stem is a bowsprit-like 
"guiding pole," required by the position of the wheel- 
house so far forward. On the long main deck are 18 
ore hatches; well aft are a short deckhouse, a single 
large stack, signal mast, and boats. 

The William G. Mather measured 618 feet Yi inch 
overall, 62 feet moulded beam, and 32 feet moulded 
depth. Her tonnage was 8662 gross, 6110 net regis- 
ter, and 13,300 tons capacity; and her nominal horse- 
power 2600. She drew 21 feet SJa inches loaded and 
had a quadruple-expansion engine. Scale of model is 
)i inch to the foot. 

Given by the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

PASSENGER LINER, 1929 
Rigged Model, usnm 314251 

Uruguay, ex California 

A turbo-electric drive steamer for passenger service 
was built as the California by the Newport News 
Shipbuilding Company, Newport News, X'irginia, in 
1929 for the United States Lines. Converted to a 



transport at the outbreak of the last war, she was re- 
named Uruguay. 

The model shows a 2-stack liner having a straight 
keel, raking straight stem, vertical post, twin screws 
with shafts housed, balanced rudder, cruiser stern, 
sharp entrance, medium length of body, and a fine 
run. Midsection has a slightly rising straight floor, a 
hard bilge on short radius, and a vertical topside with 
a slight tumble-home high up. 

There is a short, raised forecastle deck. A long, mid- 
ship island is carried almost to the stern; on it is a 2- 
deck superstructure, atop which are a single-deck 
house, a 2-deck bridge structure, and two stacks. 
Derrick-winch houses and derrick masts are on the 
main deck forward and on the island deck well aft. 
There is a docking bridge aft. 

The Uruguay measured 610 feet length, 80 feet beam, 
and 20,329 gross tons, and her speed 18 knots. Scale 
of model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by United States Lines, New York. 

DIESEL-POWERED TRANS-ATLANTIC LINER, 

1935-36 
Rigged Model, usnm 311978 

Pilsudski, Batory 

This model represents two diesel-powered trans- 
Atlantic liners designed and built in Italy for the 
Polish Gdynia-American Line; the Pilsudski \vas 
launched in 1935 and the Batory in 1936 by the Mon- 
falcone Shipyards at Trieste, Italy. Both ships were 
employed on the North Atlantic; the Pilsudski was 
sunk by a magnetic mine November 26, 1939, but the 
Batory remains in service (1959) and has often been 
in the news. 

The model represents a twin-screw passenger vessel 
ha\-ing a straight keel, forefoot cut away at an angle, 
raking straight stem of the rounded "soft-nose" design, 
a skeg and an upright post, cruiser stern, twin shafts 



143 



housed, a long and sharp entrance, body one-thuxl 
the hull length, and a moderately long, fine run. 
Midsection formed with a slight rise of straight floor, 
a hard and low bilge, and nn upright topside with a 
slight tumble-home high up. 

The vessel has flush sheer, a lons>" 2-cleck deckhouse 
with bridge structure forward, two low stacks, two 
pole masts, and two sets of derrick posts. 

These ships measured 514 feet in length, 76 feet 
moulded beam, 25 feet moulded depth, and 14,200 
gross tons register. Their speed is 1 8 knots. Scale of 
model is 1/80. 

Given by Gdynia-.\merican Line. 

STANDARD AMERICAN MERCHANT SHIP, C-1 

CLASS 
Rigged Model, usnm 313021 

This model represents the first design of a standard 
turbine-driven, single-screw merchant steamer de- 
veloped by the LT. S. Maritime Commission before 
the last war. A number of ships were built to this 
design with some variation in arrangment for Ameri- 
can ship-owning companies who obtained financial 
aid from the government to expand their fleets or to 
replace out-dated ships. It was intended that the 
C-1 Class would serve as freighters and transports 
in event of war. 

The model which shows the basic arrangement em- 
ployed in this class of merchant vessel, is of a cargo 
steamer having a straight keel, straight raking stem 
with small "soft-nose," vertical post, round fantail 



counter, flush sheer with moderate camber, sharp 
entrance, body less than a third the hull-length, and 
a long and fine run. Midsection formed with a slight 
rise in the straight floor, a low and hard bilge on a 
small radius, and tumble-home in the upper topside 
only. 

A large rectangular deckhouse, two decks high, is 
placed a little abaft midlength. On it is a bridge 
structure and deckhouse containing officers' quarters, 
a single stack, and lifeboats. The three holds forward 
and two aft have each a single large hatch. 

These ships measured 417 feet 9 inches long, 60 
feet beam, 37 feet 6 inches moulded depth, 26 feet 6 
inches draft loaded, 12,889 tons displacement to load- 
line, 9125 tons deadweight, and 6710 gross tons 
register, 4000 shaft horsepower, and 14 to 15 knots 
speed. Scale of model is ji inch to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Maritime Commission. 

STANDARD AMERICAN MERCHANT SHIP, C-2 

CLASS, Type C-2-5-B1 
Rigged Model, usnm 313024 

This model represents an improved design for a 
standard class of geared-turbine-driven, single-screw 
merchant ship developed by the L". S. Maritime Com- 
mission before the last war. Like the C-1 Cla.ss, a 
number of vessels of this design, but with variations 
in arrangement for American ship-owners, were built 
before and early in the war, and the class proved very 
useful for freighting and as emergency transports. 




.Ami.khan .\1i Kiii.xM ."Mur, Class L-i-B, Mouintu loK L st oh a Pkinate Operator. 
3 1 302 1 shows the basic design of the class. (U.S. Maritime Administration photo 2:06.) 



144 




American Merchant Ship, Class C-a, Modified for Use of a Private Operator. Many of this design 
were employed in war service. Rigged model USNM 313024 shows the basic design of the class. (U.S. 
Maritime Administration photo ip6.) 



The model shows a merchant steamer, having a 
straight keel, rather upright flaring bow with small 
"soft-nose"' and very angular forefoot, \'ertical post, 
well rounded cruiser stern, sharp and short entrance, 
body about a third hull length, and a long and easy 
run. Midsection formed with a slight rise in the 
straight floor, a low firm bilge on a small radius, and 
tumble-home in the upper topside only. 

The model has a low, raised deck forward, three 
cargo hatches, and a midship island on which is a 
2-deck deckhouse having on it a single stack and a 
bridge structure. Aft are two cargo hatches and a 
low raised poop. The sheer is unbroken. Two pairs 
of derrick masts forward and one pair aft act as vents. 

Vessels of the C-2 Class measure 459 feet 2Y2 inches 
length overall, 63 feet beam, 40 feet 6 inches moulded 
depth, 25 feet 9 inches draft loaded, 13,898 tons dis- 
placement to load line, 9250 deadweight tons, 9222 
gross tons register, 6000 shaft horsepower, 15 '4 knots 
speed, and 18,850 nautical miles cruising radius. 
Scale of model is 's inch to the foot. 
?_ Gi\'en by U. S. Maritime Commission. 

STANDARD AMERICAN MERCHANT SHIP, C-3 

CLASS, TYPE C-3P 
Rigged Model, usnm 303025 

This model represents an improved C-Class design, 
prepared before the last War by the U. S. Maritime 
Commission, for a turbine-driven, single-screw steamer 
for use in freight and limited passenger service and as 
a wartime cargo and transport ship. As merchant 
vessels they were intended particularly for the West 
Indian and Central American services. The standard 



plan provided accommodations for 122 in the crew 
and 1 1 1 passengers. 

The model shows a single-screw steamer ha\ing a 
straight keel, straight raking stem with "soft-nose," 
upright post, and broad cruiser stern. The entrance 
is sharp, the body short, and the run long and easy. 
The midsection shows a slight rise in the straight 
floor, a hard bilge on a small radius, and a very slight 
tumble-home in the upper topside. 

The deck line shows moderate sheer. On the long 
island amidships is a short deckhouse, atop which is 
a smaller 2-deck house, containing the bridge and 
wheelhouse structure and a large and tapered single 
stack. Two cargo hatches, one derrick mast, and two 
derrick posts are forward as well as abaft the island. 

Vessels of the C-3 Class measured 489 feet overall, 
69 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 45 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth, 16,730 tons displacement to load 
line, 9975 deadweight tons, and had 8500-shaft- 
horsepower geared turbines, gi%ing them a speed of 
16 '2 knots and a cruising radius of 17,692 nautical 
miles. Scale of the model is ]i inch to the foot. 

Given by U. S. Maritime Commission. 

STANDARD AMERICAN MERCHANT SHIP, C 3 

CLASS, TYPE C-3-S-A2 
Rigged Model, usnm 313035 

This model represents a standard class of turbine- 
dri\en single-screw cargo steamer designed by the 
U. S. Maritime Commission before the last war for 
general trade. 

The model shows a steamer having moderate sheer, 
a straight keel, slightly raking straight stem wuth small 



145 



"soft nose," vertical post, and a cruiser stern. The 
entrance is sharp and sHs;htly hollow, the body is long 
and begins well forward of midlength, and the run is 
rather long and easy. 

There is a raised deck forward. Abaft this the sheer 
is broken, with no bulwarks; amidships is an island 
house, two decks high, on which is a 2-deck super- 
structure containing the bridge structure. There are 
three cargo hatches forward and two aft, foiu" pairs 
of derrick posts forward and three aft. The ship has 
a single stack. 

These ships measured 492 feet overall, 69 feet 6 
inches beam, 42 feet 6 inches moulded depth, 28 feet 
6 inches draft to load line, 17,615 tons displacement 
loaded, 12,343 tons deadweight, 7949 gross tons reg- 
ister, and had 8500 shaft horsepower geared turbines 
which gave them a speed of 10)^ knots and a cruising 
radius of 12,000 nautical miles. Scale of model is ?§ 
inch to the foot. 

Given by the U. S. Maritime Commission. 

STANDARD AMERICAN TANKER, TYPE 2-SE-Al 
Rigged Model, usnm 313036 

This model represents a standard design turbine- 
driven, single-screw tanker prepared by the U. S. 
Maritime Commission before the last war. These 
vessels were faster than most earlier American tankers 
and were intended to serve the Navy in time of war. 

The model shows a tanker having moderate and 
broken sheer, straight keel, straight raking stem with 
a small "soft nose" and very angular forefoot, an 
upright post, and cruiser stern. 

There is a short raised deck forward, with a break 
in the sheer, a catwalk to the midship island, which 
is two decks high and has upon it a superstructure two 
decks high, containing the wheelhouse and bridge, 
and a signal mast. A catwalk leads from the island 
to the raised poop, one deck high, on which is a large 
deckhouse, a smaller one, and a stack. Forward is 
a derrick mast, and the ship also has a mast and two 
pairs of derrick posts. 

This class of ships measured 523 feet 6 inches length 
overall, 68 feet beam, 39 feet 3 inches moulded depth, 
21,670 tons displacement loaded, 16,765 tons dead- 
weight, 10,172 gross tons register, and had 6000 shaft 
horsepower geared turbines which gave the vessel a 
speed 14}^ knots and a cruising radius of 12,600 nau- 
tical miles. Scale of model }i inch to the foot. 

Given bv the U.S. Maritime Commission. 



STANDARD AMERICAN CARGO STEAMER, 

LIBERTY SHIP, TYPE EC2-S-C1 
Rigged Model, usnm 311022 

This model is of a standard design of wartime single- 
screw vessel. Known as "Liberty ships," they were 
built in American shipyards by mass production 
methods. The design, a modification of a successful 
British class of ships, was prepared under the direction 
of the U. S. Maritime Commission to fit American 
production requirements. The ships were commonly 
of all-welded construction and had reciprocating steam 
engines, as turbines were required for other vessels. 
Liberty Ships served throughout the war as cargo 
carriers and even as emergency transports; many were 
lost through enemy action. 

The model represents a cargo steamer having mod- 
erate and flush sheer, straight keel, straight raking 
stem, upright post, cruiser stern, a long body and 
deadflat, a short and full entrance, and a short but 
easy run. Midsection formed with a slight rise in the 
straight floor, a low and hard bilge on a short radius, 
and an upright topside. 

There are three cargo hatches forward and two aft 
to serve the five cargo holds; a single deckhouse stands 
a little abaft midlength, and on it is a 2-deck super- 
structure containing wheelhouse and bridge, a single 
stack, and a signal pole to port of the foreside of the 
stack. There are three derrick masts, and a small deck- 
house lies right aft on the main deck. Some variation 
existed in the deck arrangement of vessels of this 
design. 

Liberty Ships measured 441 feet 6 inches length 
overall, 56 feet 'lOY^ inches moulded beam, and 37 
feet 4 inches moulded depth, drawing 27 feet 8% inches 
when loaded. The ships were of 14,257 tons displace- 
ment and 10,865 tons deadweight. The reciprocating 
engines developed 2500 shaft horsepower, giving a 
speed of 10}^ to 11 knots and a cruising radius of about 
10,000 nautical miles. Scale of model is % inch to the 
foot. 

Given by the \J. S. Maritime Commission. 

STANDARD AMERICAN CARGO STEAMER, 

VICTORY SHIP, TYPE VC2-S-AP 
Rigged Model, usnm 313023 

This model is of a standard design of turbine-driven 
single-screw merchant ship prepared by the U. S. 
Maritime Commission early in the last war. This de- 
sign was the result of experience with low-speed cargo 
ships, which suffered heavy losses from enemy sub- 



146 



( ■ - 

4| /«. « .r» 








LiBhRi', .Shu- L.LAa.^ LC.^ .S Ci, Fitted i-ur War StRMut. KiiJgcd uiudcl U.bXM 31^02^ slmub ihc uiigmal 
design of the class. {U.S. Maritime Administration photo 4423.) 

marine attacks. The Victory Ship was intended as class were capable of making I6J2 knots as compared 

a mass-produced ship of sufficient speed to a\oid to the 10)^ knots of the C-3-S-A2. 

such attacks, and with the same shaft horsepower as The model shows a cargo steamer having a straight 

the Type C-3-S-A2, but with finer lines. Ships of this keel, straight raking stem with a small "soft-nose," a 



'^vlHr^ 









Victory Ship, Class VC2-S-AP— 2, Fitted for War Service. Rigged uuxicl L'SXM 313023 slious the 
basic design of the class. {U.S. Maritime Administration photo 31)69.) 



147 



vertical post, cruiser stern, sharp entrance, long body, 
and fine run. Midsection has a slight rise in the 
straight floor, a low firm bilge on a small radius, and a 
slight tumble-home in the upper topside. 

The vessel has a raised forecastle deck with break in 
the moderate sheer and flush sheer abaft the break. 
There are a deckhouse amidships with a single stack 
and bridge structure, a small house aft, three derrick 
masts, and two pairs of derrick posts. A large num- 
ber of ships were built on the Victory Ship lines during 
the war, but differed a good deal in appearance and 
arrangements. Since the war some ships of this type 
have been converted to passenger service. 

The Victory Ships measured 455 feet 3 inches length 
overall, 62 feet moulded beatn, 38 feet moulded 
depth, 28 feet 6% inches draft loaded. 15,194 tons dis- 
placement to load line, 10,850 deadweight tons, and 
7612 gross tons register. The geared turbines pro- 
duced 8500 shaft horsepower, and the ships were 
capable of maintaining a speed of 16J^ knots: some 
of the class were said to have made 18 knots in emer- 
gencies. The ships had a cruising radius of al^out 
20,500 nautical miles. Scale of model is % inch to the 
foot. 

Given by the U. S. Maritime Commission. 

PASSENGER LINER, 1951 
Rigged Model, usnm 316198 

Independence, Constitution 

The passenger liners Independence and Constilulion. 
represented by this model, were built at Quincy, 
Massachusetts, in 1950-51 by the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, Shipbuilding Division, for the American Export 
Lines. These vessels were designed for the Mediter- 
ranean service by the U.S. Maritime Administration, 
classified as Type P3-S2-DL2. At the time of their 
launch the ships were considered the most advanced 
of their type. 

The model is on a scale of )i inch to the foot, repre- 
senting a liner 683 feet overall, 89 feet beam, 30 feet 
draft loaded, 12,310 tons deadweight, 23,720 tons 
register, licensed for 1,007 passengers. The ships 
are driven by steam turbines and have a service 
speed of 225-2 knots; the trial speed was over 26 knots. 
Passenger interiors were designed by Henry Drefuss. 

The model is of a modern liner having rather 
straight, broken sheer, straight keel with little or no 
drag, a raking straight stem of the "soft nose" type, 
a round fantail stern of the "bustle" profile, a long, 
fine entrance and a long, easy run, and twin screws 



with shafts faired into the hull by .shrouding. Mid- 
section is formed with a straight, slightly rising floor, 
a hard turn of bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. 

The model shows two stacks, a pair of derrick ports 
fore and aft, and one mast. The vessels had their 
superstructure altered in 1958-59. These ships were 
designed so that they might be converted into troop 
ships in time of war, each to carry 5,000 men. 

Lent by the American Export Lines. 

GREAT LAKES ORE and BULK CARRIER, 

SELF-UNLOADING EQUIPMENT, 1950 
Rigged Model, usnm 314497 

This model represents, in simplified detail, a typical 
Great Lakes ore and bulk carrier and is intended to 
show the fittings and the method of operation of the 
patented self-unloading machinery developed for such 
vessels by the donor of the model, the late Leatham D. 
Smith. 

The ship represented has a short, full entrance, an 
abnormally long parallel-sided body and a short and 
full run. 

Forward there is a short raised deck, on which are a 
deckhouse with whcelhoiise and bridge and a small 
pole mast; the body of the ship has cargo hatches; well 
aft is a large deckhouse on which is a large, single 
stack, a mast, and boats. The model shows a self-un- 
loading boom and lifting frame, with endless-belt de- 
livery; the forehold is exposed by a plastic panel to 
show the pick-up gear emplo\ing' drag-line scoop 
buckets and housings. 

Scale of model is probably V^ inch to the foot, repre- 
senting a ship about 400 feet long. 

Given by the Leatham D. Smith Shipbuilding Com- 
pany, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. 

WOODEN, SCREW CANAL TUG-BARGE, 1872 
Rigged Model, usnm 308435 

William Baxter 

The wooden, twin-screw steam canal tug and barge 
was a type developed on the Erie Canal, in New York 
as the result of a prize competition. It was produced 
to reduce cost of transportation by moving a number 
of barges at once, and the design was intended to 
allow use of a low-power engine and screw propellers 
without damage to canal banks. The first successful 
steam barges were Jjuilt in 1871. The William Baxter, 
built at Fisbkill, New York, in 1872, was the basic 
design of William Baxter for the first seven boats 



148 




Rigged Model, USNM 308435, 
of the Erie Canal steam barge and 
tug William Baxter, built at Fishlsill, 
New York, in 1872. About four- 
teen boats were built on this de- 
sign, seven single-screw and seven 
twin-screw. {Smithsonian photo 
44697-1.) 



built. She was used, for part of her career, as a yacht 
and demonstrator on the canal and the Hudson River. 
Twin screws were eventually abandoned; single 
screws were employed in the last seven of the four- 
teen boats built on Ba.xter's designs. The standard 
Baxter boats were 96 feet long, 17 feet beam, and 
9 feet depth in hold and were able to carry 215 tons of 
freight on a draft of 6 feet. These boats could tow 
barges from New York to Buffalo and return in 16 
days, as compared with 25 to 30 days by horse- 
drawn boats on the canal and river tugs on the Hud- 
son. 

The model shows a vessel of the old canal-boat form, 
having parallel sides, a very full and very much 
rounded, convex, V-shaped entrance, and a similar 
run; the hull is basically double-ended. A false coun- 
ter, in the same general manner as Fulton's steamer 
North River, is placed high on the stern, which shows 
enough overhang to protect the propeller and rudder 
in the locks. The wide and rectangular transom is 
fiat and nearly vertical, the bottom is straight fore and 
aft and flat athwartships, and the stem straight and 
vertical, as is the post. The sheer is straight except 
at the ends, where it sweeps a little upward to the 
posts. The midsection is rectangular, with the chines 
slightly rounded. 

At the bow is a small trunk calkin for the crew; abaft 
are three large cargo hatches, a pilothouse, and a 
small trunk cabin with a low single stack on it, with 
engine and boiler below. A skiff is carried on deck 
between the midship hatches, where there is also a 
hold-ventilating hatch. Heavy guards protect the 
sides and ends of the hull. 

The ]\'tlliarn Baxter was 97 feet long overall, 95.7 feet 
between perpendiculars, 17.2 feet beam, and 9.5 
depth; she was 116.93 tons gross, 73.76 tons net, and 



had two 42-horsepower reciprocating engines. .Scale 
of model is ){ inch to the foot. 
Given by W. I.. Chrisdan, Binghamton, New York. 



WOODEN, SCREW TUG, 1873 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76043 



Atlantic 



The wooden, single-screw steam tug Atlantic was 
built on this model at East Boston in 1873 for the 
U.S. Army Quartermaster's Department at New York 
City. Her designer and builder was Dennison J. 
Lawlor, who had a reputation for designing fine tugs 
as well as other types of wooden vessels, and the 
Atlantic is an excellent example of his tug designs. 
Vessels of this type were then commonly employed in 
towing in coasting schooners. The tugs were required 
to go some distance to sea, so that besides towing well, 
they were also required to steam fast, running free, 
and to have some claim to seaworthiness. 

The half-model represents a tug hull having strong 
sheer, straight keel with marked drag, an upright and 
straight stem rabbet with a well-rounded forefoot, 
upright post, a round, fantail counter with bulwarks 
tumbled-in, a long, sharp entrance, hollow at the fore- 
foot, a short body, and a long and very fine run. 
The midsccdon shows a moderate rise in the straight 
floor, a low and rather hard turn of bilge, and tumble- 
home in the topside. The very easy lines of the hull 
show that the principles of good tug design were 
known by the time the Atlantic was modeled. 

The model is of a tug measuring 78 feet 3 inches 
extreme moulded length, 18 feet moulded beam, and 
9 feet moulded depth. Scale of model is ]i inch to 
the foot. The Atlantic drew about 8 feet 9 inches to 
9 feet at post, in cruising trim. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 



472S46— 60- 



149 



IRON, SCREW TUG, 1879 
Rigged Model, usnm 160167 



Rattier 



This model represents the iron, single-screw steam 
tug Rattler built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by 
Neafie and Levy in 1879. The Rattler was a large tug 
for her day and was intended for coastwise towing. 
The invasion of the coastal trade by the barge tow 
began in the 1870's and by 1880 the tug and barge 
were becoming common in short-haul runs in the coal 
trade. Though the large sailing schooner continued 
in this trade until into the 20th century, the tug and 
barge slowly displaced the large schooners of three, 
four, five, and six masts in all but the longest runs and 
even in these, finally, the steam collier doomed the 
sailing schooner. Tugs of the Rattler^s type, but of 
smaller size, had been developed, ironically enough, 
as a necessary aid to the coasting schooner; these sea- 
going tugs went out to tow in coasters when the wind 
failed them or the schooners had been damaged. 
Tugs engaged in this work were well developed in the 
decade following the Civil War and by 1875 were fast, 
powerful and seaworthy vessels easily capable of 
coastwise towing in open water. 

The model shows an iron steam-tug hull having a 
single screw, straight keel with marked drag, stem 
straight and nearly vertical with forefoot much 
rounded, vertical post, a round fantail counter with 
tumble-home in bulwarks, a long and sharp entrance 
slightly hollow near the stem at load line, and a long, 
very fine run. The sheer is marked and graceful. 
The midsection is formed with much rise in the 
straight floor, a firm bilge, and tumble-home in top- 
side. 



The model has a long deckhouse, on the roof of 
which is a pilothouse, a single large stack, and a pair 
of small boats in davits. On the flush main deck, 
forward and abaft the house, are heavy iron towing 
bollards. The arrangement of this tug on deck is 
standard for her type and date. Model is painted in 
the fashion of her day. 

The Rattler was 102 feet 6 inches between perpen- 
diculars, 22 feet moulded beam, and 11 feet depth; her 
gross tonnage was 139.68; and her nominal horse- 
power 350 according to Hall's Report on Shipbuilding. 
Scale of model is )i inch to the foot, by which she 
is approximately 115 feet long, 25 feet extreme beam. 

Gift of Neafie and Levy, shipbuilders, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

SEAGOING TUG, 1904 
Rigged Model, usnm 309521 

Conestoga 

This model is of the seagoing tug, Conestoga, built at 
Sparrows Point, Maryland, in 1904, for coastwise tow- 
ing of coal barges. Steel and iron tugs of this class 
used the same hull model as earlier wooden tugs em- 
ployed in towing the large coasting schooners of the 
coal trade. The Conestoga was typical of her class, 
which was employed largely in towing large wooden 
seagoing barges whose hulls were often built on the 
same model as the large 4- or 5-masted schooners; this 
type of coal carrying lasted until about 1918, when 
steam colliers and rail transportation put an end to the 
barges. 

Barges were towed in line, the leading barge from 
towing bitts located just abaft the deckhouse on the 
main deck of the tug; American tugs did not use a 
towing winch until recent years. Barge tugs in the 




Iron Steam Tug Rattler, built in 
1879 at Philadelphia, Pennsylva- 
nia, by Neafie and Levy. This 
tug, was intended for coastwise 
towing. Rigged model USNM 
1 601 67. (Smithsonian photo .f46gj-d.) 



150 




.StAGOlNG III, Cui,iili>i^d, buill in 11)04 loi cuasuvibc luumg ul njal baigcs. {.Siiulluuiuun p/iulu u^Ou^.) 



coastwise trade had to be seaworthy, just as did the 
earlier schooner tugs. 

The model shows a steel, single-screw, steam, coast- 
wise tug hull having marked flush sheer, a straight 
keel with some drag, a curved and upright stem with 
well rounded forefoot, a vertical post, and a rotmd 
fantail tugboat stern with tumble-home in the bul- 
warks. 

There is shown on the model a long deckhouse 
amidships, a pilothouse atop it at the fore end, then 
a heavily raked high stack, and two pole masts. 
Boats are carried in davits on the deckhouse. 

The Conestoga measured 158 feet between perpen- 
diculars, 29.1 feet extreme beam, and 17 feet depth in 
hold; she had reciprocating engine of 1000 indicated 
horsepower. She was registered as 617 gross tons, 420 
net tons. Scale of model is Vi^ inch to the foot. 

Given by Robert E. M. Bain, St. Louis, Missouri. 

COASTAL BARGE, 1918 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311266 

A coastal barge, name unknown, was built on this 
model at Apalachicola, Florida, and launched in 
1918. She was designed by Samuel Johnson and was 
laid down as a single-screw wooden coasting steamer 
but, was converted to a barge in construction. 



The half-model shows a vessel having moderate 
sheer, a straight keel with little or no drag, upright 
straight stem rabbet slighdy rounded at forefoot, 
vertical post, round fantail counter stern, like that of 
a tug, a long and rather fine entrance, and a short 
and steep run. The midsection shows a nearly flat 
floor, hard bilge, and vertical topside. A raised 
quarterdeck extends about one-third the length of 
the hull. 

The model represents a vessel 111 feet 8 inches 
moulded length, 23 feet moulded beam, and 8 feet 
6 inches moulded depth. Scale of model is ]{ inch 
to the foot. 

Gift of Samuel Johnson, boatbuilder, Apalachicola, 
Florida. 

HARBOR TUG, 1920 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311264 

An oil-engine harbor tug, name unknown, was 
built on this model at Apalachicola, Florida, by Sam- 
uel Johnson, sometime about 1 920. 

The half-model represents a single-screw wooden 
tug hull having marked sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, a nearly vertical, straight stem rabbet \vith 
rounded forefoot, upright post, round stern fantail 
counter of unusual overhang, short and full entrance, 
and a short and full run. The midsection is formed 



151 



with a moderately rising straight floor, rather slack 
round bilge, and nearly vertical topside. 

The vessel built from this model was 60 feet moulded 
length on deck, 11 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
7 feet moulded depth. Scale of model is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, boatbuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

HARBOR TUG, 1920 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311263 

A harbor tus;, name unknown, was built on this 
model at Apalachicola, Florida, about 1920 by 
Samuel Johnson, for Tampa, Florida, owners. Tugs 
of this size and date sometimes had kerosene engines. 

The half-model represents a wooden tug hull 
having strong sheer, straight keel with some drag, 
an upright and nearly straight stem rabbet with some 
round at forefoot, upright post, round stern and 
fantail counter, a short and rather sharp entrance, 
and a short but easy run. The midsection is formed 
with a moderately rising straight floor, rather slack 
and well rounded bilge, and nearly vertical topside. 

The model is believed to represent a tug about 65 
feet 1 inch moulded length at deck, 14 feet 9 inches 
moulded beam, and 8 feet moulded depth. The 
scale is believed to be ^i inch to the foot. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, Ijoatbuilder, Apa- 
lachicola, Florida. 



HARBOR TUG, 1925 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311238 



M 



ana 



The single-screw wooden tug Maria, fitted with 
kerosene or diesel engine, was built on this model 
about 1925 at Corpus Christi, Texas, by Gustaf T. 
Nelson. 

The half-model represents a tug hull having moder- 
ate sheer, straight keel with some drag, well rounded 
forefoot and curved stem rabbet above, raking 
sternpost, round fantail counter, short sharp en- 
trance, and a long and easy run. The midsection 
shows a rising straight floor, a high and rather hard 
bilge, and a nearly upright topside. The bulwarks 
have marked tumble-home at the stern. 

The scale of the model appears to be % inch to the 
foot, at which scale the moulded length at deck would 
be about 52 feet 9 inches, moulded beam 14 feet, and 
moulded depth about 6 feet 8 inches. 

Given by Gustaf T. Nelson, hoatlniilder, Corpus 
Christi, Texas. 



HARBOR TUG, 1930 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311234 

This half-model, accompanied by a mould-loft 
drawing of its lines on a piece of plank (USNM 
311235), is of a small, wooden, single-screw diesel 
harbor tug built at Biloxi, Mississippi, by Stephen 
Angelo about 1930. 

The half-model shows a hull of moderate sheer, 
straight keel with some drag, rounded forefoot, up- 
right stem rabbet, upright sternpost, round fantail 
counter, sharp entrance, and rather fine run. The 
midsection is formed with a rising straight floor, 
somewhat slack bilge, and upright topside. 

It represents a tug 46 feet 6 inches moulded lens;th 
at deck, 1 5 feet moulded beam, 7 feet moulded depth. 
Scale of model is ]i inch to the foot. 

Given by Stephen Angelo, boatbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

HARBOR TUG, 1936 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311246 

A harbor tug, name unknown, was Ijuilt on this 
half-model at Port Arthur, Texas, about 1 936, by 
Virs;il .Smith, and was intended as a diesel-powered 
tug for Hght towing. The model represents a rather 
large class of small tugs used extensively in American 
harbors. The half-model shows a wooden single- 
screw tugboat luill having moderate sheer, straight 
keel with some drag, well rounded forefoot with a 
curved and rather upright stem rabbet above, upright 
post, a hea\'y round fantail coimter of moderate 
length, a tugboat stern with tumble-home with Ijul- 
warks, a sharp but short entrance, and a short and 
rather full run. The midsection shows a moderate 
rise in the straight floor, low and rather slack bilge, 
and a nearly upright topside. 

The model is for a Xus. 51 feet 2 inches moulded 
length at deck, 12 feet 4 inches moulded beam and 6 
feet moulded depth at side. Scale of model is % inch 
to the foot. 

Given by \'irgil Smith, shi]5builder. Port .Arthur, 
Texas. 

HARBOR TUG, 1937 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311189 

A harl)or tug, name unknown, was built on the lines 
of this half-model by the Levingston Shipbuilding 
Company, Port Orange, Texas, in 1937. The \essel 
was diesel powered and was similar to tugs employed 
along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the inland 
waterwav. 



152 



The half-model shows a wooden, single-screw tug- 
boat hull having moderate sheer, straight keel with 
drag, well rounded forefoot, nearly straight and up- 
right stem rabbet above, upright post, a round fan- 
tail counter, a short and rather full entrance, and a 
short and heavy run. The midsection is formed with 
very short, rising, straight floor, a very easy round 
bilge, and an upright topside. 

The model is made to deck height; the bulwarks are 
not shown. 

A tug about 64 feet 6 inches moulded length at deck, 
16 feet 8 inches moulded beam, and 7 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth to deck at side is represented. Scale 
of model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by Levingston Shipbuilding Company, Port 
Orange, Te.xas. 



HARBOR TUG, 1938 
Rigged Model, usnm 312088 



Thomas E. Moran 



This model represents the steel, single-screw, diesel 
harbor tug Thomas E. Moran built at Bay City, Michi- 
gan, in 1938 for the Moran Towing and Transporta- 



tion Company, Inc., of New York City. The tug was 
designed by Tarns, Inc., of New York. 

The Thomas E. Moran has a straight keel with some 
drag, rather upright curved stem with rounded fore- 
foot, vertical post, single screw, a round fantail tug- 
boat stern with tumljle-home in the bulwarks, strong 
sheer, sharp entrance, no apparent deadflat, and a 
clean run. Midsection formed with a marked rise in 
straight floor, a round easy bilge, and a nearly upright 
topside. 

The tug had a large deckhouse amidshijjs with a 
pilothouse at its fore end, slightly raised above the rest 
of the house. On the deck house was a dummy stack, 
one boat on davits and two pole masts. The model is 
complete in detail to show fitting of a tug of this type 
and date. 

The tug was 89.4 feet between perpendiculars, 25.2 
feet extreme beam and 10 feet depth in hold; 158 tons 
gross, 62 tons net. Scale of model is ^i inch to the 
foot. 

Given by the Moran Towing and Transportation 
Company, Inc. of New York City. 




Rigged Model (USNM 312088) of the Modern Steel, Diesel Harbor Tugbo.^t Ihomas E. Moran, 1938. 
Tugs of this type have displaced the older wooden and steel tugs in the large .American ports. (Smithsonian 
bhoto 44697-j.) 



153 




Seagoing Tug and Salvage Vessel, Class V-4, Fitted for War Service. Rigged model L s.\M 
shows basic design of class. (U.S. Maritime Adminisliatiuii phola sn-jg.) 



13020 



SEAGOING TUG, V-4 TYPE, 1942 
Rigged Model, usnm 313020 

The model represents a niodern seagoing, raised- 
deck tug designed during the late war by the United 
States Maritime Commission, as a standard design. 
It had a diesel engine of 2250 horsepower, and a 
single screw with Kort nozzle. A number of these 
were laid down in 1942-46 to be used for ocean towing 
and salvage work. The vessels were diesel-powered 
and resembled the large European seagoing tugs and 
salvage vessels. 

The model shows a seagoing steel tug hull having 
marked sheer, a straight keel with some drag, a 
straight, upright, and "soft nose" stem, a round fan- 
tail counter with tumble home in the bulwarks, and a 
cutaway skeg with shaft exposed for some distance. 
The entrance is moderately sharp and the run fine. 
The midsection is formed with a rising straight floor, 
a low hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. 

The sheer line is broken by a raised forecastle deck, 
running to a little abaft amidships, on which is a 
rather large deckhouse with a wheelhouse and bridge 
structure at its fore end. A low, oval dummy stack is 
fitted, with a pole mast forward and a derrick pole and 
boom aft. A towing winch is located abaft the break 
of the raised deck and under an overhang. 

These tugs were 194 feet 9 inches long, 37 feet 6 
inches beam, drew 16 feet 4}2 inches at the post, and 
had a tonnage depth of 21 .5 feet. Their displacement 



tonnage was 1613, and their registered tonnage 1117 
gross. Scale of model is 's inch to the foot. 
Gi\en by the U. S. Maritime Commission. 

NAVAL STEAM LAUNCH, 1862-63 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76044 

This half-moclcl was made Ijy Dennison J. Lawlor, 
shipbuilder, late in 1862 for the purpose of Ijuilding, 
by contract, several steam launches for the U. S. 
Navy. The launches were built at East Boston, 
Massachusetts, during the winter of 1862-63 and one 
of these boats was used by Lt. W. B. Cushing, U. S. N., 
in the torpedoing and sinking of the Confederate 
States steam, ironclad ram Albemarle, a notable naval 
incident in the Civil \Var. The launch, fitted with a 
spar torpedo movmted on a swivel at the bow, was 
run up on to the log-raft boom around the ram; 
the spar-torpedo was then placed under the casemate- 
overhang of the ironclad and there exploded. When 
the ram was later raised it was found that the explo- 
sion had blown a hole in the side of the ram as well 
as doing other damage. The launch used by Cushing 
had a vertical [toiler and is said to have had a maxi- 
mum speed of between 7 and 8 knots. It was de- 
stroyed by gunfire in the attack. 

The half-model shows a launch hull of the cutter 
form, having moderate sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, well rounded forefoot with straight, 
upright' stem rabbet above, slightly raking post, 
and a \"ery short counter ending in a shallow, flat, 



154 



and slightly raking transom. The rudder post is 
shown in the counter, just inboard of the transom, 
but this may be an error. The entrance is quite 
long and sharp, the run is rather full but quite long. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising floor, a low 
and hard bilge, and an upright topside. 

Model is mounted with straight stem, keel, post, 
propeller and rudder. 

The model is for a steam, single-screw launch 
measuring 33 feet 6 inches moulded length at gunwale, 
7 feet 8 inches moulded Ijeam, and 3 feet Iji inches 
moulded depth. Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawler, shipbuilder, Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. 



EUROPEAN STEAM LAUNCH, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 311396 



Tri 



■10 



The steam launch Trio is of the type once built in 
Northern Europe for timber inspection. The model 
was built by a German engineer and is of a launch 
of 1875. 

The model represents a launch having a fine en- 
trance and run, a straight keel with some drag, 
curved and rather upright stem, vertical post, single 
screw, round fantail counter with knuckle at deck 
level, and moderate sheer. The midsection is formed 
with much rise in the straight floor, a rather slack 
round bilge, and an upright topside. The propeller 
is of large diameter by modern standards, and has 
its shaft low on the sternpost, so that the propeller 
extends well below the keel and is therefore protected 
by the skeg bar that extends below the deepest part 
of the keel itself. 

The vertical boiler is fitted with a high stack having 
a copper top. The steering-wheel is abaft the boiler, 
which is just forward of midlength. Forward of the 
boiler is a cockpit with side seats having paneled 
backs. Abaft the steersman's position is another seat- 
ing space, in which are seats with plain staved backs. 
The engine and boiler were close together and were 
operated by the helmsman and a fireman. There 
were short decks at bow and stern and narrow wash- 
boards along the sides. 

The model (its scale is unknown) measures 40 
inches overall and appears to represent a lavmch 
between 42 and 50 feet length. 



Loaned by Walter A. Thompson, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. 

STEAM LAUNCH, 1883 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160131 

This half-model of an unidentified steam launch 
is in the Watercraft Collection without detailed in- 
formation. The half-model represents a .swift steam- 
launch hull having slight sheer, straight keel with 
some drag, upright straight stem rabbet with slighdy 
rounded forefoot, upright post, round fantail counter, 
a long and sharp convex entrance, and a long and 
very fine run. The midsection shows a straight rising 
floor, a rather high and hard bilge, and a slightly 
flaring topside. 

The lift spacing suggests that the model is on a scale 
of 1 inch to the foot, at which this model would be for 
a launch of 29 feet 6 inches moulded length at gun- 
wale, 5 feet moulded beam, 2 feet 9 inches moulded 
depth, and about 2 feet 6 inches draft. 

Gift of U. S. Fish Commission, 1883. 

STEAM LAUNCH, about 1880-85 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160130 

The half-model is of a swift, low-powered steam- 
launch hull of about 1880-85, having graceful and 
moderate sheer, a slightly rockered keel and keel 
rabbet, a much rounded forefoot with nearly straight 
and upright stem rabbet above, a rounded and raking 
sternpost rabbet with the post itself raking, and a 
round fantail stern of moderate overhang. The 
entrance is long, sharp, and quite hollow in the 
vicinity of the forefoot, and the run is easy and rather 
long. The midsection is formed with much rise in 
the straight floor, a high and easy bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside. This is a single-screw boat; the 
boiler and engine were slightly abaft midlength and 
the launch was probably half-decked, with a large 
oval cockpit. 

Model is mounted with straight stem, keel, scmi- 
skeg post, and rudder. 

The scale of the half-model appears to be '2 inch to 
the foot, at which the launch woidd have been 36 
feet moulded length at gunwale, 9 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, and 5 feet \Yi inch moulded depth. 

Supposed to be part of a builder's proposal to some 
department of the government, but no evidence 
exists to show that a launch was built on the model. 

The donor is unknown, proljalily it was the LT.S. 
Fish Commission. 



155 



STEAM YACHT, 1881 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76031 



Adelita 



The wooden, single-screw steam yacht Adelita was 
built on this model at East Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1881 by Dennison J. Lawlor, for Boston owners. She 
was designed for high speed and carried a light 
schooner rig of small sail area for steadying purposes 
only. 

The half-model is of a steam-yacht hidl having 
moderate and graceful sheer, a straight keel with 
marked drag, a well rounded forefoot with the stem 
rabbet nearly straight and upright above, an upright 
post, and a long and thin round fantail counter with 
flaring rail. The entrance is long, sharp and hollow 
at forefoot, and the run is long and very fine. The 
midsection shows a sharply rising straight floor, a 
high and rather hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. 

Model is mounted with longhead, cutwater, keel, 
post, and rudder. 

The model is for a yacht 88 feet moulded length at 
rail, 82 feet between perpendiculars, 16 feet beam, 
7 feet 9)2 inches depth, and 27.55 net tons, 55.09 
gross tons register. Scale of model is '.J inch to the 
foot. 

Gift of Dennison J. Lawlor, shipl:)uilder, Ghelsea, 
Massachusetts. 

STEAM YACHT, 1884 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76042 

This half-model was a proposal for constructing a 
large 3-masted steam yacht, having light pole masts 
with small steadying sails and intended to steam fast. 
It was made by Dennison J. Lawlor at East Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1884. No vessel was built on the 
model, which represented very advanced ideas for 
this class of yacht at the time. 

The half-model is for a large, single-screw, wooden 
steam-yacht hull having moderate and graceful 
sheer, a straight keel with marked drag, a well- 
rounded forefoot with the stem rabbet curved and 
raking above. The stern raiibet is curved and 
raking at the skeg, which has a vertical trailing edge. 
The long, light, and narrow fantail counter ends in a 
round and flaring bulwark to form the rail. The 
entrance is long, sharp, and hollow at the forefoot, 
and the run is long and very fine. The midsection 
shows a rising floor with hollow at garboard, a high 
and firm bilge, and a slight tumble-home above. 



The model is mounted with graceful longhead, 
billet, trails, cutwater, keel, skeg, and balanced 
rudder. 

The scale of the model is % inch to the foot, repre- 
senting a vessel 160 feet moulded length at rail, 28 feet 
moulded beam, and 15 feet moulded depth to rail. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, shipbuilder, Ghelsea, 
Massachusetts. 



STEAM LAUNCH, 1890 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76300 



Kara 



The steam pleasure launch Kara was built on the 
lines of this model at South Boston (Neponset), Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1890 by George Lawley and Son. The 
launch was intended for sport fishing as well as for 
general yachting purposes. 

The half-model shows a single-screw, wooden steam 
launch, half-decked, and having moderate sheer, 
a straight keel with some drag, a well-curved forefoot 
and a raking and slightly curved stem rabbet, an 
upright post, roimd fantail stern, the post raijl^et well 
curved, and a marked skeg. The entrance is long and 
fine, as is the run, and the midsection shows a rising 
straight floor, a high and firm bilge, and a slight 
tumble-home in the topside. 

Model is mounted with curved stem, keel, and skeg. 

The launch was 40 feet on deck, 6 feet beam, draft 
aft 3 feet 6 inches, draft forward 1 foot 3 inches. 
Speed 10 statute miles per hour. .Scale of model is 
Yi inch to the foot. 

Given by LT.S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

STEAM YACHT, 1890 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76301 

Princess 

The steam yacht Princess was built on the lines of 
this half-model at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1890. 
She was a wooden, schooner-rigged, single-screw steam 
yacht having moderate and graceful sheer, a straight 
keel with some drag, a well curved forefoot and a 
straight and nearly vertical stem rabbet, upright post, 
moderately long counter with elliptical transom, a 
long and sharp entrance, a short body, and a long 
and very easy run. The midsection is formed with a 
rising straight floor, a high and rather hard Ijilge, and 
slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with straight stem, keel, post, and rudder. 

This yacht did not have a bowsprit and her small 
rig was for steadying purposes only. 



156 



The model scales 76 feet 3 inches between perpen- 
diculars, 15 feet 2% inch beam, and 6 feet 5 inches 
depth. Scale of model is % inch to the foot. 

Donor not recorded. 

GLASS-CABIN LAUNCH, 1902 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311241 

A gasoline-powered cabin launch, name unknown, 
was built on this model in 1902 at Oxford, Maryland, 
by Charles W. Langdon for cruising on Chesapeake 
Bay. Launches of this type strongly resembled the 
older steam launches in hull form. Popularly known 
as glass-cabin launches, they had long and rather high 
trunk cabins with large rectangttlar ports and win- 
dows and were well suited for hot-weather cruising 
in protected waters, or where shelter could be quickly 
reached. 

The half-model shows a hull of the same form as the 
older steam launches, having moderate sheer, a 
straight keel with some drag, a rounded forefoot 
with nearly straight and upright stem rabbet, upright 
sternpost, a round fantail counter of moderate over- 
hang, and a short and full entrance and run. The 
midsection is formed with a short straight rising 
floor, an easy round bilge and an upright topside. 
This launch is somewhat fuller-ended than usual 
in her type, and also above the average in proportion 
of beam to length. 

The model is for a launch 45 feet 4 inches moulded 
length at deck, 10 feet moulded beam, and 4 feet 
tnoulded depth at side. Scale of model is ]i inch to 
the foot. 

Given by Charles VV. Langdon, boatbuilder, O.x- 
ford, Maryland. 

GLASS-CABIN LAUNCH, 1905 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311242 

Cofnfort 

The double-ended glass-cabin launch Comfort, 
powered with a gasoline engine, was built on this 
model in 1905 by Charles W. Langdon at O.xford, 
Maryland, for use on the Chesapeake. She was an 
unusually burdensome and roomy boat of her type, 
sharp at both ends and with the usual long and rather 
high trunk cabin, having full standing headroom. 

The half-model shows a launch hull sharp at both 
ends and having moderate sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, rounded forefoot with nearly straight 
and vertical stem rabbet above, an upright post, 
and a "canoe stern" formed with the overhanging 



and curved post becoming nearly vertical before the 
deck is reached — a form of stern first introduced in 
sailing boats and at the turn of the century popular 
also in launches. The entrance is short and full, 
the run is unusually heavy. The midsection shows 
a short straight floor with moderate rise, a low and 
well rounded bilge, and an upright topside. 

The launch represented was 40 feet moulded length 
at deck, 8 feet 10 inches moulded beam, 4 feet moulded 
depth. Scale of model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by Charles W. Langdon, boatbuilder, 
Oxford, Maryland. 

FERRY LAUNCH 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311523 

Nymph 

The single-screw wooden ferry laimch Nymph was 
built on this model at Bradenton, Florida, sometime 
between 1918 and 1930 by "Bat" Fogarty. This 
boat was powered with a gasoline engine and was 
intended to carry passengers only. 

The half-model is of a small launch, shaped much 
like a sailing boat, having moderate sheer, a straight 
keel fairing into the stem in a long and easy curve, 
the stem rabbet becoming upright at deck, an up- 
right post, round fantail counter, long and sharp 
entrance, and a short but easy run. The midsection 
shows a rising straight floor, a slack round bilge, 
and an upright topside. 

The model is believed to be for a launch 35 feet 3 
inches moulded length at gunwale, 8 feet moulded 
beam, and 3 feet 6 inches moulded depth. The 
scale of the model 1 inch to the foot. 

Given by "Bat" Fogarty, boatbuilder, Bradenton, 
Florida. 

BILOXI FREIGHT BOAT, 1925 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311222 

A gasoline-powered freight boat of the launch type 
was built on this model about 1925 at Biloxi, Missis- 
sippi, by Anson Holley for local owners. The name 
of the boat is unknown. 

The half-model represents a large launch hull having 
a single screw, moderate sheer, straight keel \sith 
slight drag, slightly rounded forefoot, straight and 
upright stem rabbet abose, upright post, slightly rak- 
ing flat transom, sharp entrance, and a long easy run. 
The midsection shows a straight and rising floor and 
an easy round bilge, wall-sided abo\e. 

The model, which resembles the local fishing 
launches, is for a larger boat measuring 43 feet 



472S46 — 60- 



-12 



157 



moulded length at gunwale, 13 feet moulded beam, 
4 feet 6 inches moulded depth. The scale of the model 
is % inch to the foot. 

Given by Anson Holley, boatbuildcr, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 



CRUISING LAUNCH, 1925 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315700 



Pawnee 



The cruising launch Pawnee was built on this model 
at East Moriches, Long Island, New York, in 1925 
by Otis A. Palmer. The boat was intended for over- 
night cruising and for inshore sport fishing, and was 
built to be seaworthy and to have moderate power 
and speed. It had a cuddy (small trunk cabin) for- 
ward and a large cockpit, with the engine under a 
box in the cockpit. 

The half-model shows a short, wide, motorboat 
cruiser hull having moderate sheer, a rockered keel 
rabbet (a skeg was employed), and a curved and raking 
stem rabbet with a well rockered forefoot. The 
transom is flat and raking. The entrance is sharp, 
convex and rather short. The run is long and slightly 
cambered in the buttocks. Midsection is formed 
with a short, slightly rising straight floor, a slack 
round bilge, and a flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, producing 
a moulded length of 22 feet, moulded beam of 8 feet, 
and moulded depth of 2 feet 1 1 inches. 

The model is marked by a freeboard that is high 
for the hull length. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, 
Long Island, New York. 

CRUISING LAUNCH, 1925 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311258 

A raised-deck, single-screw cruising launch, name 
unknown, was built on this model about 1925 at 
Apalachicola, Florida, by Samuel Johnson. She was 
powered with a gasoline engine. The model repre- 
sents a general type of motor boat popular for pleasure 
cruising in the period 1912-30. 

The half-model represents a motor launch hull 
having a long raised deck forward, a rather straight 
main sheer, a rockered keel-rabbet with skeg aft, a 
raking curved stem rabbet, a shallow vertical tran- 
som, curved athwartships, a short and sharp entrance, 
and a long but rather full run. The raised deck is 
high above the main sheer and extends about a third 
the length of the hull from the bow. The midsection 



is formed with a rising straight floor, a slack round 
bilge and a nearly upright topside. 

The model is supposed to be to the scale of ]i inch 
to the foot and to represent a boat 44 feet long at 
gunwale, 10 feet moulded beam, and about 5 feet 
depth. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, boatljuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

CRUISING LAUNCH, 1927 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311259 

A raised-deck, single-screw, cruising launch, name 
unknown, was built on this model about 1927 by 
Samuel Johnson at Apalachicola, Florida. According 
to the builder, this boat was powered by a converted 
automobile engine. 

The half-model is of a launch hull having a rather 
long raised deck forward, nearly straight sheer, rock- 
ered keel rabbet with skeg aft, upright and nearly 
straight stem rabbet, wide, raking flat transom, short 
and full entrance, and a long and flat run. The mid- 
section has a rising straight floor, a hard round bilge, 
and an upright topside. The raised deck is aljout 
one-third the whole length of the hull. 

The model is Ijelieved to be on a scale of 1 inch to 
the foot and to represent a boat 30 feet 3 inches 
moulded length, 7 feet moulded beam, and 2 feet l^o 
inch moulded depth. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, boatbuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

MOTOR CRUISER, 1927 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315697 

This half-model represents a small, raised-deck, 
motor cruiser, name unknown, designed and built 
by Otis A. Palmer of East Moriches, Long Island, 
New York, in 1927. This type of small cruiser was 
very popular from about 1910 to 1932, having a 
cabin under a raised deck forward and a standing 
canopy over the cockpit. The boats were usually 
low-powered, inexpensive craft and of varying degrees 
of seaworthiness. The model is fairly typical of 
many of this class, particularly of the relatively 
inexpensive boats. The boats of this general model 
would make about 8 to 9 knots with a gasoline engine 
of 15 to 25 horsepower. 

The half-model shows a cruiser having a rather high 
raised foredeck with a break aljaft midlength. The 
keel rabbet is rockered and the boat had a skeg, 
with the rudder hung outboard. The stem raljbet is 
rounded and flaring, the transom flat and raking, the 



158 



entrance moderately sharp, and the run rather flat 
and long. The midsection is abaft midlength and 
shows a very short, straight rising floor, a round 
easy bilge, and a slightly flaring topside. The free- 
board is high for the hull length. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, giving a 
moulded length overall of 28 feet, a moulded beam of 
8 feet 10 inches, and a moulded depth abaft the 
break of deck of 4 feet 1 }i inches. 

The boat had berths for four, and a toilet and galley. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

MOTOR CRUISER, 1928-29 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315698 

Two cruising launches, names unknown, were built 
from this model in 1928-29 by Otis A. Palmer, East 
Moriches, Long Island, New York. They had dif- 
ferent arrangements, and were of two sizes. The 
model was designed to produce a boat 32 feet 3 inches 
moulded length on a scale of 1 inch to the foot, or 
20 feet 6 inches long on a scale 1| inch to the foot. 
This use of two scales has been quite common among 
American small-boat builders. 

The half-model represents a launch hull designed 
for moderate speed and power, having rather straight 
sheer, a slightly rockered keel rabbet (with skeg aft), 
a well rovmded forefoot with a raking, curved stem 
rabbet, a wide flat, raking transom, sharp convex 
entrance, and a long and rather flat run. The free- 
board is high for the length of hull. Midsection is 
formed with a very short and slightly rising straight 
floor, a slack round bilge, and flaring topside. Tire 
model is a solid block, with only a top lift added. On 
a scale of 1 inch to the foot it is for a boat 32 feet 3 
inches moulded length at rail, 8 feet 4 inches moulded 
beam, and 4 feet moulded depth; on a scale of IK 
inch to the foot the boat would measure 20 feet 6 inches 
moulded length at rail, 5 feet 8 inches moulded beam, 
and 2 feet 8 inches moulded depth. A seaworthy 
launch for the dimensions is indicated. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

PASSENGER and FREIGHT LAUNCH, 1930 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311236 

A passenger and freight carrying launch, name 
unknown, was built on this model at Port Arthur, 
Texas, by John H. Cram about 1930. This launch 
was single screw, with gasoline engine. 



The half-model is of a V-bottom launch hull having 
moderate sheer, straight keel with skeg aft, upright 
straight stem rabbet slightly rounded at forefoot, 
nearly upright flat transom, the chine carried high 
forward, the entrance short and sharp, and the run 
long and straight. The midsection shows a straight 
deadrise, angular chine and slightly flaring straight 
topside. The form of hull indicated by this model 
has been popular on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico 
for many years, V-bottom construction having been 
in use before 1880 in Louisiana, Mississippi, and 
Texas. 

The model is for a launch mea;juring about 45 feet 
4 inches moulded length at gunwale, 12 feet 6 inches 
beam, and 5 feet depth. Scale of model is % inch to 
the foot. 

Given l)y John H. Cram, boallniilder, Port Arthur, 
Texas. 

SPORT FISHING BOAT, 1938 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311252 

A V-bottom, gasoline-powered, sport fishing tender 
was built on this model about 1938 by Patrick Moore 
at Galveston, Texas. The launch was intended to 
accompany a larger boat and to engage in sport 
fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. 

The half-model is for a single-screw launch having 
straight sheer, a rockered keel rabbet fairing into a 
rather upright curved stem rabbet, a nearly upright 
transom, curved athwartships, a sharp entrance, and 
a long and flat run. The chine, in profile, is high at 
the stem and is formed in a shallow sweep, rising 
slightly in the run. The midsection is formed with a 
straight and rising floor, an angular bilge, and a 
flaring straight topside. 

The model is for a launch 20 feet 4 inches moulded 
length at gunwale, 7 feet moulded beam, and 3 feet 
1 inch moulded depth. .Scale of model 1 inch to the 
foot. 

Given by Patrick Moore, boatbuilder, Galveston, 
Texas. 

NEW JERSEY GAR"VEY, GASOLINE-POWERED. 

about 1950 
Rigged Model, usnm 315246 

This model is of a motor garvey built about 1950 
near Tuckerton, New Jersey, for fishing and pleasure 
boating. This design originated in southern New 
Jersey and has spread to Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia along the Atlantic beaches and inlets, re- 



159 



placing the earlier sailing garvies, with or without a 
trunk cabin. In Maryland and Virginia it is used in 
the oyster fisheries, particularly in the vicinity of 
Chincoteague Island, and \ariatlons are built in New 
Jersey from Barnegat southward. Now being rather 
extensively used for pleasure, it is built in lengths from 
12 to about 40 feet, and for these dimensions is inex- 
pensive and. when suitably powered, produces a \ery 
shallow-draft and fast motor boat. 



the stern; the model has a stern as wide as the mid- 
section. A scmitunnel stern, of rather primitive de- 
sign, is emjjloycd in this model, following the stern 
design used in some of the garvies. 

The model is of a rather small boat of the type, 
measiu'ing 23 feet total length, 6 feet 6 inches beam 
and 4 feet deep forward, 2 feet aft, and 6 inches draft 
to chine. Scale is 1 inch to the foot. 

Gift of VV. R. Main, Waretown, New Jersey. 




Motor G.^rvev, a luw-cost craft for fishing and 
pleasure boating, built about 1950, near Tuckerton, 
New Jersey. Rigged model USNM 315246. {Smith- 
sonian photo 45603-a.) 

The model shows a scow-hulled motorboat having 
slightly flaring sides, a flat bottom with a very slight 
V in the forward rake, a style of bow called "chicken- 
breasted" in southern New Jersey. The profile of the 
hull is like that of a sled; the bow rake is curved, and 
the bottom profile is straight from the bottom of the 
rake to the nearly vertical transom. The sheer is 
straight in the model, but some boats of the type have 
moderate sheer. The bow is alwavs narrower than 



COLLECTION OF SCREW PROPELLERS and 
PADDLE-WHEEL MODELS 

The Watercraft Collection contains a series of 
screw propeller models showing, in general, the de- 
N'clopmcnt of the screw propeller, though all stages 
of the development are not covered, the Ericsson 
designs, as well as some others, being omitted. The 
following designs are included: Robert Hooke 1681, 
Joseph Bramah 1785, William Lyttleton 1794, John 
Stevens (two) 1804, Perkins 1825, Beard 1829, Smith 
1831, Woodcroft 1832, Burk (two) 1834-35, Smith 
(two) 1835-36, Burcher 1839, Rennie 1843, Steam- 
boat 1845, Beard 1853. Swartz 1857, Colborn 1865, 
Gary and Gary 1875, Tyson 1877, Tanner 1878, 
Steamboat 1880. Stevens 1889, Steamboat 1890, and 
Hancock (no date). 

Models of paddle wheels include two showing side 
wheels and one of a stern paddle wheel. The stern of 
a screw vessel fitted with two banded propellers, of the 
Ericsson type, abaft the rudder, and on a single shaft 
is also part of this exhibit. The paddle-wheel models 
show details of the housing and dri\e of the various 
paddle wheels. A number of patent models of pro- 
pellers or propulsion methods are also in this collection. 



* * 



■tt * 



160 



Schooner Mary D. Dyer, Built at East Boston by Donald D. McKay 




FISHING CRAFT 



161 




THE DEPRESSION IN trade 
and the almost com- 
plete cessation of emigra- 
tion to the American col- 
onies that followed the 
Civil War in England, dur- 
ing the 1640's, led to the 
rapid growth of the New 
England fisheries and co- 
lonial maritime trade. To 

support themselves in this period, the colonials began 
trading in the West Indies, and as fish was an article- 
in-trade much in demand there and as the New 
England colonies could produce the article, the fish- 
eries soon assumed great importance. As a result, the 
New England fishing fleet began to invade Nova 
Scotian waters; in 1670 there were 30 New England 
shallops reported on the Nova Scotian coast, by 1708 
the number reported was 300. 

Colonial Craft 

Very little is known about colonial fishing craft of 
the 17th and early 18th centuries. Customhouse 
records and colonial reports show that the fishing 
fleet was largely made up of brigantines and ships 
("gallies"), sloops, shallops, and "catches." The 
"gallies" were fast-sailing ships and brigantines 
designed to permit rowing and these, from about 
1695 to 1720, were employed by merchants, first to 
catch fish on the Banks and secondly, to carry the 
catch to a foreign market, often one of the Mediter- 
ranean coimtries. The sloops were single-masted 
vessels, perhaps having a gaff- or sprit-mainsail and 
one or two headsails according to size. They made up 
the bulk of the colonial whaling fleet until after 
the Revolution. The shallops were a 2-masted decked 
boat of some sort, perhaps sprit- or gaff-rigged, without 
a headsail. They were 30 to 40 tons burden at the 
end of the 17th century; later, about the middle of 
the 18th century, the name shallop was sometimes 
applied to small schooner-rigged craft as well as to 
2-masted decked boats having no headsail. The 
"catches" were apparently 2-masted boats and many 
writers have assumed these were the same as the later 
ketches of the 18th century. However, there is some 
reason to doubt that the fishing catches and the 18th 
century bomb and merchant ketches were alike; 
the fishing catch was commonly a small vessel below 
30 tons register and thus too small to be rigged bomb- 
ketch fashion. 



The records also show that the fishing catches often 
carried small crews (four men in one case) when 
making relatively long voyages. The catch must 
have been more burdensome than the shallop, as a 
rule, for catches are reported to have often carried 
fish to the West Indies. The possible rig of the fish- 
ing catch is suggested by the colonial lists of ships, on 
which it appears that a large number of catches 
were carried until about 1710-20 when, suddenly 
they are replaced by "scooners." Hence it may be 
that the fishing catch was a fore-and-aft rigged vessel 
which aljout 1715 became known as the "scooner," 
or schooner, as has been mentioned earlier (p. 14). 

Early in the 18th century the New England and 
Canadian inshore fisheries were being carried on by 
small sloops and shallops, the offshore fisheries by 
schooners and a few large sloops. The schooners 
soon became vessels of some size and by 1770 the 
New England fishing schooner was often 60 feet in 
length. As far as can be discovered, the shallop or 
"two mast boat," was something like the Chebacco 
boat and dogbody, to be referred to later (p. 164). 
It is apparent, from contemporary accounts, that 
there were a number of shallops and small schooners 
with the pink stern, a sharp stern with overhanging 
bulwarks aft that later marked the New England 
pinky schooner. The large fishing schooners appear 
to have all been square-sterned. 

As early as 1721 Marblehead, Massachusetts, had 
120 schooners in the fisheries averaging 50 tons 
register and by 1741 Marblehead had 160. In the 
colony of Massachusetts, in 1741, 400 schooners were 
owned, besides about an equal number of decked 
and undecked small craft all employed in the fisheries. 
Sometime before 1760 the large fishing schooner had 
developed marked characteristics and had become 
known as the "Marble Head scooner." 

The history of the development of the early fishing 
schooners has been clouded by tradition. The 
alleged "invention" of the schooner at Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, in 1715 was accepted as an historical 
fact for many years, vmtil it was finally challenged 
by the production of old paintings and drawings 
showing that the schooner-rig had existed long before 
1 71 5. It has been traditional that the fishing schooner 
improved in size, speed, and all good qualities as 
time passed and knowledge increased, whereas the 
facts were that the schooner developed or receded 
in size, speed, and good qualities, as the economics 
of the fisheries required, or as international conditions 
made necessary 



162 



it/^/r af A'etv ^r^ /?67 ^ /Ae fibyafMiy/ 
^^rotrn /rom /ic/miroffy Zfrat/^h/. new 
m 7?tf M*/wna/ fyfari/une Mvieim. 6refnwich 



/*wy/// iff/, o^r/n S?'9 
ae/r/A */€» 7-/1?' 




^A^ /eAecnfrj ^w// a/ //erf )iric, /0ont/»<d 
Jo/f /7(7 /c/a 1773 

' Jm ^c^ufni<i ^/iujif4/ ' 

/rrrf//r lir AIny /u/ src ' 
3e»tfn et/reme /f'^. 

/?fp/fy //7 //o/c* f'/f 

7S94 TofJt 

S/f/>/ /iJpi/rj.JCMefJ 



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Lines of the Marblehead-Type Schooners Sir Edward Hawke and Earl of Egmont, built at New York for the 
British Navy in 1767. This type had a reputation for speed. Redrawn from the original British Admiralty 
building draught, courtesy of the Trustees of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England. 



Marblehead Schooner 

During the early years of the New England fishing 
schooner, from perhaps 1745 to 1770, the American 
offshore fisheries were harassed by foreign cruisers 
and raiders; earlier, wandering pirates and free- 
booters had been troublesome. Just as the lack of 
nav'al protection had caused New England merchants 
to resort to the fast-sailing galley-ship at the end of 
the 17th century, so the same lack in the 18th century 
produced the fast-sailing Marblehead "Scooner," or 
schooner. Early newspaper references and notices 
to mariners refer to these schooners as privateers, 
indicating fast-sailing qualities. During the American 
Revolution and in the years just preceding it the 
Marblehead schooner was employed where swiftness 
was necessary; the British Navy built two in 1767 at 
New York, the Sir Edward Hawke and the Earl of 
Egmont, and to this circumstance we owe the existence 
of the one plan of a pre-Revolutionary Marblehead 
schooner (see above). Early in the Revolution 
General Washington commissioned Marblehead 
schooners to capture British supply ships trying to 
reach the besieged port of Boston. Even the French 
had employed these fast schooners, as is shown by a 
mariners' notice in the Boston Gazelle, Monday, 
Aug 24, 1761, regarding French cruisers on the 
northern coasts: 



A Schooner of 1 2 guns, formerly a Marblehead Fisherman, 
one side of her upper Works black, and the other yellow 
and white streaks; a Seahorse on her Hase-holes, and looks 
very much like a Fisherman on the painted Side. 

During the Revolution the Canadians fitted out some 
privateers against the Americans; in the October 20, 
1777, issue of the Boslon Gazelle this warning appeared: 

We have intelligence that a schooner mounting 12 carriage 
guns with 40 men lately sail'd from Halifax to cruise this 
coast. She is about 70 tons burthen, Marblehead-built, 
white bottom, with lug foresail and two standing topsails. 
Ten of her crew belonged to Commodore Manlv and about 
as many more are young lads. 

In the years of unrest that followed the Revolution 
the Marblehead schooner evidently maintained her 
reputation for speed, for President John Adams, 
writing from Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 5th of 
August, 1799, suggested to the Secretary of the Navy 
that, "we must have Bermuda Sloops, \'irginia Pilot 
Boats or Marblehead schooners" for light cruisers 
against the French. The inclusion of the Marblehead 
schooner with such swift-sailing types as the Bermuda 
sloop and Mrginia pilot boat speaks for itself. Yet, 
in spite of this evidence, tradition is firm that the 
Marblehead "heel-tappers," or schooners, were 
barrel-shaped, full-ended, and slow-sailing craft. 



163 



Chebacco Boat, Pinky, and Schooner 
Smack 

In the years after the Revohition, many of the 
fishermen in Massachusetts were unable to replace 
the large fishing schooners lost during the war. 
At the same time, the coastal fisheries became very 
active. The resulting demand for small craft, led to 
an improvement in the old shallop, or 2-masted boat. 
This improvement appears to have originated at 
Esse.x, Massachusetts, then called the Chebacco 
Parish of Ipswich. It is probable that the improve- 
ment was largely a mere increase in size and some 
refinement in model and rig, but the resulting craft 
were found to be very efficient fishing boats and the 
type soon became the "Chebacco boat," in the 
fishermen's vernacular. Tradition supposes the Che- 
bacco boat was "invented" at Essex and goes so far 
as to claim that the first one was built in an attic of 
one of the houses in the village, quite a feat considering 
the size of a Chebacco boat and of the Essex houses. 
The Chebacco was built in two basic models — 
one was referred to as a Chebacco, or "Jeljacco," boat, 
and was pink-sterned, the other was called the 
"Chebacco dogljody," or just "dogbody," and was 
square-sterned. The rig was 2-masted, schooner 
fashion but with the foremast in the eyes of the hull; 
there was no bowsprit, no headsail and no topsails. 
The boats were decked, the smaller craft under 40 
feet length had "standing rooms," or cockpits, in 
which fishermen stood when fishing and the helmsman 
also had a "steering room"; the boats above 40 feet 
were usually decked and were without these "rooms." 
Commonly the square-sterned dogbody was smaller 
than the contemporary pink-stern Chebacco; the 
square stern gaxe equal deck room in less length. 
At the end of the 18th century the Chebacco boats 
rarely exceeded 23 tons register and most were be- 
tween 36 and 38 feet length, 11 and 12 feet beam, 5 
and 5)2 feet depth. By 1810 the average boat was still 
under 30 tons register; 39 to 42 feet on deck, 11)^ to 
12)^ feet beam, and 5)^ to 6 feet depth in hold. Dur- 
ing the War of 1812 some large Chebaccos were built, 
up to 45 feet length and 13 feet beam, of about 35 
tons. The small boats had low rails; the large boats 
had bulwarks. The Chebacco was often a fast-sailing 
boat and very seaworthy. As a result, boats of this 
type are known to have made \oyages to the West 
Indies and fishing trips to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
The type was at its height of popularity in the decade 
1800-10. 



The Chebacco boats were marked by a curved stem 
profile, raking post, drag to the keel, and usually a 
marked sheer. Often the low bulwarks or chock rails 
were cut short of the stem; the latter stood high and 
could be employed as a mooring bitt. The masts were 
usually raked and the sails were rather .square-headed. 
The boats usually had a raised cuddy-deck forward, 
but the rail line might be flush at sheer in spite of 
this; in the small boats the rail stopped at the break 
of the cuddy-deck and the fore rail was a low log 
rail, or bow chock-rail, carried almost to the stem. 




Sm.^ll Cheb.acco Bo.\t, 1790-95, a type much used in 
the Massachusetts inshore fisheries from 1785 to 1815. 
1 his old and somewhat crude rigged model (USNM 
39198), of indeterminate scale, shows the basic fea- 
tures of a small boat of the type. {Smithsonian photo 



In their home ports the Chebacco boats employed 
a mooring made of a large block of granite, of 3 
or 4 tons weight, having a hole in its center about 
8 inches in diameter; in this a white oak timber was 
set and secured at the butt, below the granite block, 
with a fid. Over the head of this oak timber, which 
was about 14 to 18 feet long, to stand 3 or 4 feet above 
high tide, was placed a short timber, 18 to 24 inches 
long, in which was a hole large enough to fit loosely 
over the top of the long timber; it was held in place 
h\ a fid through the head of the long piece. This 
short Ijlock, or "craij," could revolve on the upright 
oak piece. A piece of well-tarred cable, aijout two 
inches in diameter, was made fast to one end of the 



164 




Measured Perspective Drawing oi- a Chebacco Boat, 1795-1805, showing form and arrangement of hull 
Drawn bv the late Georsre C. Wales. 



crab by passing it through a small hole, made in the 
crab for the purpose, and splicing it in place; the free 
end was made up in a large eye-splice. This cable 
was usually about 4 to 5 fathoms long and the eye- 
splice was buoyed. In mooring, when the Chebacco 
boat picked up the buoy, the large eye-splice was 
dropped over the high stem-head of the boat, thus 
securing her. In some boats a removable fid was 
passed through the steinhead athwartships to prevent 
the eye-splice from coming adrift, but in most boats 
the stemhead was so high this was not necessary. 

Though the center of Chebacco boat construction 
was at Cape Ann, copies of the type were built else- 
where, on the "South Shore" of Massachusetts at 
Hingham, Scituate, and Kingston as well as to the 
eastward in Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 
The old sailing fishing boats of the northern end of 
the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, were certainly de- 
scendants and a form of Chebacco is said to have 
existed there late into the last quarter of the 19th cen- 
tury. The Cheljacco lost its popularity in Massachu- 
setts at the end of the War of 1812 as the increase in 
size of hull began to make the rig heavy to work; as 
a result, in the inshore fisheries the schooner-rigged 



pink\ surplanted the pink-sterned Chebacco and the 
square-stern schooner the dog body. 

It is not known when this type of schooner, later 
known as the "pinky," originated. But the pink- 
sterned hull with schooner rig appears to have been 
used in the New England fishing fleet before the Rev- 
olution. It is probable, however, that it existed 
throughout the whole period of development of the 
square-stern schooner. At the end of the War of 1812 
the pinky had a period of popularity and a great 
many were built. The pinkies were at their height 
of popularity in New England between 1815 and 1840. 
The invention of the mackerel jig in 1816 by Abraham 
Lur\cy of Pigeon Cove, Cape Ann, made this fishery 
popular and profitable. As the mackerel work to 
windward, vessels in this fishery had to be weatherly. 
The pinkies were notable for this quality and so a 
great many were employed in this fishery, a fact that 
led to their being called "jiggers." Pinkies were em- 
ployed in all New England offshore fisheries except 
the Grand Banks, in the period 1815-35. 

The Chebacco boats and pinkies had open fire- 
[ilaces in the cuddy forward and life aboard them was 
often hard. The fare mav be imagined bv a list 



165 



of provisions, supplies for a week, placed aboard a 
Chebacco boat in 181 1 : 2 quarts of molasses, 5 pounds 
of fat salt pork, 4 pounds of flour, 7 pounds of hard 
crackers, % barrel of water, and an unstated supply 
of rum. Beans were sometimes supplied and cooked 
aboard the boats. 

Throughout the colonial period and after, until 
well into the 1840's, the consumption of rum aboard 
New England fishing vessels was enormous. It was 
said that this often had serious effects upon fishing, 
causing loss of time and gear. Occasionally an 
incident appeared in the newspapers, as in the 
Boston Gazelle, Monday, August 12th, 1771: 

The beginning of last \Veek a Fishing Schooner arrived 
at Marblehead, having on board 4 Men and 2 Lads, who 
gave an Account, that about a Week or Fortnight before 
they got in, one Saturday Evening, after the Crew had made 
a Supper of Pork and boiled Dumplins, their Skipper, 

Mr , and one Russell, died very suddenly, the 

former immediately after Supper and the latter the next 
Morning. ."Mthough the Men and Lads agreed in the 
Circumstances relative to these Deaths, yet the Magistracy 
tho't proper to make a legal, particular Enquiry into the 
Affair, which was done last Saturday, when it appeared 
that Russell, after the Men had finished their Supper, 
challenged the Skipper, or any other, to drink Bumpers 
of Rum with him; which being accepted, a Pint Mug was 
filled and Russell drank it off, and the Skipper then drank 
the same Quantity. Russell repeated the fatal draught 
which completed a Quart; before the Skipper had Time to 
drink his second Draught he fell and immediately e.xpired. 
His Champion dropt very soon after, continued in a 
lethargic State till the Next Morning and then died. The 
4 Men and 2 Lads agreed to Conceal the unhappy cause of 
these Deaths; which they did until examined by Authority. 

In the years between 1815 and 1840 the peaceful 
state of the seas and the steadily increasing demand 
for fish made cargo capacity more important than 
speed. Under these conditions, what was generally 
needed was a burdensome vessel that would lie at 
anchor safely on the banks and sail at a moderate 
rate. In 1821 the first attempt was made by a 
Massachusetts fisherman to anchor on Georges 
Bank, as had long been done on the Grand Banks; pre- 
viously the strong tides on the Georges had led to a 
belief that a vessel anchoring there would be pulled 
under by the tide. The importance of the salt 
fishery caused the construction of many large, burden- 
some schooners having a short, full entrance and run, 
a rather round, full bottom, a moderate sheer, and 
a short quarterdeck. On the whole these schooners 
were very slow under sail and it was these, perhaps. 




New England Pinkv of 1820-45, rigged model 
USNM 57586, showing a typical deck arrangement. 
The mainsheet horse forward of the tiller, however, is 
unusual and probably an error of the model builder. 
{SmitluoJiian photo 4^6g^.) 

that caused the veteran fishermen later (in 1885) 
to describe Marblehead-built schooners as slow and 
barrel-shaped and thus to establish the tradition that 
all the old Marblehead schooners, without regard to 
date, were tubby craft. 

Sharpshooter and Chpper Fishermen 

Several factors arose to change this picture and to 
create a demand for faster vessels. The invasion of 
Canadian waters by New England fishermen and 
the various international disputes over treaty rights 
of Americans to fish in Canadian waters finally led 
to attempts to exclude the New Englanders from some 
of the desirable fishing areas on the coasts of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and Labrador. This was 
done by use of fishery patrol vessels and British naval 
craft. The New Englanders resisted this, first em- 
ploying some fast pinkies to poach on the forbidden 
fishing banks and then demanding that builders 
produce smart sailing craft that could escape the 
patrol and naval vessels. Another factor placing 
emphasis on the \alue of fast-sailing in fishing 
schooners was the demand for fresh fish occasioned 
by the rising population of the coastal cities. This 
demand was further stimulated, about 1836, by the 
construction of a railroad into Boston and, some 10 
years later, to Gloucester. With the possibility for 
rapid delivery of fish inland, the market-fisheries 



166 



Old Fashioned Grand Banks cod- 
fishing schooner with crew hand- 
line fishing. Vessel is of about 
1825. Drawn by H. Elliott under 
the direction of Capt. J. VV. Col- 
lins. From G. Brown Goode, The 
fisheries and fishery industries of the 
United States, Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1884-87. 




thus assumed very great importance. The first 
effort to produce suitable vessels resulted in a large 
number of smacks, or schooners having live-wells. 
As most of these vessels were built on the old, slow 
model, they did not prove very satisfactory. In 
the midddle 1840's an effort was made to increase 
the supply of ice at the Boston and Gloucester 
fish piers, and to introduce better ways of handling 
iced fish, with the result that by 1847 the market- 
fishing schooners were almost entirely fitted for icing 
their catch. The use of ice, w^hich made short, quick 
trips necessary, added to the demand for speed. 




Sailmaker's Plan for a fishing schooner, 1836. From 
a drawing, made for the U.S. Fish Commission, in 
the Watercraft Collection. 



A third factor creating a demand for swift schooners 
resulted from the trend in the 1840's toward com- 
bining the summer mackerel fishery at Cape Cod 
with the winter transport of oysters in the shell from 
the Chesapeake to Cape Cod. This combination of 
operation had led to the purchase of a number of 
Chesapeake Bay schooners, some keel and some 
centerboard, designed and built to conform to the 
Chesapeake tradition that speed was a necessity in a 
schooner. Of these, the most popular model in the 
Cape Cod ports was the shoal-draft keel schooner 
known in the Chesapeake Bay country as the "pungy." 
Chesapeake Bay keel schooners, or "Baltimore clip- 
pers," were also purchased by Gloucester owners 
engas;ing in the summer mackerel fishery, so that by 
1845 the fast-sailing clipper-schooner was very well 
known in Cape Ann waters as w^ell as at Cape Cod. 
However, the Bay schooners, ^vhich were rather shoal 
bodied and low sided, had proved to be very wet 
and uncomfortable in winter weather, and to meet 
this objection and satisfy the demands for fast fishing 
schooners, the Esse.x, Massachusetts, l^uilders pro- 
duced a deep, keel schooner having great dead rise 
amidships, hard and powerful Iiilges, a sharp entrance 
and long easy run, heavy flaring sections forward 
above the waterline, and drawing much more water 
aft than forward. The model may have been in- 
fluenced by the contemporary Chesapeake schooners 
but probably was more affected by the large and deep 



167 




New England Well-Smack for 
the fresh hahbut fishery on Georges 
Bank, 1836-47. Longitudinal sec- 
tion, drawn by H. Elliott under 
the direction of Capt. J. W. Col- 
lins. From G. Brown Goode, The 
fisheries and fishery industries of the 
United States, Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1884-87. 



Sailmaker's Plan for a fishing schooner of the clipper 
model, built in late 1850's. From a drawing, made 
for the U.S. Fish Commission, in the Watercraft 
Collection. 




Sailmaker's Plan for the sharpshooter fishing 
schooner Romp built at Essex, Massachusetts, 1847. 
From a drawing, made for the U.S. Fish Commis- 
sion, in the Watercraft Collection. 



pilot-boat schooners then employed in nearly all New 
England ports. The new class of fishing schooner was 
named by the fishermen "sharpshooter" or "file 
bottom," to indicate the V-form of the schooner that 
resembled a triangular file. 

The first sharpshooter appears to have been the 
Romp, built at Esse.x, in 1847 by Andrew Story for 
Gloucester owners. Traditionally her crew is sup- 




posed to have refused to sail in her because she was so 
sharp but no actual record has yet been found of this. 
The Romp was a most successful vessel and remained 
at Gloucester for many years. She must have made a 
great impression while building, for she was imme- 
diately followed by a great number of similar schoon- 
ers, and soon all classes of new schooners, Grand 
Bankers, Georgesmen, and market boats were being 
designed as sharpshooters, or file-bottoms. The sharp- 
shooter attracted much attention in Canadian waters 
and authorities complained that the new and superior 
class of New England schooner could outsail the 
fishery patrol vessels and that the lawless American 
crews were driving Canadian fishermen from their 
fishing grounds. It was reported that the sharp- 
shooters had heavily ironed bowsprits and that their 
captains threatened to run down Canadian fishermen; 
the worst of the American vessels were commanded 
by "Whitewashed Yankees" who, said the Canadian 
report, were Nova Scotians who had become Ameri- 
can citizens. 

Late in the 1850's, the demand for relatively shoal- 
draft and large keel schooners, to replace the old 
Chesapeake Bay clippers at Cape Cod, led to the 



168 




Halibut-Fishing Schooner Being Tripped by a Heav\' Sea. Usually this caused loss of vessel and crew. 
Drawn by H. Elliott under the direction of Capt. J. W. Collins. From G. Brown Goode, The fisheries and fishery 
industries of the United States, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1884-87. 



construction of a new class of clipper fishermen. 
These were much sharper and longer m the entrance 
than the older sharpshooter, though with the same 
long and easy run; and were very straight in the 
buttocks. The new schooners, however, had less 
depth and dead rise in the midsection, and had low 
and hard bilges. The model resembled that of a 
centerboard schooner having some dead rise but 
with a deep keel outside the rabbet in lieu of a center- 
board. It was quickly found that the new model 
could carry a large sail area and was stiff, and that 
the new schooners were very fast. By 1859 the build- 
ing of the sharpshooter had almost ceased and all but 
the "salt bankers" were being built as clippers. The 
clipper model was to predominate for about 25 
years. 

In the 1860's a few rather deep schooners were Isuilt 
for the market fishery, but the trend in design was 
generally toward the extreme clipper having a \-ery 
shoal-draft body for a keel sailing vessel. The greatest 
beam was now well abaft the midlength, the stern 
was wide and the quarters heavy, the freeboard was 
low, the entrance became very long and sharp with 
much hollow at the forefoot, the run was also long 
and hollow near the post, and the buttocks were 
often extremely flat and straight. 



The Fast, Safe Fisherman 

However, it soon began to be apparent that some- 
thing was wrong. The rise in prosperity in the New 
England fisheries was general from the late 1840's on 
and the banks had become so crowded with schooners 
that when a severe gale swept the fishing grounds 
heavy losses through collisions, caused by vessels 
going adrift, could be expected. But it became 
apparent that this condition was not the .sole cause 
of the growing loss in lives and vessel property. 
Vessels were knocked down and either capsized or 
swamped, usually with the loss of all or most of the 
crew, because the shoal-bodied schooners could not 
recover from a sharp angle of heel. In a heavy gale, 
furthermore, the popular shoal model could not carry 
her heavy spars and large sails and the knowledge 
that the vessels could capsize caused captains to heave 
to and try to ride out the gale. Under such condi- 
tions, the shoal draft caused the vessels to drift un- 
manageably to leeward, a frequent cause of collision 
on the banks. In the 1870's a number of disastrous 
gales swept the New England coasts and the losses 
were very heavy. 

About 1880 a former Gloucester fisherman, Captain 
Joseph \V. Collins, joined the U.S. Fish Commission. 



169 




A Clipper of the i88o's, the 
Mackerel-Seiner Daniel Marcy, 
1882, out of Gloucester. {Smith- 
sonian p/into ^j8i6-d.) > 




Inboard Profile and Deck Lay- 
out of a halibut-fishing schooner 
1880, for fishing on Georges Bank. 
From G. Brown Goode, The fish- 
eries and fishery industries of the United 
States, Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1884-87. 



His experience as commander of some of the extreme 
clipper fishing schooners, and his knowledge of the 
causes of the extensive losses in lives and vessels that 
had occurred had led him to begin a campaign to 
bring about safer and better schooners. Writing in 
newspapers and later in the publications of the Fish 
Coinmission, he effectively centered attention upon 
the shortcomings of the fashionable model of schooner. 
He obtained the aid of a number of competent de- 
signers such as Lawlor, John Bishop, and Thomas 
Irving, and he also modeled schooners hiinself to 
illustrate what could be produced in a schooner hav- 
ing more depth, lower ballast, and a greater range of 
stability than was possible with the existing model. 
The speed of the shoal clipper was too well appreci- 
ated for his campaign to be successful, if based upon 
safety alone, so it was also necessary to prove that the 
new, deep, safe schooner would be as fast or faster 
than the fashionable type. 

The Fish Commission planned to build a smack- 
schooner and, from 1883 to 1886, Collins exhibited a 
number of his designs for such a vessel to serve as a 
model for the ideal fishing schooner. Lawlor was very 
much interested in the subject and aided Collins with 
his designing; in 1884 Lawlor built on speculation the 
deep and improved fishing schooner Roulette, which 
attracted much attention. She was fast, weatherly, 
and able to carry sail. In 1885 Lawlor designed a 
number of fast schooners having the straight, upright 



stem of the pilot schooner; these were the schooners 
Arthur D. Story, John H. McMamis, and the A. S. & R. 
Hammond. These schooners were fast and though less 
deep than the Roulette, they were nevertheless much 
deeper than average in proportion to length. 

In 1886 the Fish Commission finally built its re- 
search smack, the Grampus. She was obviously influ- 
enced by Lawlor's work and had a straight upright 
stem, much dead rise, a deep draft and low ballast, 
and a narrow stern. In 1887 the Boston yacht de- 
signer, Edward Burgess, designed a notable fishing 
schooner, the Carrie E. Phillips, which introduced a 
nuinber of improvements. She was a plumb-stem 
vessel in the Lawlor fashion and had iron standing 
rigging, a spike bowsprit, and improved ironwork. 
The success of this schooner led to the Burgess design 
of the .Nellie Dixon and Fredonia, sister schooners built 
in 1889; they were so highly approved that the "Fre- 
donia Model" as it was called, remained popular well 
into the early 1900's. These efforts during the period 
1884-89 to improve schooner design had produced 
fast, safe, and handsome schooners that were uni- 
versally admired throughout the world. 

The years between 1875 and 1895 had also been a 
period of experimentation in fishing methods. A 
number of 3-masted salt bankers had been launched, 
a ketch-rigged beam trawler had been built and tried 
out; improvements had been made in the small 
schooners and smacks employed in the alongshore 



7U 




fisheries, and great efibrts had been expended upon 
improving mackerel seines, dories, and trawl gear. 

Thomas F. McManus, son of a noted Boston sail- 
maker, began designing fishing schooners as a hobby 
in 1892. A fish dealer at the time, his first designs 
were for schooners that were fast-sailing but not very 
good fishing vessels, a problem he soon overcame: by 
1896 he was designing excellent schooners. He intro- 
duced the rounded stem profile of the contemporary 
small yacht into the fishing fleet with notaiJy success- 
ful schooners known as "Indian Headers'"; the first of 
these was launched in 1898. The name of this type 
was the result of the early schooners having the names 
of noted American Indians. 

Another designer of note was Captain George "Mel" 
McLain of Rockport, Massachusetts. He had turned 
to modeling schooners in the early 1880's and, after 
the Fredonia was built, employed the basic principles 



of her form to produce extremeh handsome schooners 
of great speed, superior in every way to the Fredonia. 
McLain turned out the designs of some of the noted 
flyers of the Gloucester fleet during the heyday of the 
sailing schooner, 1890 to 1910. 

In 1900 another yacht designer, B. B. Crowninshield 
of Boston, began designing fishing schooners. He in- 
troduced the long overhang of the contemporary sail- 
ing yacht, as well as a short, straight keel having very 
great drag, a very raking sternpost, and a much cut 
away forefoot formed with an angular break at the fore 
end of the keel and continuing to the rail at the stem 
in a fair, unbroken line; this profile was found so prac- 
tical and satisfactory that it soon became standard 
and was long known as the "fisherman profile." 

McManus, who until the Crowninshield schooners 
appeared had made his keels a fair cm-ve from heel of 
post downward and then upward, fairing them into a 



171 




rounded stem having a \-ery moderate overhang, 
adopted the new underwater profile. In 1901 he de- 
signed the first '"knockabout" fishing schooner, the 
Helen B. Thomas, launched in 1902 at Essex. This de- 
sign had no bowsprit; the stem was projected forward 
enough in a very long bow overhang to scr\'e in lieu 
of the bowsprit for setting proper headsails. This type 
of schooner became very popular but, as the cost of a 
schooner was based on overall length and not the 
waterline length, the newer knockalaouts had verv 
short bow overhangs, curved in profile. When the 
schooner fleet began to be converted to auxiliaries by 
the installation of gasoline engines, the knockabout al- 
most entirely supplanted the bowsprit vessels in new 
construction. The end of schooner design in the New- 



England fishing fleet may be said to have been 1912: 
after that date the sail area declined rapidly and the 
emphasis was on engine operation. A number of sail- 
ing schooners were designed by prominent yacht de- 
signers to race against Canadian schooners, but these 
were designed primarily for racing and were, as fisher- 
men, a decadent type. 

Steam Trawlers 

The first attempts to introduce steam into the Xew 
England fisheries occurred in the menhaden fisheries 
al)out 1871 at Boothbay, Maine. Steamers were well 
suited to this operation where runs were short and 
quick trips necessary, and where moderate weather 
was required. By 1888 there w-ere 55 steamers, rang- 



172 



Gloucester Fishing Schooner 
Clara M. Litllcfield, built at Glouces- 
ter, Massachusetts, in 1892. Her 
register dimensions were 71 '8" x 
2o'5" x g'o", 60 net tons. (Srnil/i- 
sonian photo ^2^i~-e.) 




Crew Members of Fishing 
Schooner Gertie E. Foster, 1890, ai 
Gloucester, Massachusetts. Details 
of deck fittings can be seen, includ- 
ing jib horse, galley stack, and 
forecastle companionway. {Smil/i- 
soman photo 37534-g.) 



Rigged Model (USNM 298232) 
of the fishing schooner Rob Roy. 
built at Essex, Massachusetts, in 
1 900. She is one of the early fish- 
ing schooners designed with a long 
bow overhang and short keel. For 
a view abaft, seep. 231. (Smith- 
sonian photo 44gj6~a.) 




173 



ing from 27 to 214 tons register, operating in the men- 
haden fishery. Steamers were also tried out in the in- 
shore fisheries — in the Long Island Sound oyster 
fishery about 1876, in the Maine clam and herring 
fisheries in 1880, and in the Connecticut lobster fishery 
in 1883. In the 1880's steamers were also employed 
at Tampa, Florida, in the Carolina Sounds, on the 
Great Lakes, and on the Pacific Coast. Steamers en- 
tered the American whale fishery in 1865; the first 
steam whaling vessel to be built in the United States 
was launched at Bath, Maine, in 1879. 

The adoption of steamers in the off'shore fisheries of 
New England was delayed because at first the speed of 
the schooners was great enough to compete \vith most 
small steamers of the time and the cost of a steam ves- 
sel was far greater than that of a schooner of similar 
capacity. In 1885 Captain H. B. Joyce designed and 
had built at Kennebunkport, Maine, the steam mack- 
erel-seiner Novelty. She operated for about 4 years and 
then was sold to Haitian revolutionaries. It is said she 
was not a very profitable vessel. Captain Collins 
made an effort to introduce steamers into the Ameri- 
can fisheries and though his efforts met with some suc- 
cess on the Pacific Coast and in southern waters, it 
cannot be said he had much influence in New Eng- 
land. The construction of the steam schooner Alice 
M. Jacob!: at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1902 was the 
ne.xt attempt to introduce steamers and though she 
was reported to be very successful as a mackerel 
seiner, she was a very expensive vessel to build and to 
operate. 

In 1904-05 a group representing Boston interests 
obtained plans of a steel steam trawler in England and 
built the Spray, 136 feet 4 inches overall, 22 feet beam, 
12 feet lOJ^ inches depth, 450 horsepower, and able to 
make 1 1 knots in light weather. This vessel was so 
successful that the owners built four more trawlers in 
1910-11, and an additional four in 1912-13. During 
the war years 1914-18, a number of large wooden 
steam trawlers were built. The legal requirements as 
to inspection and manning of steam fishing vessels 
adversely affected operational costs and after the war 
there was an increasingly great interest in diesel 
engines; since these could be used in wooden as well 
as steel vessels. In 1928-36 a number of steel diesel- 
powered trawlers were built, and also a large number 
of small wooden trawlers, or "draggers." No steam 
trawlers were built after the 1914-18 war and no 
large diesel steel trawlers after 1945, the trend being 
toward wooden draggers 90 to 115 feet overall. 



Whalers and Sealers 

The whale fishery was V'ery important from colonial 
days until about 1900, by which time petroleum and 
steel had replaced the fishery products oil and whale- 
bone. American whaling suffered disasters in the war 
periods, particularly during the War of 1812 and the 
American Civil War, when whaling in the Pacific 
and South Atlantic were being rigorously prosecuted. 
In earlier times much of the whaling was in Green- 
land waters and alongshore, and so it had been pos- 
sible to warn vessels of impending war soon enough to 
prevent heavy losses from enemy cruisers. In co- 
lonial times sloops were often employed, and later, 
schooners, brigs, and ships. Much of the shore 
whaling was done with large whaleboats, some as long 
as 40 feet, fitted to row and sail. After the Revolution 
there was a steady expansion in the American whaling 
fleet. Relatively large ships were employed, and the 
South Atlantic and the Pacific whaling grounds 
became the scene of much American activity. The 
Massachusetts ports of New Bedford and Nantucket 
became important whaling centers, as did New Lon- 
don, Connecticut. However, whaleships were owned 
and operated out of many other ports, among which 
were Philadelphia, New York, New Haven, Boston, 
and Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 

Whalers in the Pacific after the War of 1812 em- 
ployed ships, and after 1840 barks of moderate length, 
90 to 120 feet on deck, but of great capacity. At 
that time the fleet included some old ships, and packets 
and freighters of large capacity, as well as vessels 
built particularly for the fishery. Most were slow- 
sailing, deep and full-ended, and with a moderate 
spread of sail. 

By the 1850's the effect of the C!alifornia clipper 
ships became felt, and the later whaling ships and 
barks were designed for speed and easy rolling, 
qualities which had been found highly desirable, 
particularly in Arctic whaling, to escape ice packs. 

The result was a fine class of clipper-built barks and 
ships. These were employed in the Bering Sea, 
which by 1845 had been found a profitable whaling 
ground, and by 1852-56 vessels were being built 
with very raking stems to enable them to work more 
effectively in ice under sail; the first of these appears 
to have been the bark Gayhead built at Mattapoisett, 
Massachusetts, in 1852. Vessels of her type were 
usually about 110 to 115 feet long, about 30 feet 
beam, and 11 to 13 feet in the hold. They usually 



174 





Grand Banks Fishing Schooner Converted to Whaler. The picture was taken at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1899. The vessel was built in Essex, Massachusetts, in the i88o's. {Smithsonian photo ^yj^^-c.) 



had a short and rather full entrance but a very 
long run, a rising floor, and an easy bilge. When 
the clipper model became popular the entrance 
became sharp and the vessels somewhat deeper than 
previously. The Civil ^Var alrnost destroyed the 
American whale fisheries. The Confederate com- 
merce destroyers Shenandoah and Alabama took a 
very heavy toll, and schooners and small w-haling 
brigs operating in the South Atlantic suffered as much 
as the ships and barks fishing in the Pacific and in 
Bering Sea. Recovery was very slow, for relatively 
few new whaling vessels were built; in 1865 the ship 
Pioneer, a government transport, was converted to a 
steain-auxiliary whaling bark; between 1869 and 1892 
a few steam-auxiliary barks were built, but the 
fishery was a dying one. The last w-haler to be built, 
in 1910, was the brigantine Viola, at Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, by John James & Son. The center of 
whaling ship construction had been in the vicinity of 



New Bedford, but the small whalers, schooners, and 
brigs were liuilt elsewhere. Many fishing schooners 
and salt bankers were converted to whalers after 1890 
and some 3-masted fishing schooners ended their days 
whaling off the coast of Brazil. 

Sealing was first undertaken by Americans ofT the 
Labrador coasts in small schooners and sloops. Un- 
important in colonial times, it did not become very 
profitable to Americans until about 1798, when the 
opening of trade with China and the Far East brought 
about its rapid growth. In the 19th century the 
fishery centered around New London, Connecticut; 
later it was centered on the Pacific Northwest coast. 
In the years immediately after the War of 1812 the 
fa\-orite sealing vessel was a topsail schooner of the 
pilot-boat model but with great beam, moderate 
depth and draft, and with a somewhat rising floor, a 
hard bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. These 
schooners were largely employed ofT Cape Horn in 



175 



the years 1820-55; being replaced in the 1850's by 
fast schooners of the fisherman type. Pacific coast 
sealing was carried on by old fishing schooners, ex- 
yachts and, as sealing finally developed into illegal 
poaching in Alaskan waters, any fast-sailing vessel. 
The South Atlantic sealing ceased with the American 
Civil War and Pacific-coast sealing finally died out 
about 1910 as a commercial fishery. 

Oyster Boats 

At Cape Cod, on Long Island Sound, on the New 
Jersey coast, and on Chesapeake Bay, a fine class of 
centerboard schooner was produced by the oyster 
fisheries. The Chesapeake Bay fishery was carried on 
at first with shoal-draft keel schooners known as 
pungies; the centerboard schooner and sloop appeared 
on the Chesapeake about 1825. This area had been 
noted since the middle of the 18th century for the 
construction of fast-sailing craft, at first the so-called 
Bermuda sloop model, and then the schooners of the 
Virginia, or pilot-boat model. The Chesapeake Bay 
schooner, which later became known as the Baltimore 
clipper, and the pilot-boat types were long, low hulls 
having a straight sheer, raking ends, a straight keel 
with much drag, square stern, sharp entrance, a long 
easy run, and a V-shaped midsection with a rising 
straight floor, an easy bilge, and a shallow topside 
with a slight tumble-home. After 1825 the amount 
of rise in the floor steadily decreased; in the pungy it 
became very moderate, and in the centerboard 
schooner almost flat. However, the entrance and run 
remained fine and well formed for speed, so that keel 
or centerboard, the Chesapeake Bay schooners main- 
tained a great reputation for swift sailing throughout 
their existence. Chesapeake Bay schooners after 1848 
became also characterized by exaggeratedly long and 
pointed cutwaters; this soon became a traditional 
finish in all the Bay sailing craft and probably in- 
fluenced the design of the bow elsewhere. 

The New Jersey schooners were based upon those 
of the Bay and it was not until after 1900 that they 
departed much in appearance from the Chesapeake 
Bay centerboard oyster schooner. In about 1910, stems 
round in profile came into fashion in the Jersey 
schooners. The Long Island Sound oyster schooners 
were also like the Chesapeake Bay and Jersey center- 
boarders and were basically on the same model, 
though at times the oyster schooners at the western 
end of Long Island Sound were much influenced by 
contemporary schooner yachts, particularly in the 



1870's. The Cape Cod oyster schooners were 
usually keel fishing schooners employed in summer 
in the mackerel fishery. A number of centerboard 
schooners were employed; at first these were obtained 
from the Chesapeake but in the 1880's Cape owners 
were having them built at Essex, Massachusetts, the 
model being essentially that of the Long Island Sound 
oyster schooners. 

Alongshore Fishing Craft 

The shore fisheries were carried on in small craft 
ranging from rowboats to sloops and schooners up to 
about 60 feet in length. There is little in the colonial 
records to establish what these small craft were like 
in hull and rig. Apparently, however, a large num- 
ber of dugout log canoes were employed all along 
the coast — a boat-canoe having a square stern with 
small heart-shaped transom, a raking curved stem, a 
straight keel, flat bottom, good sheer, with the mid- 
section having flat floor, an almost angular bilge, and 
slightly curved and flaring sides, and the entrance and 
run short but easy. The last known use of the dugout 
boat-canoe was on the Miramachi River, New Bruns- 
\vick, Canada. The craft was fitted to row or sail. 

The colonial shallop has been discussed (p. 162). 
Probably it was the most common small boat in the 
colonial fisheries and was about the same as the 2- 
masted boat of pre-Revolutionary years. It was not 
until after the War of 1812, apparently, that Ameri- 
can small fishing boats developed strong local char- 
acteristics and became individual types. This may 
not be true of all but appears to be true of the very 
large majority. The double-ended lap-strake beach 
boats, such as the Block Island boat and the Hampton 
Beach, New Hampshire, Hampton boat, may be the 
oldest American types. The range in types of small 
American fishing boats has not been determined with 
accuracy — it is believed there were about 200 indi- 
vidual types under 60 feet in length, though probably 
not this many were in existence at one time. 

In small American fishing boats the spritsail rig 
was the commonest. Many of the very small boats 
in the rowing-sailing class carried a single spritsail; a 
few had jibs. Two-masted spritsail rigs were also 
common; in some of the larger boats a jib was carried 
and was commonly set flying. The foresail was larger 
than the mainsail. At least two types of boat had 
three masts and three spritsails. 

Gaff-sails were probably the next most popular sail 
form and at times, particularly after 1850, the gaff"-sail 
predominated. The colonial shallop rig — two gafi- 



176 



sails, on two masts, the mainsail the larger and the 
foremast in the eyes of the boat, the sails boomed or 
the foresail "lug" (without a boom and overlapping 
the main) — did not remain popular after the Che- 
bacco boat went out of fashion; thenceforth all 2- 
masted rigs (unless a jib was rigged and the boat was 
schooner-masted) had mainsails smaller than foresails. 
Gaffs varied in length from short clubs to long spars; 
the Block Island boat had very short gaffs, while cat- 
boats, sloops, and some of the 2-masted boats on the 
Great Lakes had long gaffs. 

The leg-of-mutton sail was very popular in some 
localities; on Long Island Sound near New Haven, 
Connecticut, it was used in the oyster sharpies; and 
on the Chesapeake Bay it was also very popular. It 
cannot be determined on existing evidence if this 
form of sail was in continuous use in these localities 
from colonial times, though it was undoubtedly em- 
ployed by colonial Americans. On pictorial evidence 
it caa be said that the New Haven sharpies had the 
rig from 1856, and on similar evidence it was em- 
ployed on the Chesapeake from 1861. The rig is sup- 
posed to have been employed in Bermuda from about 
1815 on, but may have been used there continuously 
from early times. 

The lug sail does not appear to ha\e been used ex- 
cept in the 1-mast dipping-lug-rigged New Orleans 
centerboard fishing boat. The lateen too was rare; 
perhaps in colonial times it may have been popular 
but in the 19th century it is known to have been used 
in but two types of fishing boat, a small open boat 
once used on the Gulf Coast near Pensacola and the 
so-called Italian boat, or felucca, at San Francisco. 
Catboat-rigged 1-mast craft were very numerous in 
the last half of the 19th century in Cape Cod waters, 
Narragansett Bay, at the western end of Long Island 
Sound, and in New York Bay and New Jersey; 
another type was employed on the Gulf Coast near 
Pascagoula, Mississippi, and sharpie catboats were 
used in Florida. The jib and mainsail sloop at times 
was very popular and was employed quite generalh' 
in the last quarter of the 19th century, particularly 
on the Maine coast, at Gloucester and Cape Ann, on 
Long Island Sound and in New York Bay, along the 
New Jersey and Maryland shores, on the Carolina 
Sounds, the Florida and Gulf coasts, the Great Lakes, 
and the Pacific coast. 

A few unique rigs also were employed. At one time 
on the Great Lakes and on Long Island Sound a form 
of leg-of-mutton was used in which a batten was fitted 
like a ?aff so that the sail looked like a gaff-headed 



sail and gaff topsail in one; another variation of the 
battened sail was a Jeg-of-mutton with horizontal 
batten parallel to the boom, about one-third the 
hoist being above it. On the Piscataqua River in 
New Hampshire a few boats sometimes employed in 
fishing on the river had the local gundalow rig, a leg- 
of-mutton laced to a mast or spar that was slung, 
close to its heel, to a short mast or post, the heel being 
weighted so the spar stood nearly upright. This sail 
is sometimes considered a lateen but it is not; it was 
designed to allow spar and sail to be quickly lowered 
when passing under bridges. 

There were many and various indi\^idual hull types. 
The center-board hull predominated from 1850 on, 
and the flat-bottom sharpie and the V-bottom hull 
spread rapidly along the coast from Cape Cod to 
Florida in the 1870's and 1880's; the former was found 
on the Great Lakes, on the Gulf coast of Florida, on 
Lake Champlain, and in at least one locality on the 
Pacific coast. The sharpies varied much in rig, for 
they ranged from small catboats and sloops to quite 
larsje schooners nearly 60 feet long. The sloops were 
usually called flatties; some were flat-bottomed for- 
ward of amidships and V-bottomed aft. 

The skipjack, a very popular American type of boat, 
appears to have first attracted attention at Martha's 
Vineyard and in Narragansett Bay about 1860; from 
there it was introduced on the Gulf Coast and on the 
Chesapeake. Like the sharpie, the skipjack employed 
a variety of rig, from catboat to schooner. 

Scows were also used in the fisheries; a centerboard 
sloop-rigged scow was employed at Portland, Maine, 
in the 1880"s, and small scows, called garvies, with 
one or two spritsails and leeboards or centerboards, 
were popular in soiuhern New Jersey. 

Some stock boats appeared in the fisheries; these 
were boats, like the dory, that a boat shop could 
build in numbers on speculation. Fishermen bought 
such craft — the Connecticut dragboat and the 
related Whitehall lioat, various types of sailing and 
rowing dories, sailing and rowing sharpie-skiffs, 
and whale and seine boats. 

Live wells for keeping their catch alive, or to pre- 
serve bait, appeared in boats from the size of the 
sharpie-skiff to sloops and schooners of 60 feet or 
more. Maine built many small well smacks for the 
lobster fishery. Noank, Connecticut, won fame as a 
smack-building town, first large sloops, and after 
the Civil W'ar fine schooners, and in the 1870's the 
Noank schooner-smack was considered the finest of 
the type. 



177 



Captain Collins became interested in an improved 
sloop-smack and tried to introduce such a boat on 
the Pacific coast in 1893-94 but was apparently 
imsuccessful. On the Florida and Gulf coasts the 
smack, as would be expected, was very popular. 

The small sailing craft used in the fisheries were 
often crude. They were built to meet the pocket- 
book of the owner and some fisheries were not very 
profitable; but on the whole, they were well designed 
and soundly built for the fishery they were employed 
in. Generally, the hull forms had been carefully 
developed and many of the boats were graceful and 
handsome as well as efficient. Boats that worked 
in exposed waters — as in the case of the Maine 
Friendship sloop or the Quoddy boat, the Block 
Island boat of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, the 
Mackinaw boat of the Great Lakes, and the double- 
ended sloops of the Pacific Northwest — were care- 
fully designed and fitted to produce seaworthy and 
safe craft. 

Steam had little part in the American small-boat 
fishery. A few steam launches were employed in 
the 1890's on the Carolina Sounds and on the Great 
Lakes, but generally the boats were much too ex- 
pensive to be employed profitably in the small-boat 
fisheries. This was also true of the naptha launch. 
But with the introduction of the small gasoline engine, 
the increase in the number of motorboats in the 
fisheries became very marked, and after about 1906 



the launch began to drive the sailing boat from 
the field. The first fishing launches were a modifi- 
cation of the dory into a douijle-ended, flat-bottom 
motorboat, or a double-ended caravel-planked hull 
much like a Maine peapod was used. The engines 
were commonly single-cylinder motors of 2 to 12 
horsepower, the most popular class of engine being 
in the 5 to 10 horsepower range. Fantail launches 
like the old steam launches were also used, and motors 
were fitted to some sailing hulls successfully; the 
Maine Hampton boat and some sharpies were so 
altered. A racing launch was the model of the 
V-bottom fishing launches built on the Chesapeake. 
By 1914 the sailing fishing lioat was obsolete and 
fishing launches of great power and high speed were 
being built, usually following pleasure boats in model 
and powering. Gradually the boats became more 
powerful, and when automobile engines could be 
cheaply purchased from wrecked cars or as rebuilt 
motors, the marine gasoline engine was largely 
replaced by automobile and truck engines in most 
fishing centers. 

The types of fishing launches are far less in number 
than were sailing types, and fisheries experts believe 
that many modern motor fishing boats are ill-suited 
to their local conditions. Seaworthiness has also 
decreased and the trend toward inefficient hulls 
and unseaworthy design is as obvious abroad as it 
is in the LTnited States. The recognition of this will 
perhaps lead in time to their improvement. 



Catalog of the Collection — Fishing Craft 



FISHING SCHOONER, late 18th century 
Rigged Model, usnm 76243 

This model was reconstructed with the intention 
of representing an American fishing schooner of the 
18th centvn-y and was apparently based on paintings, 
dating from the last quarter of that century, found at 
Marblehead, Massachusetts. While the model is 
approximately correct as to spar proportion and rig- 
ging, deck arrangement, and general above-waterline 
appearance, profile, the hull form is too full and 
tubby to represent a fishing schooner of the troubled 
years 1740-1815, when swiftness under sail was 
necessary. Contemporary references to Marblehead 
fishing schooners of this period indicate that speed 
was a common characteristic of the type and is often 



inferred by their emplo)ment. The Boston Gazette for 
January 1, 1770, advertises: 

The Hull or Body of a Fishing Schooner, a prime sailor 
with a half-Deck, about seven years old, Burthen about 58 
Tons, together with her Masts, Booms and Bowsprit, Cables, 
Anchors, Boat, Sails and Rigging, with all Appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, as she now lays in the Harbour of 
Gloucester. 

That others were "prime sailors" is indicated by 
Washington's use of Marblehead fishing schooners 
as sea raiders early in the Revolution. 

Some Marblehead schooners of the last half of the 
18th centiu'y had a very low bulwark on the main 
deck and only the quarterdeck was used as a fishing 
deck, it having high protective bulwarks; but most of 



178 



.»»/"/ I 




Co//et/jon irOii^A/ /a c^fmrnjiL 
lfOf//t errra// ^aa' 



»i»ff 



these schooners had high main-deck bulwarks, often 
with ports cut in them to allow arming with cannon. 

The model represents a keel schooner having strong 
sheer, a rather upright stem with gammon-knee 
head, square stern much raked and with lower 
transom and round tuck, high and rather short 
quarterdeck with high bulwarks, low bulwarks on 
main deck, wooden windlass at heel of bowsprit, and 
wooden pump barrels. 

Rigged with a long pole bowsprit and raking masts, 
main with a long fidded topmast and a short stump 
fidded to the foremast head and carrying a windvane 
only. These vessels usually carried a single large 
jib, a gaff-foresail, usually fitted with a boom, a gaff- 
mainsail, and a main-topmast staysail. 

Scale of model is one-half inch to the foot, repre- 
senting a vessel about 52 feet over the rails, 15 feet 
beam, and 7)^ feet depth, with bowsprit 19 feet 
outside the knightheads and 25 feet in total length, 
foremast 33 feet deck to cap, mainmast 34 feet deck to 
cap, main-topmast 22 feet, main boom 32 feet, main 
gaff 16}^ feet, fore boom 22 feet, and fore gaff 16 feet 
long. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

CHEBACCO BOAT, about 1790 
Rigged Model, usnm 39198 

hion 

This appears to be a very old fisherman-built model 
of the type of small fishing boat first employed at 
Cape Ann and known as the "Chebacco boat" or, as 
it was sometimes spelled "Jebacco boat." Chebacco 



Reconstruction Drawing of a Small Chebacco 
Boat of about 1790, showing typical deck arrange- 
ment. Drawing is based on rigged model USNM 
39198 brought to the dimensions of an example in 
Customhouse records. 



was the old name for what is now the \-illage of Essex, 
Massachusetts, where the type was extensively built. 
As far as now can be determined, this type of boat 
was a developement of the old colonial "double 
shallop" early employed in the coastal fisheries of 
New England. After the American Revolution and 
into the first two decades of the 19th century the 
Chebacco boat and her companion type, the dogbody 
Chebacco, were very popular with New England 
fishermen. It appears that the popularity of the 
type increased at the end of the Revolution, when the 
Massachusetts fishermen, impoverished by wartime 
losses of their large fishing schooners and beset by local 
economic and manning difficulties, were forced to 
employ small and relatively inexpensive fishing craft 
in lieu of building new schooners and sloops. 

The Chebacco boat developed in two models: the 
sharp-stern hull with a pink, always called Chebacco, 
or Jebacco, boat and the square-stern variant called 
dogbody Chebacco or just dogbody. In the 1790's 
the popular size of Chebacco and dogbody was about 
36 to 38 feet long on deck, 11 to 12 feet beam, and 
about 5 feet depth of hold. After 1800 the boats 
increased in size somewhat and the average length on 
deck was 39 to 42 feet, with a beam of 11}< to 12^ feet 



179 



and a depth in the hold of Sjj to 6 feet 6 inches. The 
smaller Chebaccos had low ijulwarks, but the large 
jjoats had bulwarks like the pinky and were usually 
rather burdensome compared to the early craft. 
The small iioats had hatches, or "standing rooms," 
in which the helmsman and fishermen stood while 
working, but the 40-foot boats were often completely 
decked and without such structures. As a general 
rule the square-sterned dogbody Chebacco was 
smaller than the pink-sterned boats, as the square 
stern gave the same deck area in a smaller ijcat. 
The dogbody was apparently replaced by small 
schooners in the first decade of the 19th century, at 
least at Gloucester, but the pink-sterned boats were 
built for some years after 1800 in Massachusetts and 
much later than the War of 1812 in Maine and in 
the Maritime Provinces. 

A pink-sterned Chebacco named Lion was built at 
Ipswich (Essex), Massachusetts, in 1804. She was 37 
feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 1 1 feet 2 inches 
beam, 5 feet 10 inches depth of hold, and 22^J^5 tons. 

The sizes of the two models, based on boats built 
in 1804 and recorded in the customhouse records, are 
compared thus: Liberty, Chebacco boat 41 feet be- 
tween perpendiculars, 11 feet 10 inches beam, 5 feet 
11 inches depth of hold. Aleil, dogbody, 38 feet 3 
inches between perpendiculars, 1 1 feet beam, and 5 
feet 11 inches depth of hold. Chebacco boats were 
employed in a few instances as privateers in the War 
of 1812 and the Royal Navy carried one on the Navy 
List at Halifax, Nova Scotia, as a fisheries patrol ves- 
sel or guard as late as 1815. 

The model is crude in workmanship and not to 
scale, but indicates clearly the general arrangement 
and form of a pink-stern Chebacco of the late 1790's. 
Stuch' of the model and comparison of measurements 
and proportions indicate that it represented a boat of 
about 38 feet on deck, 11 feet 4 inches beam, and 5 
feet 6 inches depth in the hold, using specific custom- 
house measurements as guides. Such a Chebacco 
would draw about 5 feet 8 inches at post and 3 feet 6 
inches forward. A scale of % inch to the foot applied 
to the model would produce dimensions of 32, 9U, 
and 4)^ feet, respectively, too small for the type of deck 
fittings shown in the model. 

Using this model and others as guides, and the cus- 
tomhouse records as references, the Chebacco boat 
may accurately be described as follows: The entrance 
was sharp but quite short, the run was long and often 
well formed with after sections taking a marked Y- 
shape. The extreme forward sections were almost 



V-shaped. The stem was slightly curved and raked, 
and the sternpost raked sharply. The boats had rather 
long, straight sides at deck, fore-and-aft, and the keel 
was straight, with marked drag. The sheer was strong 
and graceful. The midsection showed a rising straight 
floor, a rather high and hard bilge, and a nearly up- 
right or slightly flaring topsides. The last-built Che- 
baccos, launched during or just before the War of 
1812 had \ery sharp lines, a marked rise in the floor, 
and a rather easy bilge; the stem was rounded in pro- 
file so that the forefoot was somewhat cut away; one 
such boat was described as "like a pilot-boat schooner" 
by her British captor. 

The model shows a standing-room boat with low 
bulwarks and the raised deck forward, the "cuddy 
deck," brought to the level of the bulwarks. A bow- 
chock rail is fitted to the raised deck. The stem head 
stands high ai:)ove the deck; it is chamfered and fitted 
with a pin to serve as a mooring bitt. The foremast 
stands right in the eyes, and in the model there is just 
barely room for a small handspike windlass between 
stem and foremast; other models show the windlass 
abaft the foremast. At the break in the raised deck, 
scaling about 5 feet abaft the foremast, is a com- 
panionway hatch and a wooden chimney. On a full- 
size boat the chimney would have been bricked or 
plastered inside, and under the cuddy deck would be 
found a brick fireplace and berths for the crew (two 
men and a boy for a boat of this size) . .\baft the break 
and on the maindeck is a standing-room hatch scaling 
8 feet wide athwartships and 2% feet long fore-and-aft. 
Right abaft this is a fish hatch scaling 2)4 feet long and 
4 feet wide. The foreboom crotch and mainmast are 
next abaft and then another standing room and fish 
hatch like the first. Abaft these is a wooden pump 
and at the stern a small helmsman's standing room 
scaling 2'2 feet long and about 5 feet wide. In the 
pink stern is the wooden mainsheet horse and there is 
no seat of ease abaft it in this model, though there is 
in other models. The boat is steered with a tiller that 
passes under the mainsheet horse. 

The sail plan consists of two gaflf-sails only, the main- 
sail somewhat larger in area than the foresail. No 
topsail, staysail, or jib are fitted. The sails were fitted 
with booms as a rule though some Chebaccos had 
"lug," or loose-footed, overlapping foresails. It is not 
known when it became practice to lace the sails to 
their booms i)ut this was done soon after the War of 
1812, at any rate, in the Chebaccos. 

A 40-foot boat would have a foremast standing 
about 28 feet above deck and a mainmast standing 



180 



about 30 or 31 feet. The main boom would be about 
22 to 24 feet long, the fore boom about 15 feet or a 
little less, the main gaff about 14 or 15 feet long, and 
the fore gafT 12 to 14 feet long; the gaflfs had only 
moderate peak. 

No forcstay or shrouds were employed. The rig- 
ging of the model appears approximately correct, 
though the fore boom topping lift, it is thought, is of 
too late a form for this model and may be a later 
addition. 

Many of the features of the Chebacco boat can still 
be seen in the boats used at the northern end of the 
Gaspe Peninsula, where the old Chebacco was intro- 
duced by Loyalists after the American Revolution. 
In some New England references to the Chebacco 
they were called ''Ram's Head Boats," which suggest 
that the stem head of some fell inboard above deck, 
as in the old gundalow barges of the Piscataqua River, 
New Hampshire. 

The Chebaccos were usually painted green above 
the waterline with the prominent stemhead and any 
adjoining chocks painted bright red. The Chebaccos 
had a reputation for fast sailing and seaworthiness; 
the large Chebaccos and dogbodies made voyages to 
the West Indies and fishing trips to the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, to Cape Breton Island, and to Anticosti 
Island and the Gaspe Peninsula. 

Model given by Stephen J. Martin. 

DOGBODY CHEBACCO BOAT, about 1800 
Rigged Model, usnm 57387 

This model is of a square-sterned Chebacco boat 
or "'dogbody" of about 1790-1806. Two examples 
of the type from Customhouse records are the Raven, 
built in 1795, 35 feet 9 inches between perpendic- 
ulars. 1 1 feet 9 inches l)eam. 5 feet 8 inches depth 
in hold, and 20'J^o tons; and the .\abby, built 1793, 
36 feet 2 inches between perpendiculars, 1 1 feet 
11 inches l^eam, 5 feet 10 inches depth in hold, 
and 21 -'^5 tons. Since this model shows bulwarks 
rather than the low rail of the small Chebaccos. 
it may represent a larger boat than these, such 
as the Patriot, built 1795, 40 feet Ijetween perpen- 
diculars, 12 feet 6 inches beam, 5 feet 5 inches 
depth in hold, and 23'?^5 tons; or the Friendship, 
built 1805, 39 feet between perpendiculars, 11 feet 
2 inches beam, 5 feet 9 inches depth in hold, and 
22 '^'95 tons. The model, if to a scale of K inch to the 
foot, would measure about 36 feet at rail, 1 1 feet 6 
inches beam, and about 20 tons measurement. 

The model represents a standing-room boat. 




Squ.\re-.Sterned, Chebacco Bo.\t, or dogbody, of 
the first decade of the igth century. Rigged model 
USNM 57587. {Smithsonian photo 4^gj7-c.) 



having a short and rather full entrance, short and 
full run. long dead flat amidships, and moderate 
sheer. The keel is straight and with drag, the stem 
curved and raking, and the post raking, with what 
appears to be a square tuck. It has a small-boat 
Y-shaped lower transom, an overhanging middle 
transom, and a raking flat upper transom (some of 
the dogbodies are stated to have had round tucks 
with the old upper and lower transoms of this form 
of stern). The midsection shows a slightly rising 
floor, a low. full bilge, and upright topside. In 
general, this model appears too full ended and 
burdensome for her period. 

The deck arrangement is that of the pink-sterned 
Chebacco with cuddy-deck forward, whereas in the 
square-sterned boat the windlass is abaft the foremast, 
which was probably the usual position in ihe small 
boats, at least. 

The rig, too, is like that of the pink-sterned Che- 
bacco; in the model the foremast stands 28 feet above 
deck and the mainmast 30 feet. The main boom 
is 20 feet long, fore boom 16 feet, main gaff 13 feet, 
fore Q;aff 14 feet. The model shows a mainsheet 



472846—60- 



-13 



181 



horse; some of these boats had histead the double 
sheet of the large schooners. 

Some of the dogbodies were clipper built, with 
fine lines and much dead rise, and at least one dogbody 
was a privateer in the early part of the War of 1812. 
It seems apparent that many of the larger dogbodies 
were converted to schooner rig and that the square- 
sterned boat did not survi\e in the Massachusetts 
Bay fisheries as long as did the pink-sterned Che- 
baccos. Nevertheless, in ri\er boats the rig and hull 
combination lasted well into the last half of the 19th 
century, as the dogbody's rig and the square-sterned 
hull can be seen in prints of Hudson River towns, 
though the hulls may have had centerboards. It 
is known that such craft were employed on Maine 
rivers well into the last half of the 19th century, and 
the St. John River wood boat of New Brunswick, 
Canada, lasted into the early years of the present 
century. It may be well to note that the St. John 
boat had a stem with tumble-home in some cases 
like the old ram's head boat, and to the last of the 
type retained the high stem, square stern, and gen- 
eral model of the dogbody Chebacco. It is probable 
that all were descendants of the old square-sterned 
shallop of colonial times, though the form of the 
Canadian boat possibly was brought into New 
Brunswick by the Loyalists from Massachusetts. 
Given by U. .S. Fish Commission. 



Typical Mass.'^chusetts Fishing Pinky Essex, built at 
Essex, Massachusetts, 1821. Redrawn from incom- 
plete plans, apparently made from the half-model, in 
the VVatercraft Collection. 



OLD-STYLE NEW ENGLAND FISHING SCHOON- 
ER, about 1820 
Rigged Model, usnm 57585 

The model, intended to represent a Marblehead 
fishing schooner of about 1820 employed in the 
Grand Banks codfishery, shows a schooner with a 
high quarterdeck that is, in general form at least, 
intermediate between the early Marblehead schooner 
with a short, high quarterdeck and the New England 
fishing schooner of the 1830's with a short, low 
quarterdeck. She has an unusually long quarter- 
deck for her time and this must have been intended 
for handline fishing, employing the quarterdeck only. 
The vessel is identified as the Open Sea but this schooner 
has not been found in the Customhouse records. 

The model shows a "full" schooner, having a short, 
full entrance and a short, full run with a long dead 
flat between. The sheer is strong, the keel straight 
and with some drag, the stem rabbet curved, and a 
gammon knee is shown. The post rakes slightly. 
The mid.section shows a slightly rising floor, a low, 
full, round bilge, and a nearly vertical topside. 
The round-tuck stern has square upper and lower 
transoms, and the quarters are rather heavy. 

Deck of the model shows a handspike windlass, 
fore-boom crutch, wooden pump barrels, a yawl 
boat on wooden stern davits, steps to the quarterdeck, 
and the usual hatches and companions of the period. 

At }{, inch to the foot the model scales 65 feet over 
rails, 18 feet beam, and 8 feet draft at post; the 
bowsprit extends outboard 15}^ feet, foremast stands 
43J^ feet above deck, and mainmast stands 45}^ feet; 




/ivn nai/ fi/a 



182 



■H 
■«■» 

III 




Mi 



New England Pinky from Friend- 
ship, Maine, showing a typical ves- 
sel of the type. (Smithsonian pholo 





SC^LC " ^C£T 



Sail Plan for a Pinky, 1840. From a copy of a 
sailmaker's plan in the Watercraft Collection. 



the main topmast is 21 U feet in total length, fore 
boom 22 feet, fore gafT 21 feet, main boom 38 feet, 
and main gaflf 24 feet. Model appears accurate 
but masts have somewhat too much rake. This 
style of schooner was sometimes called a "heeltapper," 
as were the earlier Marblehead schooners. 
Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

PINKY FISHING SCHOONER, 1821 
Rigged Model, usnm 76242 

This model was made to represent the New England 
pinky schooner Tiger, but the plans employed were not 
those of the Tiger. The Tiger was of interest because 
this pinky had been involved in a series of incidents 
with Canadian fishery patrols; under the command of 
Captain James Patillo she was once chased by a 
British brig-of-war patrolling the Canadian banks and 
later resisted seizure by local authorities when she was 
suddenly frozen in at Fortune Bay, Ne\vfoinidland. 
In addition, the Tiger had a local reputation at 
Gloucester for swift sailing. 



183 



The Tiger was built at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1830 
and was 53 feet 6 inches between perpendiculars, 16 
feet extreme beam, 7 feet depth of hold, and 51'?'95 
tons. The model, built to a scale of ]{ inch to the 
foot, is for a pinky 53 feet overall, 48 feet 9 inches 
between perpendiculars, 13 feet 8)^ inches moulded 
beam, 14 feet IJ2 inches extreme beam, and 6 feet 7 
inches depth of hold, drawinsi 7 feet 7 inches at post 
and 4 feet 10 inches forward. The plans used for this 
model appear to be those of the Pinky Essex, of 41 -'35 
tons, built at Essex. Massachusetts, in 1821. 




Typical Pinky Sail Plan, for the Period 1824-45, 
of the Lorenzo D. Story, of about 1842. 

The model shows a jainky of the half-clipper type 
having a short, moderately full entrance, short but 
well formed run. long straight body amidships, strong 
sheer, particularly at rail aft. a straight keel with much 
drag, a curved and somewhat raking stem rabljet and 
gammon-knee head, a raking sternpost finished off 
with the pink stern of the type. The midsection 
shows a straight rising floor and a well rounded bilge, 
the fore sections being rather V-shaped and the after- 
most Y-shaped. The beam is narrow, as in many 
Essex-built pinkies. 

The spar dimensions are: bowsprit 14 feet outboard 
of knightheads, foremast 40 feet alcove deck, fore boom 
17 feet 6 inches, fore gaff 16 feet 6 inches, mainmast 
42 feet above deck, topmast 18 feet total length, main- 
boom 33 feet, main gaff 18 feet. The model shows the 
usual rig of a pinky: single large jib, fore and main 
gaff-sails boomed, and main-topmast staysail. 

The in\'ention of the mackerel jig in New England 
about 1815 made this fishery profitaijle. The mack- 
erel move to windward, and a vessel in this fishery 
therefore had to be very weatherly. The pinkies, 



with their deep draft and relatively easy lines had 
this quality and were employed extensively in the 
mackerel fishery all along the New England and 
Canadian coasts from 1815 to about 1840. As a re- 
sult, the pinky received the nickname of "jigger" in 
this period. Old fishermen stated, in 1872, that some 
of the large Chebaccos were fitted with bowsprits and 
became jiggers; from this writers assumed that the 
pinky then developed from the Chebacco. but old 
records show this was not the case and that pink- 
sterned schooners existed before the American 
Revolution. 
Gi\en Ijy U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

PINKY FISHING SCHOONER, 1843 
Rigged Model, usnm 57586 

This model is catalogued as the Porpoise, built at 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1843, but this is not 
substantiated by the Customhouse records. This 
type of sharp-sterned New England fishing schooner 
is thought to have appeared as early as 1740 but 
reached its greatest popularity between 1815 and 
1 840. The pinky schooner was also built in Maine 
and in the Canadian Maritime Provinces, and was 
to be seen as late as 1906 in the fisheries. Some of the 
early and many of the later pinkies were clipper built 
and the type was generally very swift and wcatherh', 
particularly in blowing weather. Though the pinky 
resembles the Chebacco boat and was formerly 
thought to have developed from that type, it now 
appears that the pinky schooner was merely a con- 
tintiation of the old pink hull of Europe and of the 
American colonies schooner-rigged and fitted for the 
.•\merican fisheries. The pinky was employed in all 
fisheries on the American coasts of New England and 
of the Maritime Provinces, except the Grand Banks. 
During most of the first half of the 19th century the 
pinky was much used by the American fishermen 
operating in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the 
Labrador coast. 

Pinkies usually had a short, rather full entrance, 
unless clipper built. The run was commonly rather 
fine and the after sections nearly Y-shaped. The 
model represents a full pinky with a short entrance, 
a rather short but well formed run, a rounded stem 
profile with gammon-knee head, and a raking stern- 
post surmounted with the pink stern of the type. 
The sheer is great, particularly aft at rail height, where 
the rail runs up sharpK' toward the typical tombstone- 
like transom. The midsection shows a rising floor, a 
full and round bilge, and a nearly upright topside. 



184 



The model bears the typical pink) riy of the period 
1815-40; a large single jib hanked to a stay set up 
on a long pole bowsprit, a rather large foresail with 
gaff and boom set on a short raking mast, a large 
mainsail having gafT and boom, and a fidded top- 
mast on the mainmast. A main-topmast staysail was 
set on the topmast but no gaff-topsail was usually 
fitted; the model does not show rigging for the 
staysail. 

The deck arrangement shows a low, raised cuddy 
deck forward, handspike windlass, wooden pump 



a jib boom fitted and set a flying jib for the mackerel 
fishery where weathcrlincss and speed were necessary; 
during this period, fast pinkies arc reported to have 
outsailed the clipper sharpshooters in strong winds 
and gales, particularly on the wind. 
Given by U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

PINKY FISHING SCHOONER, 1832^35 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 34453 

This half-model represents the last type of Massa- 
chusetts-built pinky clipper. Pinkies were built in 







Gloucester Well-.Smack, Built in 1836, at Essex, 
Massachusetts. Lines taken of!' the builder's half- 
model (USNM 54449) of the Glide. 



barrels, wooden chimney plastered inside or bricked, 
tiller steering, and other characteristics usual on the 
pinky type of the period. 

Scale of model is Vi inch to the foot. The model is for 
a vessel 45 feet between perpendiculars, 14 feet beam, 
6 feet 6 inches depth of hold, 8 feet 6 inches draft at 
post; bowsprit outboard of knightheads 14 feet, fore- 
mast stands 34 feet above deck, mainmast stands 38 
feet above deck, main-topmast 13!i.> feet total length, 
main boom 30 feet, fore boom 19 feet, fore gaff 17 
feet, main gaff 20 feet. 

The pinkies built at Essex, Massachusetts, were 
usually built of very fine white oak and on good 
models. They lasted well and were regarded as 
superior sailers; many authorities considered the 
pinky the most seaworthy type of fishing vessel built. 
In the 1840's and 1850's, large pinkies sometimes had 



Maine and Nova Scotia as late as 1875 for the inshore 
fisheries. It was formerly identified as the July or 
July 4th, built at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1835 by 
Parker Burnham. The scale of the model is ', inch 
to the foot, producing a hull about 54 feet 4 inches 
overall, 51 feet 3 inches between perpendiculars, 
and 15 feet 6 inches moulded beam; whereas the 
July was 55 feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 
1 5 feet 8 inches extreme beam, 7 feet 1 inch depth in 
hold, and 54*95 tons. The pinky Splendid, built at 
Essex in 1832, was 53 feet 10 inches between perpen- 
diculars, 15 feet 9U inches extreme beam, 6 feet l}^ 
inches depth of hold, and 48*7^5 tons. The pinky 
Meridian, built at Essex in 1834, was 53 feet 3 inches 
between perpendiculars, 1 5 feet 6 inches extreme beam, 
6 feet 1 1 inches depth of hold, and 50^95 tons. 
Becau.se of the rough method then used to take ton- 
nage measurements, precise identification of vessels 
by this means alone is impossible. It appears that 
these three pinkies all may have been built from this 



185 



model, the added Icnmli of the July being gained Ijy 
placing additional IVanics amidships or by spacing 
out the frames, common practices in the Essex yards. 

The half-model represents a pinky ha\'ing less sheer 
than was usual and an uncommonly short overhang 
to the pink stern. The entrance is rather full but 
well formed; the run is short but also well formed. 
The floor rises sharply, with a rather marked turn 
of the bilge amidships. There is a strong drag in 
the keel, the model showing a draft of about 8 feet 
at the sternpost and 4 feet 9 inches at the bow. 

Given by the \J . S. Fish Commission. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1836 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54449 

This old half-model of a fishing schoouer iKiilt at 
Essex, Massachusetts has the name Mount Vernon 
painted on the stern. A schooner by this name, 
built at Essex in 1834. had registered dimensions of 
59 feet between perpendiculars, 16 feet 7 inches 
beam, 8 feet depth of hold, and 68^^95 tons. At a 
scale of J2 inch to the foot, the half-model measures 
58 feet 2 inches between perpendiculars, 16 feet 3 
inches moulded beam, and about 6}^ feet depth of 
hold, drawing about 7 feet lOJ^ inches at post and 6 
feet forward. The schooner smack Glide, built by 
the father of the donor at Essex in 1836, had about 
these dimensions. It is believed the half-model was 
used to build this schooner rather than the Mount 
Vernon, which was built by a member of another 
Essex family. 

The model shows a full-ended and Ijurdensome 
schooner of moderate sheer, having a slightly rising 




floor, a slack and well rounded bilge, and an upright 
topside. The stem rabbet is curved and the stem 
fitted with a very short and heavy head, the stern is 
wide and square, with slightly raking sternpost, the 
run ends in a round tuck, with an upper and lower 
transom, and the entrance is short and full, as is the 
run. The vessel had a short, low quarterdeck. 

According to Museum records, this model was 
stated by the donor to be one of the very early half- 
models made at Essex with lifts; formerly hawks' 
nest models were employed. Smacks had been in- 
troduced into the New England fishing fleet in co- 
lonial times but did not become numerous until 
after the construction of railways at Boston in 1836, 
and at Gloucester, about 10 years later made it 
possible to transport fish quickly over land from pier 
to market. 

Given by Jeremiah Burnham, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1834-40 
Rigged Model, usnm 76245 



Mount Vernon 



This model was reconstructed for exhibition pur- 
poses to represent a typical New England codfishing 
schooner of 1835-45. Apparently the rigged model 
was based upon the builder's half-model USNM 
54449 and both were given the name Mount Vernon; 
their dimensions were quite close to those of that 
schooner; her registry describes her as having a square 
stern and billet head, and of measuring 59 feet be- 
tween perpendiculars, 16 feet 7 inches beam, 8 feet 
depth of hold, and 68^)95 tons. The rigged model at 
Y2 inch to the foot, scales about 60 feet 3 inches over 
the rail, 16 feet 6 inches beam, and indicates a draft of 
about 8 feet 6 inches at post. 

The model shows a burdensome schooner having a 
short, low quarterdeck, a short and very full entrance 
and run, some drag in the keel, a short and hea\y 
head, a square stern, and a round tuck with upper and 
lower transoms. 

These schooners, from fore to aft, had a wooden 
windlass and a wooden jib-sheet horse extending from 
rail to rail forward of the foremast, a eompanionway 
slide hatch, fish hatch, mainmast, wooden pumps, an 
after fish hatch, and a break to the quarterdeck, on 



Sail Plan of the fishing schooner Congrta, about 1 845. 
From a copy of the sailmaker's plan in the Watercraft 
Collection. 



186 



which was a companionvvay shde hatch to the cabin. 
These schooners were usually steered with a tiller, and 
a yawl boat was carried on wooden stern davits. 
Given by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1835-46 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54457 

This half-model of a fishing schooner has been iden- 
tified as the Susan Center, built at Esse.x, Massachu- 
setts, in 1846. Register dimensions of the Center were 
65 feet 3 inches in length between perpendiculars, 7 
feet 1 inch extreme beam, 7 feet 1 inch depth in hold, 
and 74*^^5 tons. At U inch to the foot, the half-model 
scales only .58 feet 4 inches between perpendiculars, 
but the other dimensions are within an inch of those of 
the Center. ^Vhile it is possible that the vessel was built 
by spacing out the frames lifted from the loft, as laid 
down from the model, or that additional frames were 
added amidships, the model appears to have been 
made much earlier than 1846 and may represent a 
schooner built in the period 1835-40 for the Grand 
Banks fishery. 

The model shows a full-ended hull with rather 
straight sides in deck plan, a short full entrance, a 
rather long and easy run, and a wide round-tuck stern 
with upper and lower transoms. The midsection 
shows a short and slightly rising floor and a full, 
round, and slack bilge. 

A short, low quarterdeck is shown on this model 
and the short, heavy cutwater and head that marked 
many Essex-built schooners in the 1830"s and f840's. 
This model is much finer aft than builder's half-model 
54449, above. V'essels of this general hull design were 
long favored for the Banks fishery as they were easy 
rollers, burdensome, and seaworthy. 

Given by Captain J. W. Collins. 



PINKY FISHING SCHOONER, 1840 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76296 



Trenton 



The pinky schooner Trenton was built from this 
model for the Gulf of Maine codfishery at Trenton, 
Maine, about 1840. This model, which represents 
the final development of the New England pinky in 
the codfishery, shows the heavy displacement and 
moderate beam of the type, which, being very heavily 
ballasted and of deep draft, was notable for its sea- 
worthiness and weatherliness, particularly in hea\y 
seas. 

The Trenton shows the sharp stern and the projecting 
pink formed by the after bulwarks being carried to a 



point abaft the rudderhead and clear of the plank- 
sheer, ending with the small transom, the shape of 
which caused it to be called the "tombstone." The 
rail sheered up sharply at the stern so that the tomb- 
stone could be made high enough for its notched top 
to serve as a boom crotch. Often there was also a 
seat of ease in the overhang of the pink, abaft the 
rudderhead. 

The half-model shows the deep, full, double-ended 
form of the pinky. The keel is straight and with 
heavy drag, the sternpost rakes strongly, the stem ralj- 
bet curves and rakes, and the bow has a small gammon 
knee. The entrance is short and rather full, and the 
run is short and well formed, the after sections present- 
ing a marked Y-form. The midsection shows a rising 
straight floor, a well rounded, easy bilge, and a rather 
upright topside. The sheer is strong and the hull 
shows a rather marked straight side in deck plan. 
Foreward is a low, raised cuddy deck, but the rail 
sheer there is unbroken. About 36 feet from the bow 
the bulwarks are reduced a little in height, by omit- 
ting the rail cap and reducing the stanchion height to 
the top of the waist plank. The top of this plank is 
about 4 inches below the rail cap, leaving an open 
space between, and the deck scuppers are similarly 
formed, a 1% inch open space being left at the bottom 
of the bulwark plank, or waist, from the cuddy-deck 
break aft. 

The Trenton was about 54 feet 5 inches long at rail, 
48 feet 6 inches between perpendiculars, 13 feet 7 
inches moulded beam, and 6 feet 8 inches depth of 
hold; she drew about 7 feet 9 inches at post and 5 
feet 6 inches forward. Scale is }4 inch to the foot. 
The model shows the moulded lines of the hull with 
bulwarks built up, but the latter are now damaged, 
with parts missing. 

Given by Gillman Hodgkins, Lamoine, Maine. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1835-45 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54427 

A Grand Banks codfishing schooner was built from 
this half-model sometime between 1835 and 1845 for 
Beverly Massachusetts owners at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. These schooners, popular with Beverly fisher- 
men, were intended to ride comfortably at anchor on 
the Banks and though excellent sea boats were slow 
sailers. 

The half-model represents a full-ended, burden- 
some fishing schooner of moderate sheer, having a 
straight keel with some drag, a slightly raking stern- 
post, a round tuck with wide and flat upper and 



187 




Georges Bank Halibut Schooner of 1840-50 Hand-Lining Under Riding Sail. Drawn b\- H. Elliott under 
the direction of Capt. J. W . Collins. From G. Brown Goode, Thf fisheries and fishery industries of the United Slates, 
Washington. Government Printing Office, 1884-87. 



lower transoms, a raking, cnr\ccl stem rabbet with a 
short, heavy head, and the greatest beam well Ibr- 
ward of midlength. The midsection shows a slightly 
rising straight floor, short in length and fairing into 
a full, round bilge, with some tumi)le-home in the 
topside. The body is carried well fore-and-aft, and 
the entrance and run are both short and quite full. 

There is a short quarterdeck, and the depth of 
bulwarks, 32 inches, is vinusually great for a fishing 
schooner, suggesting that this vessel was intended to 
work in the coasting trade as well as in the fishery. 

The vessel was about 64 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at rail, 16 feet 6 inches moulded beam, about 
7 feet moulded depth, and probably drew about 8 
feet 6 inches at post. Scale of model is '- inch to the 
foot. 

Given by Captain Joseph \V. Collins. 

FISHING SCHOONER, about 1840-45 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54421 

This half-model represents a large New England- 
built fishing schooner of before 1845. Obtained at 



Esse.x, Massachusetts, it was formerly thought to be 
that of the small smack Storm Ring, whose rigged 
model is in the Watercraft Collection bearing the date 
1880, but examination of the models shows this to be 
incorrect. The registry of the Storm King has not 
been found. The model is to a scale of 'i inch to the 
foot, producing a \essel measuring about 77 feet on 
the rails, 23 feet moulded beam, and 7 feet 6 inches 
moulded depth, an unusually large schooner for the 
fisheries at the estimated date; it is probably for a 
schooner to ije employed in the Newfoundland Grand 
Banks fishery. 

The half-model shows a very full-bowed codfishing 
schooner having a long but full run, a straight raking 
stem with short, deep head, a nearly upright post, a 
wide square stern having upper and lower transoms 
and a round tuck, strong sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, and a straight side fore-and-aft. The mid- 
section shows a slightly rising straight floor, a low, 
round bilge, and an upright topside. 

Purchased November 17, 1882, from \\'illiam Story 
of Essex and given bv the U. S. Fish Commission, 



188 







CENTERBOARD FISHING SCHOONER, about 1846 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76098 

C. Chase 

The shoal-draft ccnterboard fishing schooner C. 
Chase \vas buill from this half-model at Baltimore. 
Maryland, about 1846 by William Skinner & Sons 
for Wellfleet, Massachusetts, owners but does not 
appear to have been registered in the Barnstable 
district. It represents a type much favored in the 
Chesapeake oyster fishery. In the decade 1845-55 
New England fishermen who were seeking faster vessels 
obtained a considerable number of Chesapeake Bay 
built schooners, particularly for the oyster business 
at Wellfleet. These were employed in the summer 
in the mackerel fishery and in the winter to transport 
oysters from the Chesapeake to Cape Cod. Some 
were shoal-draft keel vessels of the pungy type, others 
were centerboarders like the C. Chase, but all had 
sharp lines and were designed for speed. The Chesa- 
peake schooners proved fast in light and moderate 
weather and were liked in the rnackerel fishery, but in 
blowing weather they were wet and uncomfortable. 
Eventually they were replaced by New England built 
schooners, but the centerboard type shown in the 
C. Chase was employed in the Cape Cod and Long 
Island Sound oyster fisheries as long as schooners 
were used there. 

The model shows a schooner having very slight dead 
rise and a rather marked liilge, shallow-bodied and 
low-sided. The entrance is rather sharp and short; 
the run is very long and fine; the raking stem is fitted 
with a short heavy head; the transom is in two parts, 
both curved athwartships, the upper one curved 
the most; and the stern is wide. The scale of the 
half-model is )i inch to the foot producing a vessel 



Chesapeake Bay Centerboard Fishing Schooner 
C. Chase, built at Baltimore, Maryland, about 1846, for 
Cape Cod owners. Lines taken oflF builders' half- 
model USNM 76098. 

60 feet 7 inches i)etween perpendiculars. 19 feet 2 
inches moulded i^eam, about 5 feet depth of hold, 
and about 5 feet 6 inches draft. 

The Chesapeake schooners of this date usually had 
an open rail to the quarterdeck, supported by turned 
stanchions. Their centerboards, and the mast as 
well, were usually off" the center line of the hull to 
bring the board far enough aft to give proper balance 
to the rig used. They carried large sail areas and 
lofty masts. At about the time this schooner was 
built, the longhead began to replace the "naval 
head" in the Chesapeake. 

Given by William Skinner & Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1848 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76293 

David R. Proctor 

The codfishing schooner David R. Prnctor was built 
from this model at Lamoine (now Trenton) Maine, 
by Louis King in 1848, for the Labrador fishery, in 
which she was employed for a numi^er of years. She 
was a typical Banker of her period, though slightly 
smaller than the average Massachusetts-built Banks 
schooner. X'essels of this type were employed in the 
Labrador codfishery until it was given up by the 
Americans. 

The model is of a burdensome fishing schooner hav- 
ing moderate sheer, straight keel with some drag, 
curved and raking stem rabbet, slightly raking post, 



472.S4(J — 60- 



-14 



189 



upper-and-lower transom with round tuck, full round 
entrance, and a short, full run. Midsection formed 
with some rise in the straight floor, a low and full 
round bilge, and slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with short, heavy cutwater, head, keel, 
post, and rudder. 

The model shows a vessel about 58 feet moulded 
length at rail, 16 feet 6 inches beam, and about 7 feet 
moulded depth. Scale of model '^ inch to the foot. 

Given liy Louis King, shipbuilder, Lamoine, Maine. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1848 
Rigged Model, usnm 76248 



David R. Proctor 



This model is of the David R. Proctor, also repre- 
sented by the builder's half-model USNM 76295. 
The vessel is shown with sails furled in harbor stow 
and with splitting table and dressing tubs in position 
on deck, as she might appear when at anchor in a 
Labrador harbor. The standard deck arrangement 
of a codfishing schooner of the 1840's is shown, with 
the wooden stern davits for a yawl boat and other 
characteristic fittings. 

The vessel, like nearly all of her type at the time, 
carried no jib boom or fore-topmast and set a large 
jib, boomed fore and main gaff-sails and a main-top- 
mast staysail. When engaged in winter codfishing 
on Georges Bank, no topmast was carried. However, 
if a codfishing schooner were fitted for the summer 
mackerel fishery, she would be rigged with a jib 
boom and fore and main topmasts, carrying gaff-top- 
sails and jib topsail in addition to her codfishing rig. 

The Proctor was a vessel about 58 feet long at rail; 
her bowsprit extended 20 feet outside the stem rabbet 
or knightheads, the foremast stood 50 feet 6 inches 
above deck, and the mainmast was 51 feet long. The 
main-topmast was 26 feet total length, the main boom 
was 38 feet long, fore boom 19 feet 6 inches, main 
gaff 21 feet 6 inches and the fore gaff 19 feet. Scale of 
model is ]'2 inch to the foot. 

Given by L'. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1845-50 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54450 

This half-model of an early sharpshooter market- 
boat bears the name Elisha Holmes on the stern. 
A rigged model of the Holmes (usnm 76247), 
in the Watercraft Collection, is described below. 
The Elisha Holmes was built at Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1849 by Jeremiah Burnham. Her 



registry dimensions were 67 feet 5 inches between 
perpendiculars, 18 feet ?>% inches beam, 7 feet 4 inches 
depth of hold, and 8IM95 tons. The half-model, 
on a scale of ,'2 inch to the foot would produce a vessel 
63 feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 18 feet 6 
inches moulded beam, and about 6 feet 9 inches depth 
of hold. The bulwarks indicated by the top lift of the 
model are unusually deep, so that they would be 30 
inches high instead of the usual 26 inches. By reduc- 
ing their height to 26 inches and raising the deck 4 
inches, the dimensions of the model would be nearly 
those of the Elisha Holmes, so that if the half-model is 
not for this schooner, it is for one of the same form and 
period. 

The schooner represented by the model would have 
a straight keel of marked drag; a curved, raking, and 
flaring stem I'abbct fitted with a rather long and 
pointed head; a raking sternpost with a round tuck 
and upper and lower transoms, both flat athwartships, 
the upper raking and the lower curved in profile; 
rather straight sheer and the indicated quarterdeck 
low and long; a short and sharp entrance; and a long, 
easy run. The midsection is formed with a rising 
straight floor of short length, an easy bilge gradually 
hardening outboard, and a nearly upright topside 
with only a slight tumble-home. The flare forward 
is very marked and the rail is very round in plan; the 
stern is wide in proportion to the beam. The model 
represents an early design of sharpshooter and was 
intended to produce a fast sailer. 

Given by L^ .S. Fish Commission. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1849-50 
Rigged Model, usnm 76247 



Elisha Holmes 



This rigged model of an early sharpshooter fishing 
schooner was reconstructed, using the half-model 
USNM 54450, above, for hull lines and a sailmaker's 
drawing of the sails of the Elisha Holmes. The 
identification of the half-model is doubtful but that 
model and the rigged one do represent a typical 
sharpshooter of the date. The Holmes was built at 
Essex, Massachusetts, in 1849 by Jeremiah Burnham 
and her register dimensions were 67 feet 5 inches 
between perpendiculars, 18 feet S'i inches beam, 
7 feet 4 inches depth in hold, and 81';'95 tons. 

The scale of the model is Ji inch to the foot. This 
would produce a vessel having a length on rail of 
67 feet, beam 18 feet, depth in hold 7}i feet, and 
draft at post of about 8 feet 3 inches. At this scale 
the bowsprit length overall is 32 feet, the foremast 



190 



stands above deck 60 feet, the mainmast 61 feet, the 
fore boom is 21 feet long, fore gaff 20 feet, main 
boom 44 feet, main gaff 21 feet, main-topmast 28 
feet 6 inches, and mainmast head 6 feet. 

The model shows wooden stern davits with a yawl 
boat, and from foreward aft a wooden windlass, 
wooden jib horse, foremast, slide companionway and 
chimney, fish hatch, a break to the quarterdeck, 
bitts, mainmast, wooden pumps, fish hatch, cabin 
trunk, and wheell^ox. 

Schooners of this style and form were employed 
in the mackerel fisheiy, for which they were especially 
built. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, about 1849 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54455 

An unidentified schooner was built from this model 
in 1849 at Essex, Massachusetts, for the cod and 
mackerel fisheries. Her design was considered at 
the time to he clipper built, but later fishermen re- 
ferred to such schooners, which were of good capacity 
for their length, as half-clippers, or half-sharp. They 
were, however, considered fast enough for the 
mackerel fishery, being modeled with rather sharp 
ends. 

The model is for a .schooner ha\ing a moderately 
rising floor and a low, hard bilge; a rather short 
but well formed run, with the entrance rather full: 
a wide, square stern with upper and lower tran.soms 
slightly curved athwartships; a short and somewhat 
pointed head and heavy cutwater; and a raking 
stem and an almost upright post. 

Scale of the model is '•> inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel having a length between perpencHculars of 
61 feet, moulded beam of 17 feet 8 inches, moulded 
depth about 7 feet 1 inch, and draft at post about 8 
feet 4 inches. A multicolor stripe is painted along 
the waist of the model. 

Given by the U. S. Fish Commission. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1850 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54426 
Lines Plan, usnm 160252 

A cod-fishing schooner was built from this model 
at Essex, Massachusetts, for Beverly owners about 
1850. The design is the one that succeeded the old 
full-ended Bankers, and the half-model shows what 
might be termed a full sharpshooter, being fuller 
and more burdensome than the sharpshooter market- 



boats but, like them, designed to sail swifdy. Rather 
full entrances were retained in the sharp Bankers; 
it was thought unsafe to sharpen the entrance much 
or to reduce the flare forward, as it was believed 
that a sharp-bowed schooner would dive when at 
anchor on the Banks in blowing weather or when 
sailing on the wind heavily loaded. Schooners of 
this general design proved quite fast and very 
seaworthy. By 1850 the sharp.shooter model was 
well established in practically all cla.s.ses of Ma.ssa- 
chusetts-built fishing schooners, and remained in 
fa\or for some years. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a sharp 
but quite short entrance, with heavy flare in the 
foremost sections and the greatest beam well forward, 
the run very long and easy, the sheer moderate, and 
the keel straight but with much drag. The bow 
rakes and flares outward at the rabbet, the post has 
much rake and the transom is wide and curved 
athwartships. In the model upper and lower tran- 
soms seem to have been intended. The head is 
longer, more pointed and, more graceful than the 
earlier models. The masts are raked sharply. 

At % inch to the foot the model scales about 68 feet 
long over the rail, 18 feet moulded beam, and 7 feet 
3 inches moulded depth. 

Given by Captain J. \V. Collins. 

FISHING SCHOONER, about 1855 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54422 

An unidentified fishing schooner was built from 
this model in New England about 1855 for the Grand 
Banks codfishery. The model represents the tran- 
sition from the early full-ended lines to the later 
clipper form that was beginning to find favor, in this 
period, in the Banker cla.ss of fishing schooner. 

This half-model is for a schooner having a moder- 
ately sharp entrance and well formed run. The 
midsection shows a short, straight, and moderately 
rising floor, a low and rounded bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside. The sheer is marked and the keel is 
straight, with some drag. The bow rabbet rakes and 
flares forward, with a rather short and full head, the 
sternpost rakes slightly, the stern is wide and has a 
short counter and transom. 

Scale of the model is )4' inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel about 69 feet at rail, 18 feet moulded beam, 
and drawing about 8 feet 9 inches at the stern. 

Model purchased from VV. H. Story of Essex, 
Massachusetts, in 1882 and given by U. S. Fish 
Commission. 



191 




Typical Sharpshooter Schooner at the Time the Sharpshooter Was Merging Into the Clipper Model. 
The Dauntless, built at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1855. Rigged model USNM 76244. Wooden stern davits for 
a yawl boat, and the standard deck arrangement of the period, can be seen. (Smithsonian photo ^./695-a.) 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1855 
Rigged Model, usnm 76244 



DuHUtU 



(SS 



The fishing schooner Dauntless was Ijuilt at Essex, 
Massachusetts, about 18.S5, and was lost at sea with 
all hands, 1 2 men, in 1 870 while making a passage 
to the Gulf St. Lawrence from Gloucester. 

The model represents a vessel having sharpshooter- 
clipper lines. The bow is full and round at the rail 
but sharp at the waterline, the run long and fine. 
The mid.section is formed with a rising straight floor, 
a hard turn of bilge, and a slight tumljle-honie in 
the topside. The keel has much drag, the sheer is 
rather straight, the stem rabbet is raking and flaring 
with the head long and pointed, the post rakes 
slightly, and the counter is short and is finished with 
a wide, raking transom. 

The masts rake strongly, and the usual long, low 
quarterdeck is shown. The riding sails are stowed on 
.stern davits and the dories are lashed bottom up on 
deck to represent the vessel when ready to make a 
passage, to or from the Banks, when dory-trawling. 
All sails are set — jib, flying jib, fore and main gaff- 
sails, main gaff-topsail, and main-topmast staysail. 

Scale of model is K inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel about 70 feet overall, 66 feet on the waterline, 



17 feet 6 inches beam, bowsprit 30 feet total length, 
flying jib boom 32 feet total length, foremast 54 feet 
above deck, mainmast 56 feet abo\e deck, fore boom 
24 feet total length, fore gaff 22 feet, main boom 42 
feet, main gaff' 22 feet, main-topmast 29 feet. 
Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

CENTERBOARD OYSTER SCHOONER, 1855 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76096 

Snyiny South 

The centerboard schooner Simny South was built 
from this model at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1855 by 
William Skinner & .Sons for the oyster fishery. She 
was also intended to .serve as a freighting schooner. 
Vessels of this size and type were used for dredging 
ovsters, transporting farm produce on the Chesa- 
peake, freighting, and for the Florida and Bahama 
fruit trade. 

The half-model shows a centerboard schooner with 
a moderately sharp, con\'e.x entrance, the greatest 
beam well forward of midlength, and a long, lean, 
and rather flat run. The hull has good sheer, a 
straight keel with some drag, a rather upright ijut 
flaring stem rabbet with a long, pointed, and graceful 
head, and a raking post with round tuck and upper 
and lower transoms both very wide and thin, the 
lower transom almost fair with the end of the run and 



192 



the upper well curved athwartships. Midsection has 
a sHghtly rising floor carried well out in a straight 
line, a quick, low bilge, and slightly rounded top- 
sides. 

The vessels had a long and low quarterdeck with 
open rail and trunk cabin well aft, raking masts, 
with the mainmast to port of the hull's centerline 
and the centerboard slot to starboard, with center- 
board lanyard to block at mainmast hounds and 
thence to deck belay. 

Scale of half-model is U inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel 74 feet 9 inches at the rail, 71 feet between 
perpendiculars, 22 feet moulded beam, 5 feet 3 inches 
depth of hold, and draft 6 feet 6 inches at post and 
4 feet 4 inches forward. 

Given by William Skinner & Sons, Shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. ' 



low, hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the top- 
side. The vessel .sat low in the water and her masts 
had much rake, her ccnteri)oard was large and passed 
through the garboard on one side of the keel. 

Scale of the model is one-half inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a schooner about 63 feet 6 inches long at rail, 
about 61 feet between perpendiculars, 19 feet 4 inches 
moulded beam, about 5 feet 6 inches moulded depth, 
and drawing 6 feet at post and 5 feet forward. 

Given Ijy William Skinner & Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore. Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY FISHING PUNGY, about 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312331 

An unidentified pungy was built from this half- 
model in Dorchester County, Maryland, about 1885 
by Joseph T. Spicer for the oyster fishery and general 



/'ffJVOY 




Lines of a Typical Chesapeake Bay Pungy' Schooner of .About 1885. Taken off builder's half-model 
USNM 31 2331. 



CHESAPEAKE BAY OYSTER SCHOONER, 1855 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76097 

The centerboard schooner Breeze was built from this 
half-model at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1855 b\- Wil- 
liam Skinner & Sons for the oyster fishery. She was 
intended to serve as a smart-sailing oyster "buy boat"' 
for transporting the catch to market, and to he a 
swift, weatherly vessel. 

The model shows a shoal-draft centerboard schooner, 
having a straight keel with slight drag, an upright post 
and round-tuck stern with upper and lower transom.s, 
stem upright at rabbet and adorned with a long, 
pointed head, the sheer moderate, entrance short but 
fairly sharp, with the greatest beam well forward, and 
the run long and \'ery easy. The midsection shows 
a slightly rising straight floor carried well outward to a 



freighting. The donor thought it to be the John 
Ronletl, but the partially illegible name '^Elizabeth J. 
. . . son' appears on the stern. 

The half-model is of a typical pungy, designed for 
swift sailing, of the Baltimore clipper type. It repre- 
sents the moulded lines, to underside of deck, of a 
rather wide and shallow-draft keel schooner hull 
having moderate sheer, a straight keel with some drag, 
strongly raking curved stem rabbet, moderately raking 
post and a wide and thin square stern. Since the 
model is to the deck only, it does not show the typical 
double-transom of the pungy construction but this 
would be utilized, as also would the long head of her 
type. The entrance is sharp but rather short, the 
greatest beam being well forward of midlength. and 
the run is long and fine, ending in the usual round tuck 
of the pungv. The midsection shows a slightly rising 
straight floor, a well rounded bilge, and a remarkably 



193 



AUV'^i /■ --nr/r 




Lines and Details of a Chesapeake Bay Pungy Schooner, the Amanda F. Lezvis, built in 1884, one of the 
last of this now extinct type under sail. As taken off the vessel by the Historic American Merchant Marine 
Survey. 



flaring topside. The quarters are very thin. The 
vessel would have the low log rail and the long and 
rather light masts usual in this type of schooner. 

Scale of the half-model is % inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a vessel about 63 feet 4 inches moulded length 
on deck, 19 feet 10 inches moulded beam, 5 feet 10 
inches moulded depth, and drawing about 6 feet at 
post and 5 feet forward. 

Given byjames K Spicer. Taylor's Island, Maryland. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1850-56 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54466 
Lines Plan, usnm 160204 

An unidentified schooner was built from this model 
at Essex, Massachusetts, sometime Ijetween 1850 and 
1856 for the fresh-fish market business. These 
schooners, built to be swift sailers and called market- 
boats, were designed for short trips and brought in 
their catch iced. They were usually rather small 
carriers, about 60 feet on deck, cjuite sharp, and 
heavily sparred. Often referred to as sharpshooters 
in the late 1840's and 1850's, their model and general 
design were considered to have been inspired by the 
Chesapeake Bay pungy schooners brought to New 
England in that period. 

The half-model shows a hull having sharply rising 
floors carried well out and straight amidships and 
ending in a high and very hard bilge. This form was 
known as "file-bottom" at Essex because of its likeness 
in cross-section to a triangular file. The sheer is 
moderate, the keel straight and with a great deal of 
drag. The bo\v rakes somewhat, the sternpost rather 
markedly, and the transom, which is rounded 
athwartships, rakes sharply. The entrance is not 



very long but is quite sharp and the greatest beam is 
forward of the midlength; the run is long and easy. 
The stern is quite broad and rather shallow, with a 
very short counter. 

Scale of the half-model is J2 inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a vessel approximately 62 feet between per- 
pendiculars, 18 feet moulded beam, and drawing 
about 7 feet 9 inches at the post and about 4 feet 6 
inches forward. 

These \essels had a long, low quarterdeck and their 
masts were usually sharply raked. 

Given by Gaptain J. W. Gollins. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1856 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76297 



/. Coolidge 



The Banks schooner J. Coolidge was built from this 
half-model at Jordans Island, Gouldsboro, Maine by 
Hamen Cousens in 1856. She was intended for the 
codfishery in the CJulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy 
and also for the Grand Banks fishery. Over a period 
of nine years she made the run each winter to the 
Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
bringing back herring to Maine ports. 

The half-model is a good example of a small 
Banker of her period, of the half-clipper type, having 
a short but rather sharp entrance, a short but well 
formed run, a slightly rising floor, and a full, low, and 
easy bilge. The stern is wide and shallow, with a 
very short counter. The post is rather upright, the 
stem rabbet moderately raking and flaring, and the 
head and cutwater somewhat light and graceful. 
The sheer is moderate and the keel straight, with 
some dras;. 



194 



. ■ ^AtMf/ iy JcvfiA J^f. S//f» Atf/i aU 






tl", 




New England Sharpshooter Market-Boat Schooner of 1856. 
54435- 



Taken off builder's half-model USNM 



Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. This 
would produce a vessel about 63 feet 6 inches between 
perpendiculars, 18 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
about 8 feet 6 inches draft at post. The J. Coolidge 
measured 65 feet between perpendiculars, 19 feet 6 
inches extreme beam, 7 feet depth in hold, and 
52.75 tons register. 

Given by Newell B. Coolidge, 1 894. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1856 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54435 

Kipple 

The market boat Ripple was reputedly built from 
this model, lengthened 6 feet, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts, by Joseph Story in 1856. The Ripple was a 
notable sailer and she is said to have been the first 
schooner built at Essex with the elliptical transom 
which subsequently became standard. Her lines were 
copied by other builders with such alterations as were 
thought to ije improNements; it may Ije said, howe\'er, 
that this model represents the sharpshooter, or file- 
bottom, market-boat at its highest state of develop- 
ment. The Ripple was burned at sea in 1863 ijy the 
Confederate States cruiser Tacony. 

The half-model represents a clipper schooner having 
a short but sharp entrance and a very long and fine 
run, the greatest beam being somewhat forward of 
midlength, a raking post and short counter with an 
elliptical transom having a strong curve athwartships, 
a stem with a long and pointed head, marked sheer, 
and a straight keel having a strong drag. The mid- 
section shows a sharply rising straight floor carried 
well outboard, a high and markedly hard Ijilge, and a 



slight tumble-home in the topside. The fore sections 
show heavy flare. 

Scale of model is ]!, inch to the fool, producing a 
schooner 54 feet 2 inches between perpendiculars, 17 
feet 8 inches moulded beam, and about 6 feet depth 
of hold. The register dimensions of the Ripple were 
61 feet between perpendiculars, 18 feet 8 inches beam, 
6 feet 7 inches depth of hold, and 64 '^5 tons. Cus- 
tom House records show a billethead, square stern, 
and no galleries. 

Given by Joseph Story, shipbuilder, Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, 1882. 

FISHING SCHOONERS, 1857 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54448 

George Fogg, Etta G. Fogg 

The clipper fishing schooners George Fogg and Elta 
G. Fogg were built from this half-model at Essex, 
Massachusetts, by Charles O. Story in 1857. They 
were built for Wellfleet owners and were intended for 
the mackerel fishery in summer and for freighting 
oysters from the Chesapeake to that port in winter, 
trades that required smart, fast sailers, and the sister- 
schooners were considered good designs and large for 
their time and business. Because of the shoal-water 
operations of the oyster business, they were of rela- 
tively shallow draft for keel vessels. This model 
appears to have been one of the earliest designs of the 
shoal, clipper type of New England fishing schooner. 

The half-model shows an extreme clipper fishing 
schooner of the date of build, having slight sheer, a 
straight keel with moderate drag, stem rabbet flaring, 
raking, and with small rounded forefoot, nearly up- 



195 



right post, and a short counter ending in a wide, 
elliptical, raking transom much cur\ed athvvartships. 
The entrance is sharp and hollow: the run long, easy, 
and flat. The midsection is formed with a rising 
straight floor, hard turn of Isilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. 

The model is mounted with a long, pointed head, 
cutwater, rather deep keel, post, and rudder, the 
marked depth of keel being intended to pre\'ent lee- 
way in windward sailing and necessitated liy the 
shallow body. 

Scale of model is '-• inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel measuring 94 feet 9 inches moulded length at 
rail, 89 feet between perpendiculars, 23 feet 8 inches 
moulded Ijeam, 24 feet extreme beam. 8 feet 8 inches 

Ne\v England Clipper Fishln'g .Schooner Built in 
1857 at Esse.x, Massachusetts, the Ettu G. Fogg. 
{Smithsonian photo 4560^-c). 



depth in hold, and draft 10 feet 4 inches at post and 
6 feet 10 inches forward. 

Given by Clharles O. Story, shipbuilder, E.ssex, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1857 
Rigged Model, usnm 76254 

Etta G. Fo^g 

The clipper fishing schooner Etta G. Fogg, built at 
Essex, Massachusetts, in 1857, and represented by the 
builder's half-model usnm 54448, is shown in this 
rigged model. The rig and deck arrangement of 
schooners built for the mackerel fishery and for 
oyster freighting in the late 1850's and early 1860"s 
are shown. 

The model is of a heavily sparred and canvas,sed 
schooner. The Etta G. Fogg was registered as 88.7 
feet between perpendiculars, 24.7 feet beam, 8.3 feet 




196 



depth of hold, and 107.25 tons burthen. She was 
about 94 feet 9 inches long at rail, bowsprit 36 feet 
extreme length, jib boom outside cap 17 feet, fore- 
mast above deck 67 feet 6 inches, fore-topmast total 
length 37 feet, fore boom 30 feet, fore gaff 29 feet, 
main boom 58 feet and main gaff 33 feet. The rigging 
details of this model show the methods used on large 
fishing and coasting schooners of the f 850's. Scale of 
model % inch to the foot. 

The shallow, broad hull of this type of fishing 
schooner, combined with the very large rig, made a 
dangerous \essel and many of this type were lost at 
sea. Howe\er, these schooners were popular until as 
late as 1886, by which time the heavy losses had 
focused attention on the dangerous proportions of the 
extreme clipper schooner. 

Given by Charles O. Story, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1855-60 
Rigged Model, usnm 25371 

This model represents a fishing schooner of 1855- 
60, a period when the sharpshooter lines of the 
market boat had been applied to the more burden- 
some Georgesmen and Grand Bankers. 

The model is of a somewhat burden.some clipper 
fishing schooner having a rather short and sharp en- 
trance, moderately full at deck level and fine below, 
a long and easy run, good sheer, a raking stem rabbet 
with a long head, and a rather upright post with a 
short counter and a raking elliptical transom. The 
midsection is formed with a moderately rising floor, 
round full bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the top- 
side. The keel is straight with some drag. 

The vessel is shown under the usual sail of a Georges- 
man of her period, no fore-topmast and carrying fore- 
sail, mainsail, jumbo, jib topsail, main gaff-topsail, 
and fisherman's staysail. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel 66 feet 4 inches at rail, 21 feet 6 inches beam, 
the bowsprit extending outboard the knightheads 16 
feet 8 inches, jib boom extending 13 feet 4 inches out- 
side the cap, foremast 62 feet abov-e deck and main- 
mast 63 feet, main-topmast 31 feet total length, and 
main boom 46 feet long. 

Given by Captain H. C. Chester. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY FISHING SCHOONER, 1857-58 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76101 

A keel fishing schooner was built from this model at 
Baltimore, Maryland, in 1857 or 1858 by William 



Skinner & Sons. It is of the type, designed for fast 
sailing, that was employed in the New England 
fisheries 1845-55, when a number of Chesapeake Bay 
built keel and centerboard schooners were used in the 
mackerel fisheries and the oyster trade. 

Among the Maryland-built schooners in the 
Gloucester fleet were the Garland, built at Baltimore 
in 1850 (82' x 2r-4" x 7'-3"), Leading Star, built at 
Baltimore in 1851 (69'-ll" x 20' x 6'), .Jo/w, built 
in Dorchester County in 1847 (73'-9" x 22'-6" x 
6'-6"), A'farj Jones, built at Baltimore in 1851 
(64'-4" x 21' X 5'-8"), Bloomfield, built in Talbot 
County in 1850 (75'-4" x 20'-7" x 5'-l"), and 
Iowa, built in Dorchester County in 1854 (76'-9" x 
23' X 6'-7"). It is probable that the Mary Jones 
and the Bloomfield were centerboarders, judging by 
their depth. 

The half-model represents a pungy schooner with 
bulwarks and a flush deck but with false quarterdeck 
rail made of a cap supported by turned stanchions, 
low freeboard, somewhat raking and flaring stem 
rabbet, slightly raking post, rather straight sheer, 
straight keel with moderate drag, rising floor with a 
high and well-rounded bilge, sharp and slightly hol- 
low entrance, and a very long and fine run. The 
greatest beam occurs somewhat forward of mid-length. 

The scale of the model is % inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a schooner about 61 feet 6 inches on the rails, 
57 feet 9'^ inches beUveen perpendiculars, 18 feet 1 
inch moulded beam, 18 feet 6 inches extreme beam, 
6 feet 6 inches depth of hold, and 7 feet 5 inches draft 
at post, 5 feet 9 inches forward. 

These .schooners had a long, pointed head and cut- 
water, the upper and lower transoms were curved 
athwartships and sharply raking, and the rather 
lightly rigged raking masts were lofty and light. 

Given by William Skinner & Sons, shipbuilders, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1857 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54470 
Lines Plan, usnm 160222 

Flying Fish 

The clipper schooner Flying Fish was built from this 
model at Essex, Massachusetts, by Jeremiah Burnham 
in 1857 for the mackerel fishery. After being em- 
ployed for some years as a hook-and-line fisherman 
out of Gloucester she was sold to New London, Con- 
necticut, out of which port she was engaged in the 
Antarctic seal and sea-elephant fisheries. The Flying 
Fish, one of the fastest fishing schooners of her period, 



197 



owing to her sharp hues and very large rig, is a good 
example of the shallow-bodied clipper schooner that 
came into fashion in the New England fisheries in 
the late 1850"s and represents the transition from the 
older "sharpshooter"' type to the extreme clipper of 
the end of the decade. 

The model shows a vessel having moderate sheer, 
straight keel with drag, slightly raking and flaring 
stem rabbet, small round forefoot, raking post, and a 
short counter ending in a wide, raking, elliptical 
transom. The entrance is of moderate length and 
quite sharp, the run long, flat and fine. Midsection is 
formed with rising, straight floor, a hard turn of the 
bilge and some tumble-home in the topside. The 
greatest beam is a little forward of amidships. 

Model is mounted with a rather long and pointed 
head, cutwater, rather deep keel, post, and rudder. 
A long quarter-deck is indicated. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel about 74 feet over the rails, 70 feet 6 inches 
between perpendiculars, 21 feet moulded beam, and 
drawing about 9 feet 9 inches at post and 5 feet 8 
inches forward. 

Given by Jeremiah Burnham, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1857 

Rigged Model, usnm 160411 777 • J7- 7 

t Lying tish 

This rigged model of the clipper fishing schooner 
Flying Fish of 1857, was made in the Museum from 
the builder's half-model (usnm 54470) and a sail- 
maker's plan. The New England fishing schooners 
were characterized by an almost exact similarity of 
deck arrangement for periods of about twenty years, 
for each class and size, and the deck arrangement is 
a standard one for this type of schooner at the date 
of building. 

The model shows the rig of a typical rnackerel- 
fishing schooner of the period: she carries a very large 
jib fitted with a bonnet. 

Scale of model ){ inch to the foot. The register 
dimensions of the Flying Fish are 75 feet between 
perpendiculars, 22.5 feet beam, 6.5 feet depth in 
hood, and 94^)95 tons burthen. 

Model made in the Museum. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1857 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54473 

Lines Plan, usnm 160251 r 7 

Lookout 

The Georges Bank fishing schooner Lookout was 
Iniilt from this model at Essex, Massachusetts, in 



1857 by Charles O. .Story. This vessel pro\-ed very 
satisfactory; during the next seven years twenty or 
more schooners were built on the moulds of the 
Lookout, whose lines were considered excellent for 
this fishery until about 1868. Among these were the 
Fish Hawk, Arizona, Laughing Ji'ater, and E. A", h'ane. 
The Laughing Water and Arizona were still in the 
Georges fleet as late as 1882. 

The half-model shows a full-bodied and bm-den- 
some hull having slight sheer, a straight keel with 
much drag, a rather sharp and well formed entrance, 
a long easy run, the greatest beam slightly before 
the midlength, a moderately rising floor with a low 
round bilge rather hard amidships, a flaring bow 
and stem rabbet with longhead, a raking post, and a 
shallow elliptical transom with a rather short counter. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel about 68 feet at the rail, 19 feet moulded beam, 
and drawing about 9 feet at the post and nearly 6 
feet fonvard. 

Given by Charles O. Story, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1858 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76475 

May Qiieen, JunOj Olive Hayivard 

The Grand Banks fishing schooner May Qjieen was 
built from this model at Orland, Maine, in 1858. 
She was of a burdensome type utilized not only in 
the Grand Banks codfishery but also in coastwise 
trade. The schooners Juno and Olive Hayward were 
also built on this model. After a few years in the 
Grand Banks fishery the Juno was sold and went into 
the South American trade. The Olive Hayivard, 
after being in the codfishery for several seasons, was 
placed in the coastal trade. Reputed a fast sailer, 
this vessel once made the run from Boston to Orland 
in 16 hours, and is said to ha\e escaped a Confederate 
cruiser. 

The half-model represents a full-bodied vessel with 
rather straight sheer, a short, rather full entrance, 
a relatively long and fine run, the greatest beam ijeing 
well forward. The keel is straight and with some 
drag, the post is upright and the stem slightly raking 
and flaring outward. The floor, carried well fore 
and aft, is short and has little rise, and the bilge is 
well-rounded. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel 72 feet 7 inches between perpendiculars. 
21 feet beam, and 7 feet 1 inch depth of hold. The 
schooner's registered net tonnage was 67.28. 



198 



These Maine schooners usually had a rather short 
quarterdeck but otherwise resembled the Massa- 
chusetts-built schooners of their period. 

Given by H. H. Buck. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1858 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54471 

We're Here 

A fishing schooner modeled particularly for the 
mackerel fishery was built from this model at Essex, 
Massachusetts by Daniel A. and Willard R. Burnham 
in 1858 and named the UVre Hire. A fast-sailing 
vessel, she was employed in the mackerel fishery 
in summer and in the New Orleans and Gulf of Mex- 
ico fruit trade in winter. She was captured at New 
Orleans at the outbreak of the Ci\il \Var and is said 
to have been used as a blockade runner. 

Model is painted in the fashion of the time — dark 
green; along the waist a multicolored stripe of white, 
yellow, red. white: trailboards with gilded and 
painted car\ings; billet head gilded; bottom red 
copper paint. 

The half-model shows a clipper fishing schooner of 
moderate sheer, having; a straight keel with much 
drag, a sharp entrance, and a long, easy run. the 
greatest beam being slightly forward of midlength. 
The bow rakes and flares forward at rabbet, the post 
rakes, and the counter is moderately long, ending 
with a raking elliptical transom much cur\ed 
athwartships and quite wide. The rising straight 
floors are brought well out and the bilge is high and 
hard. 

The Register dimensions of the JVe're Here were 
67 feet length between perpendiculars, 20 feet beam, 
7 feet 5 inches depth of hold. 83 "^95 tons, square 
stern, Ijillet head. The half-model is to a scale of 
li inch to the foot, and produces a vessel measuring 
66^2 feet between perpendiculars, 20 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, about 6 feet 10 inches depth of hold, 
and drawing about 8 feet 10 inches at post and about 
6 feet 10 inches forward. 

Given by Willard R. Burnham, shi])builder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY PUNGY SCHOONER, 1858 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160120 

Mary and Ellen 

The pungy schooner Mary and Ellen was built from 
this model at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1858, by 
William Skinner and Son for the oyster fishery and 
freighting on the Chesapeake. The pungy schooner 



had the general form of the old Baltimore clipper or 
pilot boat that had developed on the Chesapeake in 
colonial times. The pungy was a shallow-draught 
keel schooner, with rising floor amidships, strongly 
raked ends, and fine lines, designed for swift sailing. 
Schooners of this type were used on the Chesapeake 
in the oyster fishery as dredgers and to transport 
the catch; they were also employed in general 
freighting, carrying goods and farm products on the 
Chesapeake, fruit in the Baltimore-Bahamas trade, 
and oysters to New England. It is thought that the 
pungy, which is now extinct on the Chesapeake, 
introduced the sharp-model schooner into the New 
England fishing fleet. 

The half-model represents a schooner having rather 
straight sheer, straight keel with marked drag, strongly 
raking sternpost and raking, curved stem rabbet. 
The transom is of the old style round-tuck form, with 
upper and lower transoms joining at an angle. The 
bottom of the lower transom is straight across the 
top of the sternpost, forming a cross seam at right 
angles to the post. This T-shape w-as characteristic of 
the pungy throughout the existence of the type. The 
lower transom is not plainly shown in this model, 
however, and judging by the form it must hav-e stood 
at more of an angle than in later pungy schooners. 
Usually, in this type, the lower transom was almost 
parallel to the load waterline. The greatest beam is 
forward of amidships and the entrance is long and 
sharp: the run quite fine. The midsection shows 
straight, rising floors carried well out and a somewhat 
high, round bilge, the rounding carried almost to deck 
level. The stern is wide and shallow; the quarters 
being rather thin. The stern overhang is very short. 
The stem is formed with a long and pointed head a 
little less exaggerated in the model than in the later 
pungy schooners. It is not known when the long- 
head replaced the short and deep head that first 
marked the Chesapeake Bay schooners, but appar- 
ently this occurred in the 1840's and the fashion 
spread to New England. 

.Scale of the model is Y^ inch to the foot, and the 
vessel measured about 64 feet 10 inches over the rail, 
about 20 feet moulded beam, and drew 7 feet at the 
post and 3 feet 6 inches forward. 

The pungy schooner type is represented by two 
rigged models in the VVatercraft Collection. Lines 
plan of the Mary and Ellen is Survey no. 5-56 in The 
Historic American Merchant Marine Survey. 

Given by William Skinner & Son, shipbuilders. 
Baltimore, Maryland. 



199 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1857-60 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54459 

This half-model was supposed to \>c that of the 
Grand Banker Break O^ Day built and modeled b) 
Jeremiah Burnham at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1859. 

Her registry dimensions were 69 feet between per- 
pendiculars, 21 feet 2 inches beam, 7 feet 6 inches 
depth of hold, 94'%5 tons. The half-model on a 
scale of Yi inch to the foot, would produce a schooner 
measuring about 65 feet 6 inches between perpendicu- 
lars, 18 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 7 feet 4 
inches depth in hold. Thus it is evident that the 
identification is incorrect. It is now belie\ed to 
be a good example of an "improved" Grand Banks 
schooner of the period 1857-60. 

The model shows a schooner having a straight keel 
with moderate drag, small sheer, raking sternpost, 
very short counter with raking elliptical transom 
strongly curved athwartships, curved and raking stem 
rabbet, pointed and moderately long head, full en- 
trance, rather short but well formed run, long low- 
quarterdeck, moderately rising short straight floor, 
low well-rounded bilge, and nearly upright topsides. 
The bow at rail is full, with much flare in the forward 
sections. The stern is wide. 

Model given by Willard R. Burnham, shipbuilder, 
Essex, Massachusetts. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1860 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76476 



Sarah Hill 



The fishing schooner Sarah Hill was built from this 
model in 40 days at Orland, Maine, in 1860. The 
vessel was intended for the local mackerel fishery but 
was for many years employed in the Banks codfishery, 
going into the coastal trade when she became old. 

The half-model shows a schooner ha\ing a sharp 
but short entrance, the beam being well forward, and 
a long and easy run. The sheer is rather straight, 
the keel straight with moderate drag, post upright, 
and stem rabbet raking slightly and flaring fcrward. 
The floors rise slightly and the bilge is low and round. 
The stern is wide and shallow, and the counter very 
short. The bow is fitted with a long and somewhat 
pointed head and cutwater. The vessel had a long, 
low quarterdeck. 

The scale is % inch to the foot, representing a vessel 
about 63 feet 10 inches between perpendiculars, 18 
feet 6 inches moulded beam, and about 7 feet 6 inches 
depth of hold. Register dimensions of the vessel were 



64 feet 1 inch between perpendiculars, 18 feet 8}z 
inches beam, 7 feet 9]i inches depth of hold, and 
48.36 tons. 
Given b\ H. H. Buck. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1862 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160113 

La/iva Roberts 

The New England fishing schooner Laura Robals 
was built from this model during 1862 at Frankfort, 
Maine, for the Gulf of Maine codfishery. It is a good 
example of the fisherman-coaster schooner popular in 
Maine before 1880. 

The half-model represents a schooner with a full, 
rather short entrance, full run, small rise in the floor 
and a full, round bilge, a wide elliptical transom, a 
rather raking stem and almost upright post, some 
drag to the keel, little sheer, and a long, low 
quarter-deck. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, giving a vessel 
about 72 feet over the rails, 20 feet beam, 6 feet 
depth in hold, and drawing about 7 feet 9 inches at 
the post. 

CJisTn by Captain J. \V. Collins. 

FISHING SCHOONERS, 1862 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54474 



Galena^ Prince of Wales 



The mackerel fisherman Galena was built for 
Gloucester owners from this half-model, with two 
frames (or 4 feet) added, in 1862 at Essex, Massachu- 
setts, and in the next year the Prince of ]\'ales was 
built on the same moulds, but with five more frames 
added to make her 10 feet longer than Galena. For 
some years these two schooners were the largest in the 
New England fleet. The Galena was finally sold to 
California and the Prince of It'ales to Surinam, South 
.\merica, as a trader. 

The model shows a clipper hull of the period, 
having a moderately long entrance, long easy run, 
wide stern, shallow transom on a short counter, 
raking post, raking and flaring liow, longhead, 
moderate sheer, straight keel with some drag, and 
rising floors with a hard low bilge. 

Scale is K inch to the foot, giving a vessel about 84 
feet between perpendiculars, 22 feet 6 inches moulded 
beam, aljout 8 feet 6 inches depth of hold, and draw- 
ing about 10 feet 6 inches at post. The Galena's 
register dimensions were 88 feet 6 inches between 
perpendiculars, 23 feet 9 inches beam, 8 feet 9 inches 



200 



Sail Plan for a Grand Banker 
Built at Essex, Massachusetts, 
IN 1859. the Break O'Day. From a 
copy of the sailmaker's plan in the 
Watercraft Collection. 




depth of hold, and 157"^<,5 tons; the Prince oj Wales' 
dimensions were 99 feet 4 inches between perpendicu- 
lars, 24 feet 2 inches beam, 9 feet depth of hold, and 
180^%5 tons. 

These dimensions shew that departures from the 
model were made in lofting to give additional length 
amidships, causing an increase in beam. This prac- 
tice of adding frames arnidships, common at Essex in 
building fishermen, required the forebody and after- 
body to be faired into the added sections and not only 
aflfected length and breadth but also depth. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

FISHING SCHOONER, about 1864 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54440 

A fishing schooner on this model was built at Essex, 
Massachusetts, about 1864 by Joseph Story as a 
market boat for the fresh fishery. 

The half-model represents a late form of the clipper- 
sharpshooter class, ha>.'ing sharply rising floors, high 
hard bilge, sharp and rather long entrance, and a 
long fine run, the greatest beam being about at mid- 
length. The sheer is moderate and the keel straight 
and with some drag. The post is upright and the 
stem rabbet rakes and flares slightly. The short 
counter ends in a wide, shallow, elliptical transom 
curved athwartships and sharply raking. The bow 
is ornamented with a graceful cutwater and a long 
and rather pointed head with billet. 



Scale is ]i inch to the foot, for a schooner measuring 
about 68 feet on the rail, 63 feet 6 inches between 
perpendiculars, 19 feet moulded beam, 6 feet depth 
of hold, and drawing about 7 feet 9 inches at post. 
The form and dimensions of the model indicate a 
powerful schooner of greater depth than usual in this 
period and capable of carrying a large sail area. 

Model given by Joseph Story, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1865 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76036 

Sylph 

The fishing schooner Sylph of Boston was built 
from this half-model at East Boston, Massachusetts, 
by Dennison J. Lawlor in 1865. She was first fitted 
out by her owners, fishermen of Irish origin, as a 
beam trawler, the first vessel to experiment with this 
gear in the New England fisheries. The gear proved 
unsuccessful economically and the Sylph then engaged 
In market fishing, for which she was well suited in 
size and model. This schooner gained a notable 
reputation for speed. She foundered on Georges 
Bank with all hands in the great gale of November 
9, 1883, believed to have sunk after a collision with 
another schooner. 

The half-model shows a schooner having rather 
marked sheer, straight keel with heavy drag, upright 
stem rabbet and post, and a short counter ending in 



201 




Small Mackerel Seiner Oasis. 
built at VValdoboro, Maine, 1868. 
{Smithsonian photo 2821^-0.) 



a raking elliptical transom cur\-ecl athwartships. 
The entrance is long and sharp, with much hollow 
at forefoot, and the run is rather long and very fine. 
The midsection is rather heart-shaped, with a sharply 
rising and somewhat hollow floor, a high and rather 
hard bilge, and marked tumble-home in the topside. 

Mounted with a pointed head, cutwater, keel, post, 
and rudder. 

Scale of the model is K inch to the foot, giving a 
vessel about 55 feet 8'2 inches loetween perpendiculars, 
59 feet 10 inches moulded length at rail, 17 feet 
moulded beam, 6 feet 4 inches depth in hold. 9 feet 
8 inches draft at post and 6 feet 4 inches forward. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, naval architect, and 
shipbuilder, Chelsea, Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1865 
Rigged Model, usnm 76241 

Sylp/j 

This model of the fishing schooner Sylph of 1865, 
showing her as a market fisherman, is the same \essel 
represented by builder's half-model usnm 76036. 
Considered an advanced design at her date of build- 
ing she was much deeper than the average in propor- 
tion to her length and beam. Her designer and 
builder, Dennison J. Lawlor, was the pioneer in the 



de\'elopment of safer fishing schooners in this period, 
designing a number of schooners of more than a\erage 
depth and dead rise in the years 1865-85. 

Tlic model shows the deck arrangement of a market 
fisherman of 1860-80, with a wooden windlass right 
forward, iron jib-sheet horse running across the deck, 
foremast, slide companionway with supply hatch 
attached, chimney, fish hatch covered with a slide 
Ijooby hatch, a break to quarterdeck, mast bitts, 
mainmast, wooden pumps, trunk cabin with chimney 
and slide hatch, wheelbox and quarter bitts, and 
mainsheet horse at extreme stern. 

The topsides are forest green, white band below 
waist line of bulwarks, white boot top, red copper 
bottom, rail caps black, carving gilded. The masts 
rake strongK': the schooner has gaff inainsail and 
foresail, large jib, main gaff-topsail and main-topmast 
staysail. 

.Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 

This schooner, nearly 60 feet long at rail, had a 
mainmast 54 feet deck to cap, foremast 52 feet deck 
to truck, bowsprit 27 feet total length, 17 feet knight- 
heads to shoulder of pole. The fore boom was 19 
feet long, fore gafl^ 18 feet, main boom 47 feet, main 
gaff 23 feet, and main-topmast 27 feet total length. 
She had iron ballast inside and carried sail well. 

Given bv U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



202 



CHESAPEAKE BAY PUNGY SCHOONER, 1865 
Rigged Model, usnm 76262 

W. F. McKewen 

The Chesapeake Bay pungy 11 '. F. McKewen, an ex- 
ample of a type long popular on the Bay, was built 
in 1865 for Crisfield, Maryland, owners for the 
oyster fishery, being employed in oyster dredging and 
transporting and in general freighting in the off-sea- 
son. At one time there were a large number of 
pungies on the Chesapeake but they were gradually 
replaced with centerboard schooners and bugeyes, 
and are now an extinct type of vessel on the Bay. 

The McKewen is a shoal-draught schooner having a 
straight keel with some drag, a raking and strongly 
curved stem rabbet, a long, heavy, and pointed head, 
raking sternpost, round tuck, upper and lower tran- 
soms, and moderate sheer. The entrance is sharp and 
rather short, the run long and fine. The midsection 
shows a moderately rising straight floor, a round, easy 
bilge, and slic;htly flaring topside; the greatest iieam 
is forward of midlength. 

The model shows the typical pungy rig: sharply rak- 
ing masts, the fore without a topmast, a large jib with a 
small club at its foot, foresail, mainsail, main gaff- 
topsail, and fisherman staysail. A yawl boat is car- 
ried on iron stern davits: also shown are a trunk cabin 
with a hatch at its fore end, wooden pumps, manual 
oyster-dredge winches, or "winders," rollers at rail, 
hatch and rail-to-rail jib-horse, and an iron windlass 
and heel bitt. 



These schooners usually had only a low log rail made 
up of edge-bolted timber without stanchions; aft there 
was sometimes a cap-and-turncd-stanchion mon- 
key rail, occasionally carried well forward to the fore 
rigging or knightheads. The knighthcads and hawse- 
timbers stood well above the log rail and were very 
prominent. The pungy was a modified Baltimore 
clipper, of privateering and slaver fame, in which the 
dead rise of the floors was decreased. The pungy hull 
form is well illustrated by the half-model of the Mary 
and Ellen (p. 199) and by half-model usnm 312331 
(p. 193). The pungies were often employed in the 
summer fruit trade between the Bahamas and the 
Chesapeake and in general were noted for their 
sailing qualities. Their draft eventually caused their 
replacement with centerboard craft as the harl^ors 
and creeks along the Chesapeake silted up. 

The McKewen was 68 feet at rail, 20 feet 9 inches 
beam, 7 feet depth. Scale of model is \i inch to the 
foot. 

Gi\en l)y U.S. Biu'cau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1866 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 74041 

Thomas E. Evans 

The market boat Thomas E. Evans, built at East 
Boston in 1866 by Dennison J. Lawlor, was employed 



k 



Sail Plan for the Lizzie F. Choate, 
a fishing schooner built at Ipswich, 
Massachusetts. i866. From a copy 
of the sailmaker's plan in the Wa- 
tercraft Collection. The vessel is 
also represented in the collection 
by builder's half-model USNM 

l6oi 12. 




203 



in the New England fisheries for only a short time and 
was then sold and was operated as a packet in the Bay 
of Honduras. The schooner was noted for her speed. 

This model resemliles that of the schooner Sylph, 
whose half and ria;ged models (usnm 76036 and 
76241) in the W'atercraft Collection indicate that 
Lawlor had developed some rather deep fishing 
schooners before the efforts of Captain Joseph Collins 
began to show results in the New England fleets. 

The half-model represents an extreme clipper fish- 
ing schooner for her date, and deeper in draft than 
was then common. Her entrance is long and \ery 
sharp, with some hollow near the stem; the greatest 
beam is abaft midlength. The run is long and flat, 
showing the almost constant deadrise, carried aft. 
characteristic of most Lawlor designs. The sheer is 
great and there is a long, low quarterdeck. The keel 
is straight with a very great drag. The stem rabi)et 
is nearly straight and upright; the stem is fitted with 
a pointed and rather long head. The sternpost is 
\ertical, the counter short, and the raking elliptical 
transom ha.s much curxe athwartships. The mid- 
section shows a sharply rising floor with hollow at the 
garboard carried all the way forward to the stem, 
hard high isilges. and tumble-home in the topside. 

The scale of the model is '■> inch to the foot, giving 
a vessel 56 feet 4 inches ijetween perpendiculars, 17 
feet 8 inches moulded beam, 6 feet 3 inches depth of 
hold, and a draught of 8 feet 11 inches at post and 
4 feet 6 inches at stem. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, na\al architect and 
shipljuilder, C'helsea, Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1866 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160112 

Li-^ie F. Choate 

The clipper fishing schooner Lizzie F. Choale was 
Ijuilt from this model at Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 
1866 as a mackerel fisherman. A variation of the 
popular clipper model of her period, being more box- 
like in appearance than most of her class, she was 
considered at the time to be one of the largest and 
finest fishermen in New England. She engaged in 
the mackerel fishery in 1866-67 under the command 
of Captain Joseph W. Collins and in that winter 
she freighted oysters from the Chesapeake, to Boston. 
The next winter, on February "^th, 1868, she foundered 
at sea with the loss of se\eral hands, while on a passage 
from New York to the West Indies, having entered 



the fruit trade. Three of the crew were rescued imm 
the waterlogged wreck by the brigantine _J. S. Wright. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a very 
straight sheer, straight keel rabbet with moderate 
drag but with the outside keel somewhat deeper aft 
than forward, a raking and flaring stem rabbet with 
a light, pointed head, an upright post, and short 
counter with a wide and rather shallow elliptical 
transom ha\ing much rake and a very strong curve 
athwartships. The entrance is long and sharp, the 
greatest beam in the model is about at midlength, 
and the run is long and very fine. The midsection 
shows a moderately rising floor carried well outward 
in a straight line, bilges low and hard, and the top- 
sides quite straight and wall sided. 

The Choate was about 90 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 2A\{ feet beam, and about 8 feet depth of hold as 
scaled from model, which is on the unusual scale 
for fishing schooner half-models of )i inch to the foot; 
the vessel drew aijout 10 feet 9 inches at post and 
about 6 feet 6 inches forward. 

Given b\' A. Choate. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1866 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76478 



Sarah H. Cressy 



The extreme clipper schooner Sarah H. Cressy was 
built from this half-model at E.ssex, Massachu.setts, 
in 1866; the design being by Dennison J. Lawlor of 
Clhelsea. Massachusetts. This notable .schooner had 
a reputation for speed and beauty, and was very 
heavily canvassed. She fished out of Gloucester and 
foundered with all hands in one of the furious gales of 
Feijruary 1873. 

The model is for a schooner haxing a long, fine 
entrance and a very long, flat run, the entrance being 
hollow near the stem. The counter is short and 
finishes with an elliptical transom curved athwart- 
ships and set at a sharp rake. The stem rabbet 
flares outward but is generally rather upright; the 
post is N'ertical. The sheer is strong, the keel straight, 
with much drag. The head is quite long and beaked. 
The midsection shows a rising and slightly hollow 
floor, a hard i)ilge, and some tumble-home in the 
topside. The draught of this schooner was shallower 
than is usual in Lawlor's designs of i^oth earlier and 
later date. 

Model is painted forest green with the multicolored 
stripe (red and white) popular in New England 
fishing schooners when the Cressy was built. 



204 



Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel 71 feet between perpendiculars, 21 feet 2 
inches moulded beam, and about 7 feet depth in 
hold. 

The Crefsy measured 72 feet between perpendic- 
ulars, 21.5 feet beam. 7.4 feet depth in hold, and 
73.3 tons, square stern, billethead. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, naval architect and 
shipljuilder, CUielsea. Massachusetts. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTERBOARD FISHING 

SCHOONER, 1868 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312330 

A large centerboard schooner for the oyster fishery 
and for general freighting was built from this half- 
model in Dorchester County, Maryland, before 
1870, by Joseph T. Spicer. The model is believed 
by the donor to be that of the Trovers Spicer. These 
schooners had a large centerboard to one side of the 
keel and the after end of the ijoard came at, or abaft 
the mainmast. They were intended for dredging 
oysters in winter and for carrying freight in summer, 
particularly lumiaer and farm produce. They had 
longheads and above the water resembled a pungy, 
but had bulwarks instead of the pungy's low log rail. 

The half-model shows, to the deck only, a shoal- 
draught centerboard schooner having a moderate 
sheer, straight keel with some drag, raking post, 
and a cur\'ed and raking stem rabbet. The greatest 
beam is well forward, the entrance is moderately 
sharp and short, and the run is long and fine. The 
stern is broad and square; apparently the vessel had 
a pungy' stern, as a round tuck is indicated, but the 
model shows only the line of the cross-seam: the stern 
is not otherwise indicated. The midsection shows 
a rising straight floor, well-rounded bilge, and a 
slightly flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, which 
would produce a schooner about 73 feet moulded 
length on deck, 75 feet tonnage length. 20 feet 6 
inches moulded beam, and 6 feet moulded depth. 

Given i)y James K. Spicer, Taylor's Island, 
Marvland. 



moulds. The IVonson was employed in the summer 
mackerel and winter halibut fisheries under the com- 
mand of Claptain Joseph VV. Collins. She was con- 
sidered to be an exceptionally swift sailer when built 
and especially fast to windward. Captain Collins 
considered her one of the best of the shoal-draught 
clipper-type schooners of her time. She was eventu- 
ally lost at sea. 

The half-model represents a schooner having a long 
and very sharp bow with some hollow near the stem, 
a very long, flat, and easy run, a wide elliptical tran- 
som on a short counter, heavy quarters, long pointed 
head, graceful sheer, straight keel with some drag, 
raking stem rabbet, and rather upright post. The 
midsection shows a rising floor with a quick, hard turn 
at the bilge. 

The IVo/isorj measured 76.6 feet between perpen- 
diculars. 20.6 feet beam, 6.9 feet depth of hold, and 
64.18 tons net. square stern, billethead. Scale of the 
model is % inch to the foot. 

Given by the U. S. Fish Commission. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1870 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76299 

M. E. Tony 

The clipper fishing schooner M. E. Torry was built 
from this model at Sargentville, Maine, in 1870 for 
the mackerel fishery and general work. In 1887 she 
was in the Banks codfishery, and was lost in the 
autumn of that year. 

The half-model of the Torry, which resembles that 
of the E.ssex-built shallow-draught clipper fishermen 
of the 1870's, represents a wide and shallow hull with 
heavy quarters, an elliptical transom on a short 
counter, a long sharp entrance, a long flat run, 
moderate dead rise, hard bilges, moderate sheer and 
drag, an upright post, a somewhat flaring bow rabbet, 
and a long head. 

Scale of the model is U inch to the foot, for a vessel 
71 feet 9;4 inches length between perpendiculars, 21 
feet 6 inches beam, and 7 feet 2'4 inches depth of hold. 

Given bv Robert Doritv in 1897. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1870 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76477 

Alice G. IVonson 

The clipper fishing schooner A/ice G. Ji'onson was 
built from this model at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
in 1870. Several other schooners were built from her 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1870 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76287 



Harvest Home 



The cod fishing schooner Harvest Home was built 
from this model at Lamoine (now Trenton), Maine, 
in 1870. 



205 



The half-mode] shows a cHpper Banker of the date, 
much like the Massachusetts vessels of the same class, 
having a sharp entrance, long easy run, short counter, 
elliptical transom, long head, rising floors, hard bilge, 
and rather heavy cjuarters. 

Scale of the model is '.; inch to the foot. The Harvest 
Home registered 78 feet between perpendiculars, 22 
feet 7 inches beam, 7 feet 7 inches dej^th in hold, and 
78.28 gross tons. 

Given by Newall B. Coolidgc & Bros. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1872 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 57052 



Nivibiis 



The clipper fishing schooner .\imhus was built liy 
John and Hugh Bishop from this half-model at 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1872 for the market 
fishery. Except in size, the Nimbus was similar to 
schooners built in the same yard for the mackerel fish- 
ery at this period, and represented a very advanced 
design, having the reputation of being fast and 
handy. She was lost by running ashore in December 
1878 trying to enter the harbor at Cape Negro, Nova 
Scotia, during a gale. Two of her crew were lost in 
a dory trying to reach shore. 

The half-model shows an e.xtreme clipper fishing 
schooner of the period, having a long, sharp entrance 
with the greatest beam about at midlength, a rather 
short but easy run, a raking post, and a short and 
rather light counter ending in a wide, raking, elliptical 
transom. The stem rabbet rakes and flares slightly, 
the stem has a long graceful head, the sheer is marked, 
and there is a long, low quarterdeck. The keel is 
straight with some drag. The midsection shows a 
rising hollow floor carried all the way forward as well 
as aft, an unusually easy bilge for this date and type 
of schooner, and a slight timible-home in the rounded 
topside. The forward sections are rounded in the 
topsides, rather than having the usual flare. 

Mounted with head, bowsprit, and head rigging, as 
well as mast deadeyes at rail. 

The rig of the market schooner until about 1885 was 
usually without jib boom and fore-topmast. 

Scale of half-model is }'■, inch to the foot, giving 
a vessel 70 feet 1 inch between perpendiculars, 75 
feet 4 inches total length, 20 feet 4 inches moulded 
beam, 7 feet depth of hold, and drawing about 8 feet 
2 inches at post and 7 feet foi-ward ; this is an unusually 
small amount of drag in a fishing schooner of this date 
and length. 

Given by U.S. Fish Commission. 



CHESAPEAKE BAY PUNGY SCHOONER, 1872 
Rigged Model, usnm 26536 

/. L. Carroll 

The j'. L. Ctirroll was a Chesapeake Bay jjungy of the 
small class, Ijuilt on the Eastern Shore of Maryland 
and owned in Baltimore in 1874. These small 
schooners, ranging from about 42 to 50 feet at rail 
and drawing 4 to 6 feet at sternpost, were once numer- 
ous in the Chesapeake oyster fishery and, though too 
small for general freighting, were often used in sum- 
mer to transport farm products to market JDetween 
ports on the Bay and Baltimore, Annapolis, and Wash- 
ington, or to \^irginia ports such as Norfolk, Newport 
News, and the river towns. 

The early pungies of 1840-55 were apparently 
deeper and with more rise of floor than the later \es- 
sels. Many were loftily sparred. Building of the 
pungy ceased on the Chesapeake about 1885. The 
last pungy afloat as a sailing vessel was the JVave, built 
in Accomack County, Virginia, in 1863; she was 57 
feet 6 inches at rail, 23 feet beam, and 7 feet 9 inches 
depth. However at least one pungy hull was in use 
as a power \essel on the Bay in 1955. 

The model shows a shoal-draught schooner having 
a straight keel with drag, curved and raking stem rab- 
bet with a long pointed head, raking post, round tuck, 
upper and lower transoms, moderate sheer, short 
sharp entrance, long easy run, midsection with mod- 
erate deadrise, easy bilge and slightly flaring topside. 
The greatest beam is forward of midlength. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot. The Carroll was 
47 feet 3 inches at rail, 1 5 feet beam, and 4 feet depth 
of hold. 

The pungy carries the rig of her type. The Carroll's 
bowsprit outboard of knightheads was 16 feet, fore- 
mast above deck 44 feet 6 inches, mainmast 45 feet 
above deck, main-topmast 18 feet total length, main 
boom 26 feet, fore boom 17 feet, fore gafT 13 feet 6 
inches, and main gaff 14 feet. 

Given by T. B. Ferguson. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1871 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76046 

Helen M. Foster 

The extreme clipper fishing schooner Helen M. 
Foster was built from this model at Scituate, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1871, the model having been made by 
Dennison J. Lawlor of Chelsea, Massachusetts. This 
schooner, intended for the market fishery out of 
Boston, was of somewhat shallower draught, than was 



206 



usual in the Lawlor-designed schooners, being gen- 
erally similar to the extreme clipper fishing schooners 
of the 1870"s. Notable for her swift sailing and 
ability to carry sail, the Foster was a most successful 
vessel. 

The half-model represents a schooner having a long, 
fine and somewhat hollow entrance, and a very long 
easy run, the greatest beam being abaft midlength. 
The rise of floor is moderate and the hollow in the 
garboards is carried forward as well as aft of this 
section. The bilges are rather low and hard, the 
sheer is great, the keel straight and with much drag, 
the post upright and the stem rabbet nearly so, the 
counter is short, finishing with a shallow, elliptical 
transom, and the head is rather long and beaked. 
The model shows a characteristic that marked many 



men in her period; being shallow, wide, very sharp- 
ended, and heavily canvassed and sparred. Vessels 
of this design were popular for many years in the New 
England fishery because they carried a large rig and 
were stiff and very fast; however they had small 
ability to right themselves when knocked down, and 
this weakness resulted in great loss of vessel property 
and lives from 1865 to 1885. 

The half-model shows a very long, sharp entrance 
with the greatest beam well aft; a long, flat, and very 
fine run ending in a short counter of great width and 
having low quarters; and a transom wide and curved 
athwartships, strongly raked, and elliptical in shape. 
The post is rather upright, the stem rabbet rakes and 
flares, and the head is long and graceful. The keel is 
straight and with some drag, the sheer is handsome. 




Lines of Extreme Clipper Type New England Fishing .Schooner, the Nimbus, built at Gloucester, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1872. Taken off builder's half-model U.SNM 57052. 



of the Lawlor designs, maintaining the same dead rise 
throughout the afterbody from midsection to the 
counter. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, and the scaled 
dimensions are length over the rail 77 feet, and 
between perpendicidars 70 feet 6 inches, inoulded 
beam 20 feet 8 inches, and depth in hold about 6 feet 
9 inches. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, naval architect and 
shipbuilder, Chelsea, Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1872 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160111 

David F. Low 

The extreme clipper fishing schooner David F. Low 
was built from this model at Gloucester for local 
owners in 1872, for the market and mackerel fisheries. 
The Low was representative of the design of fast fisher- 



The midsection shows a rising floor, a slightly hollow 
and very hard bilge, and some tumble-home in the 
topsides. The beam is carried well aft. The shoal 
hull is made weatherly by use of a very deep keel out- 
side the rabbet; in fact, the model resembles that of a 
centerboard-hull with a fixed straight keel substituted 
for the centerboard. 

Scale of the half-model is '.i inch to the foot, repre- 
senting a schooner approxiinately 79 feet 6 inches 
long on the rail, 74 feet betw'een perpendiculars, 21 
feet beam, 7 feet depth of hold, 57.73 net tons. 

Gi\-en by Captain E. L. Rowe, Gloucester. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1872 
Rigged Model, usnm 39337 



Mary O'Dell 



The Mary O'Dell was built in 1872 at Bath, Maine, 
for the New Ena;land market fishery. Schooners of 



207 



her type were relatively small, ranging from 35 to 60 
gross tons, and the O'Dell was a large vessel of her 
class and date. Owned at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
for which port a number of fishing schooners had 
been built in Maine, the O'Dell was eventually sold to 
Savannah, Georgia, and operated in the southern 
fisheries for some years. 

The model shows a schooner having a long, sharp 
entrance, long and very fine run, strong sheer, low 
quarterdeck, straight keel with drag, raking stem 
rabbet with a long and pointed head, nearly upright 
post, and a short counter with wide and rather heavy 
raking elliptical transom. The midsection shows a 
rising and slightly hollow floor, a hard bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Shown with sails set: mainsail, foresail, jumbo or 
jib, flying jib or jib topsail, main gaff-topsail and 
main-topmast staysail. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel about 71 feet between perpendiculars, 20 feet 
beam, 7 feet depth in hold, and 46.05 net tons. 
Length of bowsprit outboard the rabbet 18 feet 9 
inches, jib boom outside cap 12 feet 6 inches, foremast 
above deck 65 feet, mainmast 66 feet, main-topmast 
31 feet 10 inches total, fore boom 24 feet 4 inches, 
fore gaff 23 feet, main boom 58 feet 9 inches, and 
main gaff 28 feet 6 inches. 

Gi\-en by U. S. Fish Commission. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54456 
Lines Plan, usnm 160206 



Hoivard 



This half-model of a moderately sharp fishing 
schooner for use in the cod and halibut fisheries, but 
which might also be used in the mackerel hook 
fishery, was the work of VVillard A. Burnham, who 
built from it the schooner Howard in 1874 at Esse.x, 
Ma.ssachusetts. Her design was very popular, as 
it comijined capacity with s])eed to an unusual 
degree, and about thirty schooners were later built 
on her moulds, among them the Cunard, Carrie Louise. 
Aberdeen, Edward Grover, and the Nathaniel Webster. 

The model represents a relatively full-bodied 
schooner having moderate rise of floor with some 
hollow, low and rather hard bilges, and wall-sided 
abo\e. The entrance is long and sharp with some 
hollow near the stem; the run is long, easy, and well- 
formed. The greatest beam is about at midlength. 
The post rakes somewhat; the counter is short, 
finishing with a wide, shallow, elliptical transom and 



marked quarters; the bow rabbet rakes and flares 
forward, the bow sections having moderate flare; 
the keel is straight, with much drag; and the sheer 
is average. 

Scale of model is 'o inch to the foot, producing a 
\essel 72 feet long on the rails, 20 feet 6 inches moulded 
beam, 7 feet 3 inches depth in hold, and drawing 
about 9 feet 3 inches at post and 6 feet 6 inches 
forward. The Howard was 77 feet between perpen- 
diculars, 21.5 feet beam, 7.6 feet depth of hold, and 
78.8 tons register. 

Model gi\'en by W'illard A. Burnham, shipbuilder, 
Essex, Massachusetts. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY OYSTER SCHOONER, 1875-85 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76294 

G. W. Garrison 

The centerboard schooner G. W. Garrison was built 
from this half-model by the Brusstar Shipbuilding 
Clompany, at Baltimore, Maryland, probably for the 
oyster fishery. However, as she was unusually sharp 
forward for her type and date, and was designed for 
fast sailing, she may ha\e been designed for a pilot 
boat, but no record of the vessel has been found. 

The half-model represents a fast-sailing centerboard 
.schooner having a sharp and slightly hollow entrance, 
with the greatest beam slightly forward of midlength 
and a long and very fine run. The keel is straight 
with some drag, the stem rabbet curved and raking, 
flaring as the rail is approached, and the stem is 
formed with a long head. The post rakes moderately, 
the counter is short and finished with a raking ellip- 
tical transom curved athwartships, and the sheer is 
strong. Midsection formed with slightly rising floor, 
a firm round bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. The flare in the forward sections is very 
marked. 

The vessel was flush-decked, and the model shows 
a low log rail, pungy-fashion, with prominent knight- 
heads. 

Scale of model is \« inch to the foot, and the vessel 
shown would be 76 feet moulded length at rail, about 
71 feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 21 feet 
moulded beam, about 6 feet 8 inches moulded depth 
and drawing about 5 feet 9 inches at post and 5 feet 
4 inches forward. This vessel was unusually sharp 
forward for her type and date. 

Gi\en by Bru.sstar Shipbuilding Company, Balti- 
more, Maryland. 



208 




Sketch orthjC 

Dej-K or 

COD SCHOONER 

CcjL^jiiiitial, 

Cap! BA. WaOants. 



Seidi! tinelt^lStctt. 



Timnoffe. //S , ,91/ ffrns 

Jth-fionm. JS '.' 

Fore-fifast . 7o 'if ~ ,1 Tw'tap nift^t. 
Fon^ bontii 32 ' 

JfainrMiiBt. yS'^^fain tr/ymxist. -/o US /? 
Main boom . 6U ' 
ff tlarics. 



Deck Plan of Cod-Fishing 
Schooner Centennial, 1 876. 
From G. Brown Goodc, The 
fisheries and fishery industries of 
the United States, Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 
1884-87. 



FISHERY POLICE SCHOONER, 1874 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160119 

Folly J Frolic 

The centerboard schooners Folly and Frolic were 
built from this half-model at Baltimore in 1874 by the 
Brusstar Shipbuilding; Company for the Maryland 
State Fishery Police or "Oyster Navy," which was 
formed in 1868. These small swift-sailing schooners, 
of shoal draft, were employed in the enforcement of 
state fishery and conservation laws on Chesapeake 
Bay. The Frolic, in particular, became well known. 



and during- her long service was rebuilt or altered a 
number of times. 

The half-model shows a sharp-ended centerboard 
schooner having marked sheer, a straight keel with 
some drag, nearly upright sternpost, short counter, 
raking and heart-shaped transom, raking and flaring 
stem rabbet much curved at forefoot, and cutwater 
formed with a long head. The entrance is long, sharp, 
and somewhat hollow in the forefoot; the run long and 
very fine; the forward sections moderately flared; and 
the midsection formed with rising straight floor, 
rather high hard bilge, and some tumble-home in the 
topside. 

These schooners had a long trunk cabin amidships 
between the masts and a small one abaft the main- 
mast. .\ boat was carried in stern davits and occa- 
sionally a small cannon was moimted but usualh' the 
armament was a few rifles. 

The schooner was gaff-rigged, carried a large jib, 
fore and main gaff-sails, main gaff"-topsail. main-top- 
mast staysail and usually a small jib topsail. There 
was no foretopmast. The centerboard passed through 
the garboard to one side of the keel. 

Scale of half-model is '■> inch to the foot. The 
schooners measured 48 feet over the rail, 43 feet 6 
inches between perpendiculars, 14 feet moulded beam, 
4 feet 9 inches luouldcd depth, and drew 3 feet 6 
inches with the centerboard raised. 

Given by Brusstar Shipiiuilding Coiupany, Balti- 
more, Maryland, in 189.5. 

SCHOONER SMACK, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 26584 

Storm King 

The clipper schooner smack Storm Kirrg was built at 
Esse.x, Massachusetts, isy William Story in 1875 for 
Boston owners and was employed in carrying lobsters 



209 




Lines of Fishing Schooner 
Mary Fernald, taken off the 
builder's half model in the 
Peabody Museum, Salem. 
Massachusetts. 



to market. These schooners were sharp and last 
sailers, ranging from about 20 to 50 gross tons, and the 
Storm King, a fast sailer, was long considered an excel- 
lent vessel of her type. Similar smacks were built in 
Maine for the lobster fishery, and some sloop smacks 
were also employed in this fishery in Massachusetts 
and Maine. 

The Storm King was a clipper-built keel schooner 
having a long and sharp entrance, long and fine run, 
marked sheer, straight keel with drag, rather upright 
stem rabbet with long head, and nearly upright post 
with short covmter and elliptical raking transom. 
The midsection was formed with a strongly rising 
floor, high and rather hard bilge, and some tumble- 
home in the top.side. The deck was flush, with a small 
trunk cabin aft, and a large fish well was built about 
amidships, its bottom perforated to allow circulation 
of salt water. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. The Storm King 
was 53 feet 4 inches at rail, 15 feet 8 inches beam, 7 
feet 4 inches depth of hold, and drew about 7 feet 6 
inches at post. 

The bowsprit extended 14 feet 8 inches outside the 
rabbet, the foremast stood 47 feet 6 inches above the 
deck and the mainmast 48 feet 3 inches (including 4 
feet of head ) , and the main topmast was 1 6 feet in total 
length. The main boom was 38 feet 9 inches, the fore 
boom 14 feet 8 inches, the fore gaff 13 feet 4 inches, 



Fishing Schooner Atary Fernald 
built at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
in 1875 by Poland and Woodbury. 
She was designed by Daniel Po- 
land, Jr. Rigged model U.SNM 
76246. (S/nlthsonian p/wlo ^^6<)j-k.) 



and the main gaff 17 feet 4 inches. These schooners 
usually carried a single large jib having a short club 
at foot, fore and main gaff-sails, gaff-topsail on the 
main, and a fisherman staysail. They were, as a rule, 
\-ery heavily canvassed for smacks and usualh' were 
very stiff under sail. 
Given by Johnson and Young. 



SCHOONER SMACK, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 76257 



imma 



W. L 



owe 



The schooner-rigged smack Emma W. Lowe was 
built at Key West, Florida, in 1875 to engage in the 
market fishery out of that port, supplying the Cuban 
market at Havana. This was a very profitable 
business until the Spanish government raised the 
tariff at Havana, after which the fishery ceased. 
The Noank schooner smack was introduced at Key 
^Vest by New England fishermen, and the schooners 
built there of nati\e timber for the fishery were on 
the same model. The Emma W. Lowe is of similar 
form to the schooner smack City of Havana built at 
Key West in 1877 on the half-model usnm 76084, 
though the latter was slightly the smaller of the two. 

The model shows a keel schooner having a long 
and sharp entrance, a long and fine run, moderate 
sheer, straight keel with some drag, raking stem rabbet 



210 



s^ 


^ 


\ \ 


1 


3% 


T\ i\ 


1 


'~Tliy' 


\\ \ \ \ 








"'' -^ ii 


\\\ 


\ 


\ \ 


/ ^ 


r—j T,,,^ 


^ 


=55 


\,\ 


Ik 


B^^ 




PLANS or nSHINO SCHOONER "MARY rzRNALD^' 



with long head, raking post with V-transom, and 
flush deck. The midsection is formed with a rising 
floor, easy bilge, and tumble-home in the topside. 

The deck arrangement shows a wheelbox right aft, 
forward of this a short trimk cabin, then two wooden 
pumps each well outboard from the centerline, 
the mainmast, a hatch, well-grating, hatch, two 
wooden pumps, foremast, wooden rail-to-rail, jib- 
sheet horse, windlass, and heel bitt. The model 
omits the headrail of the long head employed. There 
are 2 shrouds on each side of each lower mast. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. The smack 
was about 68 feet at rail, 19 feet beam, and 6 feet 9 
inches depth in hold. 

The rig is that of a small fore-and-main-topsail 
schooner having a bowsprit without cap. The vessel 
carries a single large jib with a short club on the foot, 
jib topsail, foresail and fore gaff-topsail, mainsail 
and main gaff-topsail, and fisherman's staysail. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 76246 



M.ary Femald 



The Mary Femald, clipper fishing schooner, was 
built by Poland & Woodbury at Gloucester for local 
owners in 1875. She was intended for the summer 
mackerel fishery (purse-seining) and for the winter 



frozen-lierring trade to the Maritime Provinces. 
The model shows her ready for mackerel fishing, all 
sail set, with a seine boat on the port side and a seine 
stowed in it, and a dory astern. The Fernald is an 
e.xcellent example of an extreme clipper fishing schoon- 
er of her date, having the relatively shoal bodv, 
marked beam, and huge rig that combined to make 
this class of schooner the cause of such losses during 
its years of popularity in the New England fisheries. 
She was wrecked near \Vhitehead. Nova Scotia, in 
1895 without loss of life. 

The model shows a long sharp entrance, long and 
very fine run, raking stem with long head, nearly 
upright post, short counter with wide, raking, ellip- 
tical transom, good sheer, and straight keel with 
drag. The midsection has a moderately rising floor, 
hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside, 
a description that fits practically all extreme clipper 
fishing schooners of her date. 

Scale of model is ?2 inch to the foot. The schooner 
was 78 feet between perpendiculars, and about the 
same at rail, 22.8 feet beam, 7.9 feet depth in hold, 
and 80.29 gross tons. Bowsprit extends 20 feet 6 
inches outboard of rabbet, jib boom 14 feet 6 inches 
outside the bowsprit cap, foremast 62 feet 6 inches 
and mainmast 64 feet above deck, fore-topmast 36 
feet and main-topmast 36 feet total length, fore boom 
26 feet, fore gaff 26 feet, main boom 56 feet 6 inches, 



211 




Lines of a Key West Schooner 
Smack of the Noank Model, the 
City of Havana, built at Key West, 
Florida, in 1877. Taken ofl' build- 
er's half-model USNM 76084. 



Sail Plan of the fishing schooner 
Mary Fenia/d, from a copy of the 
sailmaker's plans in the VVatercraft 
Collection. 



and main gaff 28 feet 6 inches. The seine Ijoat is 
36 feet 6 inches overall and 8 feet 6 inches beam. 
Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1875 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160121 

Li\7^ie W. Marheso)i 

The 3-masted fishint; schooner Lizzie f'. Matheson 
of ProN'incetovvn, Massachusetts, was Ijuilt from this 
model at Essex by John James & C^ompany in 1875. 
Biu'densome but capatile of sailing? very well, she was 
intended for the hand-line codfishery on the Grand 
Banks, where she was employed during' each sum- 
mer; during the winter she ran to the West Indies or 
went coastwise, freighting. The Matheson is consid- 
ered to be the first schooner of her rig regularly em- 
ployed in the New England fishery. A 3-masted 
pinky schooner, the Spy. had been built at Esse.x in 
1823 (she measvired 70 feet Ijetween perpendiculars, 
17 feet iieam, 8 feet 6 inches depth of hold, and 91 ^'95 
tons, pink stern, three masts, no galleries, no head) 
and was intended for the Banks fishery, but it does not 
appear she was ever so employed. The Matheson 
proved successful and was followed by a numljcr of 3- 
masters, among them the Willie A. McKay, 1880, 
Henry S. Woodruff, 1886. Arthur ]'. S. Woodruff, 1888, 
and Cora S. McKay, 1888. all i)uilt ijy James at Essex. 
Later still, others were built, though the 3-master was 
never very popular in the fisheries. When the salt 
fishery ijecame unprofitable, some of these 3-masters 



went into other fisheries. The Woodruff, for example, 
became a whaler. The Matheson was lost in the West 
Indies in 1895. 

The half-model shows a rather shallow, broad hull 
of the coaster type, rather sharp in the entrance and 
with a short but fine run. The midsection shows a 
slightly rising floor, low hard bilge, and slight tumble- 
home abo\c. The sheer is strong, the keel is straight 
and with a slight drag, the stem rakes, and the post is 
nearly vertical. The vessel had a long, low quarter- 
deck carried a little foi"ward of the mainmast. She 
had a graceful longhead and a short counter ha\ing a 
broad elliptical transom. 

Scale of model is K inch to the foot. The Matheson 
was 106 feet 8 inches over the rail, 99 feet 5 inches 
betw-een perpendiculars, 24 feet 6 inches moulded 
beam, 10 feet 6 inches depth of hold, and drew 11 
feet at the post and 9 feet 6 inches forward. 

Her rig was that of a 3-masted coaster of the time, 
but with the bowsprit less stived and with more sail 
area. A rigged model of a 3-masted fishing schooner 
is in the W^atcrcraft Collection (usmn 160211, see 
p. 220). 

Gi\en by H. & S. Cook. Provincetown, Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1876 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54447 

Webster Sanborn 

The Banker Webster Sanborn was built from this half- 
model at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1876 bv David 



212 




Burnhiiin, particularly for the Grand Banks cod and 
halibut fisheries out of Gloucester. The vessels de- 
signed for these fisheries were much more burdensome 
than the market boats and Georgesmen, or than the 
mackerel seiners, and the model is a good example of 
the "full" clipper Banker of the period. In designing 
her an effort was made to produce a vessel with an 
excellent turn of speed and good capacity that would 
ride easily at anchor on the Banks, as well as be dry, 
steady, and stiff tmder sail. The Sanborn was lost at 
Newfoundland in the summer of 1882. 

The half-model is for a schooner rather full above 
the load waterline and having a moderately sharp 
bow, straight keel with drag, raking post, fine run of 
medium length, raking and somewhat flaring stem 
rabbet, long head, and a short counter with wide 
elliptical transom at a sharp rake and cm'ved athwart- 
ships. There is considerable sheer. 

Scale of half-model is )i inch to the foot, gi\ing a 
vessel about 81 feet on the rails, 24 feet i:>eam, 8 feet 
depth of hold, and drawing about 10 feet 9 inches at 
the post. 

Given by Da\id Burnham, shipbuilder, Essex, 
Massachusetts. 

SCHOONER SMACK, 1877 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76084 

City of Havana 

The well-smack fishing schooner City of Havana was 
built in 1877 from this model at Key W'est, Florida, 
to fish out of that port, particularly in the red snapper 
fishery, the market being Havana, Cuba. These 



smacks were designed to sail fast and all were on a 
deep-draft clipper model. 

The half-model shows a flush-decked clipper fishing 
schooner having a strong sheer, straight keel, raking 
post with a deep V-transom set at a very sharp rake 
and flat athwartships, the stem rabbet raking and 
flaring ovitward and adorned with a long, pointed 
head. The midsection is about at midlength, with 
steeply rising straight floor, a high, easy bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. The entrance is 
long and sharp and the run fine and long. The well 
was amidships, entered by a hatch on deck. 

The rig was usually that of a pilot-boat schooner, a 
single large jib, boomed foresail, mainsail, and a large 
main-topmast staysail set on a fidded main-topmast. 
No gaff topsails were usually carried. This model is 
similar in all respects to the smack schooners built at 
Noank, Connecticut, 1860-80. 

Scale of half-model is ]i inch to the foot, gi\ing a 
vessel about 61 feet over the rails, 55 feet 4 inches 
between perpendiculars, 18 feet 3 inches moulded 
beam, about 6 feet 9 inches depth of hold, and 
drawing about 7 feet 6 inches at the post and 6 feet 
10 inches forward. 

Given by William J. Albur\-, Key West, Florida, 
1884. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1877 
Rigged Model, usnm 39487 

William M. Gajfney 

The clipper fishing schooner William M . Ga^nej was 
built at Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1877, by John 



472.S46— 60- 



-15 



213 




Schooner Crew baiting trawls at 
T-wharf, Boston, Massachusetts, 
in the i88o's. Details of rigging can 
be seen. {Smithsonian photo ^^ygo.) 



214 





A LITE >>IZL or Tui; Iurlstavsail, Called tul ■Jumbo," on This Macklrll Sllnlr, ilic MubU DiUuway, 
photographed in 1882. {Smithsonian photo ^^75i->-/.) 



and Hugh Bishop for the purse-seine mackerel fishery 
and the winter frozen herring trade to the Province ol 
New Brunswick. 

The model represents an extreme clipper fishing 
schooner of the date, but with rather less flare forward 
than was usual, with a long, sharp entrance and a long 
and very fine run, raking stem rabbet with long head, 
straight keel with drag, nearly upright sternpost, 
and a short counter finishing with a raking elliptical 
transom curved athwartships. The sheer is strong. 
Midsection shows a strongly rising, slightly hollow 
floor, a moderately easy bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. There is a long, low quarter- 
deck. 

The model is shown with all sail set: mainsail, fore- 
sail, jumbo, jib, and jib topsail, fore and main gaff- 
topsails and main-topmast staysail. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. The vessel 
measured 80 feet at rail, 22 feet beam, 7 feet depth of 
hold, and 74.65 gross tons. 

The bowsprit extended 18 feet from rabbet, jib 
boom outside cap 12 feet, main boom 56 feet, fore- 



topmast truck 84 feet, and main-topmast truck 85 
feet above deck. This model gives a good idea of the 
quantity of sail carried in this class of fishing schooner. 
Headrails are missing and appear not to have been 
made, although the vessel actually had these supports 
to her long head. Otherwise, the model is very 
complete. 

From John Bishop, shipisuilder, Gloucester, 
Massachusetts. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1879 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54444 



Ivanhoe 



The extreme clipper fishing schooner Ivanhoe was 
built from this model at Gloucester, Massachusetts, by 
Poland and ^Voodbu^y in 1879 for local owners. Her 
model, made by Daniel Poland, is the very shallow, 
wide, sharp-ended type that predominated in the Now 
England fisheries at the time. These schooners de- 
pended largely upon initial stability, to withstand a 
knockdown, as they usually could carry litde ballast 
(commonly stone), but they were often very fast and 



215 



lor this reason remained popular until later designs 
produced deeper, narrower, and equally fast vessels, 
showing that speed and safety could exist together in 
a fishing schooner. The builders of the Ivanhoe pro- 
duced a large niunber of vessels much like her in 
model, and Poland was one of the leading designers 
of the shoal, clipper fishing schooners. 

The half-model shows a shoal schooner having a 
straight keel w4th moderate drag, graceful sheer, 
raking stem and longhead, a short counter ending in a 
broad and shallow elliptical transom well-curved 
athwartships, with much rake and heavy quarters, a 
long, somewhat hollow and very sharp entrance, and 
a long, flat and fine run. The mid.section shows a 
slightly hollow rising floor, hard bilge, and some 
tumble-home in the topside. Scale of half-model is 
]i inch to the foot, producing a schooner about 87 feet 
on the rails, 22 feet moulded beam, and 7 feet 9 inches 
depth of hold. The model shows the deep outside 
keel of her type. 

Given by Daniel Poland, Jr., shipbuilder, Glouces- 
ter, Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1880 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 34434 

John M. Smartj Emma S. Osier 

The inshore fisheries market boats ^ohn M. Smart of 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and the Emma S. Osier 
of Gloucester, Massachusetts, were built from this 
model by John Bishop at Gloucester in 1880. Swift 
sailing was a highly prized quality among vessels of 
this class of fresh fishermen making trips to the in- 
shore grounds. Usually called "schooner boats," 
they were commonly under 60 feet in overall length, 
and due to the prevailing winds it was highly desirable 
that they be weatherly and carry sail well. 

The half-model shows an extreme clipper schooner 



with a long and sharp entrance, with some hollow 
near the stem, the greatest beam about amidships, 
and a long, easy run ending in a rather short counter 
and a wide elliptical transom with rather heavy quar- 
ters. The stem rabbet rakes smartly and flares for- 
ward; the head is long, beaked, and hand.some; the 
post rakes slightly; and the keel is straight and has 
some drag. The sheer is lively and graceful; the 
model represents a strikingly handsome small schooner 
of the period. The midsection shows a steeply rising 
floor with a very slight hollow, a quick turn of bilge, 
and a slight tumble-home in the topside. As usual, 
in vessels from this builder's yard, the flare forward is 
slight; the sections near the bow are roimdcd rather 
than hollow and flaring. 

Scale of half-model is J4 inch to the foot, giving a 
vessel that measures about 56 feet over the rails, about 
49 feet 9 inches between perpendiculars, 1 5 feet 4 
inches moulded beam, about 5 feet depth of hold, and 
drawing 6 feet 3 inches at the post and 3 feet 9 inches 
forward. These schooners had the market-boat rig; 
they were large for their class and date. 

Given by John Bishop, shipbuilder, Gloucester, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1880 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 34419 

This model is an early design for a large mackerel- 
seining schooner by George M. ("Mel") McLain of 
Rockport, Massachusetts, who later designed a large 
number of fishing schooners. His models were dis- 
tinguished by grace and beauty and the vessels built 
from them were commonly swift and successful. This 
style of schooner was usually employed in fishing only 
during the summer. In winter the vessels either car- 
ried freight coastwise, if capacity permitted, or trans- 
ported oysters or fruit to New England from southern 
ports. 




Deck Plan of Mackerel Seining .Schooner of about 1885. From G. Brown Goode, The fisheries and fishery 
industries of the United States, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1884-87. 



216 



/!• 




Tarr and James Shipyard at Es^ka, ^lA»^A^..HL:st^ls, About 1885. with one vessel in the water and another 
behind it on the ways. A new river steamer is in the background and other yards are beyond, with three 
ships on the ways. Center of village is to left, in background. Sheers and hoisting tackle are rigged to step the 
mainmast of the schooner in the foreground. The mast is alongside on the wharf. (Smithsonian plioto ^^ygj-h.) 



No vessel was built from this half-model, which 
shows the popular extreme, shoal clipper of the period, 
with a long, sharp and flaring bow, raking stem rabbet 
with longhead, a long, lean and rather flat run, and 
ending with a wide shallow elliptical transom on a 
short counter, with heavy quarters. The midsection 
shows sharply rising floors with some hollow, a hard 
bilge, and tumble-hoine above. Model had marked 
drag and a handsome sheer. 

Scale of half-model is % inch to the foot, giving a 
vessel that measm-es about 106 feet over the rail, 24 
feet beam, about 7 feet depth of hold, and draws aboiu 
10 feet at the post. 

Given by Captain George M. McLain, Rockport, 
Massachusetts. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTERBOARD FISHING 

SCHOONER, about 1880 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312332 

An unidentified centerboard schooner was built 



from this half-model in Dorchester County, Maryland, 
about 1880, by Jo.seph T. Spicer for the Chesapeake 
Bay oyster fishery and for general freighting. 

The half-model, which is to the deck only, represents 
a shoal-draught centerboard schooner haxing a 
straight keel, raking sternpost, a raking curved stem 
rabbet, moderate sheer, and a wide, square round- 
tuck pungy stern with upper and lower transoms (the 
model shows cross-seam and round tuck only). The 
stem is intended to have a long pointed head. En- 
trance is short and full, the greatest beam being well 
forward. The run is long and fine. The midsection 
shows a slighdy rising straight floor carried well out, 
a full and round bilge carried well up toward the 
deck, and the topsides nearly vertical and shallo\\'. 
Model marked on back with mast positions and cen- 
terboard size and location. 

Scale of the model is !; inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel that measures about 65 feet moulded deck 



217 





length, 66 feet tonnage length, 20 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, 5 feet 4 inches moulded depth, and 
draws about 4 feet 9 inches with centerboard raised. 
Masts rake sharply. Foremast is 12 feet, mainmast 
36 feet 9 inches, aft of stem rabbet at deck; fore end 
of centerboard case is 23 feet 6 inches and after end 
(which is abaft mainmast), 37 feet 8 inches aft of stem 
rabbet, making centerboard about 13 feet 8 inches 
long. It would be alongside the keel, with the slot in 
the garboard, and the mainmast would Ije slightly off" 
the hull centerline, on the opposite side. 

Given by James K. Spicer, Taylor's Island, Mary- 
land. 

The donor identified it as being of the Ameruan 
Eagle. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1881 
Rigged Model, usnm 56938 

James A. Garfield 

The clipper fishing schooner James A. Garfield was 
built at Bath, Maine, in 1881 for Gloucester, Massa- 
chusetts, owners. She was employed in the Georges 
Bank fishery hand-lining for cod. 

The model represents a clipper fishing schooner of 
the date, having a straight keel with some drag, 
a curved and raking stem rabbet, longhead, nearly 
upright post, short counter with wide elliptical tran- 
som, good sheer, long sharp entrance, and a long and 
rather flat run. The mid.section shows a moderate 



rise of floor, a hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. The schooner 
was about 74 feet between perpendiculars, 22 feet 
beam, 8 feet depth of hold, and 69.90 net tons. The 
bowsprit was 19 feet outside the rabbet, foremast 60 
feet and mainmast 60 feet 6 inches above deck, main- 
topmast 33 feet total length, main boom 60 feet, 
fore lioom 23 feet 6 inches, main gaff 26 feet 6 inches, 
and fore gaff 23 feet. 

The model represents the vessel fitted with pen- 
l)oards, stern dory, softwood fishing rails, gurry-box, 
etc. 

All sail is set; mainsail, foresail, large jib, main top- 
mast staysail and main gaff-topsail. This was the 
usual rig of the Georgesman, though in winter many 
\essels struck the main-topmast and carried only the 
three lower sails. When at anchor on the Georges 
Banks these vessels usually set a triangular riding 
sail on the mainmast bent with adjustable hoops; 
the sail was stowed on the davit plank at the stern. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 56939 

Spencer F. Baird 

The fishing schooner Spencer F. Baird, named in 
honor of the founder and first head of the U.S. Fish 
Commission and Secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 



218 



tution (1878-87), was built at Essex in 1882 for 
Gloucester, Massachusetts owners by Arthur Dana 
Story. She was designed for the general deep-sea 
fisheries but particularly for the Grand Banks cod- 
fishery. 

The model shows a clipper fishing schooner in 
general hull design, but of somewhat greater capacity 
than the extreme clipper design of her time, having 
a straight keel with drag, raking stem rabbet, a long- 
head, nearly upright post, and a short and rather 
heavy counter with a wide, raking, and curved ellip- 



Gloucester Harbor in the i88o's, showing typical 
fishing schooners and a salt-carrying bark. A 2- 
masted lobster boat is in the right foreground. {Smith- 
sonian phiilo 42816-e.) 



Medium-Sized Gloucester Fishing Schooner, the 
Laura Sayward, 1882, showing stern davits for a yawl 
boat. {Smithsonian photo 4^Siy-d^ 



lical transom. The quarters are heavy as in most of 
her type and period. The sheer is marked, the en- 
trance long and sharp, and the run long and fine. 
The midsection is formed with a rising straight floor, 
hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

The Baird measured 78.6 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 22 feet beam, 8 feet depth of hold, and 78.04 
gross tons. She was about 86 feet at rail. Her 
bowsprit was 19 feet outboard from rabbet, jib-boom 
12 feet 8 inches outside of bowsprit cap, foremast 
64 feet and mainmast 65 feet above deck, main-top- 
mast 36 feet total length, main boom 62 feet, fore- 
boom 25 feet, fore gaff 25 feet, main gaff 27 feet 6 
inches. 

Model shows vessel without a fore-topmast, with all 
sail set, and with dories stowed upside down on deck 
and lashed to represent the vessel ready for a passage 
to or from the Grand Banks. This model is a good 
example of a clipper-built Grand Banks schooner of 
1880-85. .Scale is )'._ inch to the foot. 

Purchased from John Bishop, shipbuilder, Glouces- 
ter, Massachusetts. 




219 




Glol'cester Harbor in i8 
(Smithsonian photo ^^yga-a.) 



The fleet contains jjinkics, sloop-boats, and a variety ol fishing schooner types. 



THREE-MASTED FISHING SCHOONER, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 160211 

This model represents an ideal design for a 3- 
masted fishing schooner, made by Thomas A. Irving, 
shipbuilder, of Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1882. 
At the International Fisheries Exposition at London 
in 1883 the model was awarded a gold medal for 
e.Kcellence in design. Bearing the name Lizzie 11'. 
Matheson, it shows the rig and deck arrangement of 
that vessel, biu the hull of the model is sharper ended 
than that of the half-model of the Matheson (usnm 
160121, p. 212), and there is also more rise in the floor. 

A number of 3-masted fishing schooners were built 
between 1875 and 1888, the majority around 1883- 
84. Among these were the Grace F. Littleton, 1883, 
and the Grace E. Littleton, 1884, both built at Bath, 
Maine, by Thomas E. Hagan. Some of the others 
were the Lizz'e H". Matheson built 1875 a^ Esse.x, 
Massachusetts, and the Wdlie A. McKay, 1880; 
Henry S. IVoodriiff, 1886; Arthur V. S. Woodruff, 
1888; and the Cora 6'. McKay, 1888. 



The model represents a \essel 109 feet at rail, 26 
feet beam, 10 feet depth in hold, and drawing about 
1 1 feet at post. The bowsprit e.xtends outboard of the 
knightheads 22 feet 6 inches, the jib boom 19 feet 
beyond the cap, the foremast stands 70 feet 3 inches 
above the deck, the mainmast 72 feet, the mizzenmast 
73 feet 3 inches. All three topmasts are 40 feet heel 
to truck. The fore and main booms are each 23 feet 
8 inches, the fore and main gaffs are 23 feet 6 inches, 
the mizzen boom is 53 feet 3 inches, and the mizzen 
gaff 29 feet 9 inches. The stern boat is 17 feet 6 inches 
long. 5 feet in beam, and about 3 feet in depth. Scale 
of the model is }■) inch to the foot. 

These 3-masted fishing schooners differed from 
coasters of this rig and approximate size; the fisher- 
men were usually sharper, had less freeboard, a larger 
rig, more rise in the floor, a long and low quarterdeck 
carried to just forward of the mainmast, and their 
deck arrangements were, of course, those of a fishing 
vessel. The model is somewhat more of a clipper 
than most if not all the 3-masted fishing schooners 



220 



uilt in the period 1875-88, the majority of which 
were Grand Bankers, though at least one was for a 
time employed in the mackerel fishery as a purse- 
seiner. Nes'er numerous, they were apparently suc- 
cessful in their business but were usually considered 
too large for the general fisheries. A few were built 
in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia during World 
War I. 

Given by Thomas A. Irving, shipbuilder, Glouces- 
ter, Massachusetts. 

WELL-SMACK FISHING SCHOONER, 1883 
Builder's Half Model, usnm 160115 

Captain Joseph W. Collins, after entering the em- 
ploy of the U.S. Fish Commission, about 1880, be- 
gan to agitate in newspapers and elsewhere for safer 



fishing vessels. He had obtained the advice of com- 
petent designers, such as Lawlor, who had impressed 
upon him the need in New England fishing schooners 
for greater depth and heavier ballast as a necessary 
measure to achieve safety without making them 
otherwise tmdesirable vessels. Before 1883, the Com- 
mission had i:)egun to consider the construction of a 
well-smack for use as a fisheries research vessel and 
this gave Captain Collins a chance to propose a spe- 
cific design for a "model fishing schooner." 

The half-model shows a vessel having the entrance 
long, sharp, and somewhat hollow at the stem, with 
greatest beam about at midlength; the run lean and 
long, ending in a short counter having rather heavy 
quarters and a wide elliptical transom, at the bottom 
of which is a slight V-shaped rise from the center line. 




.\ 1 AiioLs Kal.i.nl, 1 i.,uli;m.\;.. .\uili) i uK Hlk I i.\L ^AILING QfALiTiES, the Nannie C. Bohlin, built in 1890 at 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, by John Bishop. Register dimensions were 1 10.2' x 23.5' x 1 1 .2', 96 net tons. Her 
captain was Tomm\- Bohlin. (Smithsonian photo 3S80-.) 



472846—60- 



-16 



221 




Fishing Schooner on Marine Rail\vav in the i 88o's 
at Rocky Neck, Gloucester, showing the typical 
head work of an Essex-built fisherman of the period. 
(Smithionian photo ^^-gi .) 



The keel is straight, with drag; the sheer is strong and 
graceful; and the midsection shows a rising i^oor with 
very hollow garboards, a hard bilge, and some tumble- 
home in the topside. The post is nearly vertical, and 
the stem is curved and raking and fitted with a long- 
head. 

Scale of the half-model is )^ inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a schooner about 78 feet over the rails, 18 feet 
moulded beam, about 8 feet depth of hold, and draw- 
ing about 10 feet 6 inches at the post and 6 feet 6 
inches forward. 

This half-model appears to be Captain Collins" 
first, very cautious attempt to put his ideas into force. 
It is basically the shoal clipper schooner of 1880 with 
about a foot more depth than was usual for a vessel of 
this class and length in 1883, to allow better for 
better ballasting and some dead rise in the counter, 
together with some reduction in width, compared 
with other schooners of this size. However, no vessel 
was ever built from the model, and it is doubtful that 
sufficient depth had been added to give a markedly 
greater stability than the older vessels possessed. 

Given bv U. S. Fish Commission. 



WELL-SMACK FISHING SCHOONER, 1883 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160116 

This half-model represents one of the designs for a 
well-smack schooner for fisheries research prepared 
by C^aptain Josejjh W. Collins in 1883. No vessel was 
l)uilt from this model. It appears to have been an 
alternate proposal to half-model usnm UifllLS, and 
was for a smaller vessel. The improvements incor- 
porated in this model appear to be an increase in 
depth and a decrease in ijeam as compared with con- 
temporary clip]3er fishing schooners of this length, 
somewhat lighter quarters, and the use of dead rise in 
the counter. 

The half-model shows a keel schooner having a 
long, sharp, and rather hollow entrance; the greatest 
lieam about midlength; a long, flat run with marked 
quarters, ending in a short counter having some dead 
rise; and a nearly elliptical transom, sharply raked 
and, because of its dead rise, somewhat V-shapecl. 
The post is nearly upright, the stem rabbet is curved 
and raking, and there is a long graceful head. The 
floors rise rather sharply, with a slight hollow, and the 
l)ilge amidships is hard. 

Scale of half-model is '.i inch to the foot, producing 
a vessel aboiU 65 feet on the rail, 15 feet 6 inches 
i:)eam, and about 7 feet 9 inches depth of hold. 

Given by LI. S. Fish Commission. 



999 



WELL-SMACK FISHING SCHOONER, 1883 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160114 
Lines Plan, usnm 160233 

This proposal for a well-smack schooner was made 
in 1883 for a U. S. Fish Commission fisheries research 
vessel, but not built. The design was prepared by 
U. S. Naval Constructor Samuel H. Pook, noted 
designer of clipper ships. The model is said to have 
been based on Captain Collins' design of 1883 (half- 
model USNM 160115) at least as to dimensions, but 
is far superior. It is an advanced design for the period 
and also strongly resembles some of the later fishing 
schooners. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a long, 
sharp entrance with much hollow just abaft the stem, 
a long, easy run ending in a longer counter than was 
then common in fishing schooners, and finished with 
a handsome elliptical transom at a sharp rake. The 
midsection, which is well abaft midlength, has a very 
hollow, rising floor, a hard bilge, and much tumble- 
home above; the section is strongly S-shaped. The flare 
forward is slight and the foremost sections are without 
the usual hollow flare. The stem rabbet rakes a good 
deal and flares out slightly; the post rakes moderately. 
The model has a handsome sheer and the keel is 
straight with much drag. The vessel was to have a 
longhead. Scale of half-model is }i inch to the foot, 
producing a vessel about 78 feet over the rail, 18 feet 
moulded beam, 8 feet depth of hold, and drawing 
about 10 feet at post and 8 feet forward. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1883 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76289 

Nellie Coleman 

The fishing schooner Nellie Coleman was built from 
this model at Lamoine, Maine, in 1883 for the Grand 
Banks fishery. However, she was first employed in the 
local coasting trade and did not enter the fishing 
business until 1889. 

The half-model is of a typical clipper Banker of her 
date, having a rather full bow, long run, rising floor, 
round rather full bilge, short counter with elliptical 
transom, long head, moderate rake in the ends and 
«ome drag to the keel. She had much sheer and, in 
general, was a good example of her class. 

Scale of half-model is )i inch to the foot. The 
dimensions of the Coleman were 97 feet between per- 
pendiculars, 25 feet 8 inches extreme beam, 9 feet 6 
inches depth in hold, and 152.5 net tons. 

Given by D. D. Hodgkins, 1889. 



CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTERBOARD FISHING 

SCHOONER, about 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312333 

An unidentified oyster schooner was built from this 
half-model in Dorchester County, Maryland, about 
1884, by Joseph T. Spicer. 

The half-model shows a shoal-draft ccnterboard 
schooner having a short, full entrance, with the 
greatest beam well forward, and a long easy run. 
The mid.section shows a rising straight floor, full 
round bilge, and shallow upright topsides. The 
model is to the deck only; the stern is square and only 
the round tuck and cross-seam are shown, indicating 
a pungy-stern with upper-and-lower transoms; the 
stem is curved and somewhat raking on the rabbet, and 
the vessel had a long and pointed head; the post rakes. 
The lower lift of the model is missing. 

Scale of the model is ]■> inch to the foot. A vessel 
built from this model would measure about 61 feet 
3 inches moulded length on deck, about 62 feet ton- 
nage length, 20 feet 4 inches moulded beam, 5 feet 
moulded depth, and would draw about 4 feet 9 inches 
with centerboard raised. 

Vessels of this type had low bulwarks, flush decks, 
false quarterdeck rails usually formed of a cap and 
turned stanchions, a triuik cabin aft, a forecastle 
companionway just abaft foremast, and two cargo 
hatches. Mainmast and centerboard case were off 
the hull centerlinc, with the centerboard passing 
through one garboard and the mainmast step over the 
opposite garboard. These schooners were swift sailers 
and good sail carriers, making excellent oyster 
dredgers. The masts were long and light and the sail 
area was large. They usually carried jib booms and 
fore and main topmasts when making long passages. 

Given by James K. Spicer, Taylor's Island, Mary- 
land. 

CENTERBOARD SPONGE-FISHING SCHOONER, 

1884 
Rigged Model, usnm 76261 

City of Key West 

The ccnterboard schooner City of Key West was built 
for the sponge fishery on the Florida Reef at Key 
West, Florida, in 1884. She was typical of the shoal- 
draft schooners employed in this business, and b\- the 
Florida wreckers from 1875 to 1900. Some sharpie 
schooners were also employed in this fishery. 

The model shows a shoal-draft centerboard schooner 
having a long, sharp entrance, rather long and fine 
run, good sheer, straight keel, raking stem rabbet with 



223 



long head, upright post, round stern, and a flush deck. 
The midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, low and rather hard bilge, and a slight tumble- 
home in the topside. The rig is the usual one of such 
a schooner, a single large jib, fore and main sails, and 
main-topmast staysail. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. Custom- 
house measurements of the ves.sel were: length between 
perpendiculars 41.3 feet, beam 14.3 feet, depth 3.5 
feet, and 12.86 net tons. The sponging schooners 
ranged from about 36 to about 50 feet. 

Given bv U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1884 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76034 



Koulette 



The fishing schooner Roulette was built on specula- 
tion, in 1884, from this model at East Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, by Dennison J. Lawlor. The Roulette was 
the first schooner built for the New England fisheries 
as an improvement on the old, shoal, wide clipper 
fishermen of this date. She expres.sed the ideas of a 
seaworthy, swift schooner that Lawlor had developed 
much earlier in small market-boat fishermen and in 
pilot-boat schooners. It is believed that the Roulette 
was built as a result of the agitation for deeper and 
safer vessel initiated by Captain Joseph VV. Collins, 
in which he had the support of Lawlor and others. 
After her launching, a lawsuit aro.se and the builder 
lost the vessel to a Philadelphia man, who employed 
her in the New England fisheries, where she attracted 
much attention because of her speed, weatherliness, 
and seaworthiness. 

The half-model shows a .schooner having great 
sheer, a very long, lean entrance with some hollow 
just abaft the stem, the greatest beam brought well 
aft, and the run moderate in length but \'ery fine, 
with almost constant rise of floor throughout. The 
stern is a short, deep counter ending in a very sharply 
raked elliptical transom curved athwartships. The 
stem is much cut away at the forefoot and the rabbet 
above is plumb, as in pilot schooners of the time, but 
the Roulette had a long and pointed head. The keel 
is straight for much of its length, but rounding into 
the forefoot, beginning a little abaft the foremast. 
The midsection shows a sharply rising and somewhat 
hollow floor, with the hollow carried right forward as 
well as aft. The bilge is very quick and hard, and 
there is some tumble-home above. The post is up- 
right. When built, this schooner had a bowsprit 



and jib boom, but soon afterwards was fitted with a 
spike bowsprit. 

Scale of the model is '/^' inch to the foot. The 
Roulette was 93 feet 2 inches over the rail, 83 feet 7 
inches between perpendiculars, 23 feet 4 inches 
moulded beam, 9 feet 9 inches depth in hold, and 
drew 1 1 feet at post. Because of the rocker forward 
she drew relatively little forward, though the drag 
to her straight keel was very moderate. 

The improvements incorporated in the Roulette were 
chiefly her greater depth — she was about 24 inches 
deeper than any fishing schooner of her length at 
the time she was built — and the narrowing of the 
stern to ease the quarters. As a result of her depth 
she carried more ballast lower than was formerly 
possible, her beam and powerful bilges made her 
as stiff under canvas as any of her contemporaries, 
and her fine lines made her very fast on all points of 
sailing. The success of this vessel led owners to 
accept the deeper, narrower, and more heavily bal- 
lasted schooners recommended by Captain Collins 
and others. 

Given by Dennison J. Lawlor, naval architect and 
shipbuilder, Chelsea, Massachusetts. 



FISHERIES RESEARCH SCHOONER, 1886 
Rigged Moc^ l, usnm 298232 



Grampus 



The Grampus was a well-smack .schooner designed by 
Captain Joseph VV. Collins of the LL S. Fish Commis- 
sion and built at Noank, Connecticut, in 1886. She 
was designed to illustrate Captain Collin's ideas of 
what a safe and fast fishing schooner ought to be, and 
was fitted to serve as a fisheries research vessel, having 
a suitable laboratory and apparatus aboard. 

Publicized at the time of her launching as a de- 
parture from existing types of fishing schooners, she 
strongly resembled in model some of the fishing 
schooners designed in 1884-85 by Dennison J. 
Lawlor of Chelsea and East Boston, Massachusetts; 
indeed, it is said that Lawlor aided Collins in design- 
ing the Grampus. 

This schooner was between 18 and 24 inches deeper 
in the hold than the average fishing schooner of her 
size and date, as well as some 6 to 10 inches less in 
beam, and the stern is much narrower. She had the 
straight, upright stem of a pilot-boat schooner of her 
date: this stem had been introduced into the New Eng- 
land fishing fleet by D. J. Lawlor through his designs 
for the schooners John H. McManus and Arthur D. 
Story, built in 1885, and the smaller A. S. & R. Ham- 



224 



mond, also built in that year, and later used by many 
fishing schooners famous for their sailing qualities. 
Successful as a research vessel, the Grampus does not 
appear to have made any reputation for speed, and 
the effects of her design were not great, owing to the 
earlier appearance of Lawlor-designed vessels having 
similar characteristics. 

The model shows a well-smack schooner having a 
straight keel with much drag, stem straight and up- 
right above the waterline, forefoot below well rounded. 
Post nearly upright, counter short and finished with 
an elliptical transom at a sharp rake and strongly 
curved athwartships. Sheer is great and the vessel 
has a long, low quarterdeck. The entrance is long, 
sharp, and slightly hollow; the run is long, easy and 
moderately flat in the buttocks. The midsection 
shows a rising floor having some hollow in the gar- 
board, a hard bilge, and tumble-home in the topside; 
the lines of this vessel somewhat resemble those of the 
Roulette (see half-model USNM 76034), iwilt in 1884. 

The original rig of the Grampus included bowsprit 
and jib boom, but the rigged model shows a spike 



bowsprit that was fitted shcjrtly after her launching, the 
spike bowsprit having been introduced by the Carrie E. 
Phillips, in 1887. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. 

The Grampus was 90 feet at rail, 81 feet 6 inches be- 
tween perpendiculars, 22 feet 3 inches beam, 10 feet 
depth of hold, and 83.30 tons register. Her draft was 
1 1 feet 6 inches. 

She carried topmasts with fore and main gaff-top- 
sails ; mainsail, foresail, main-topmast staysail, fore 
staysail, jib, and jib topsail; in her original rig she 
had a jib, forestaysail, flying jib. and jib topsail. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1889 
Rigged Model, usnm 76253 

Fredoniaj Nellie Dixon 

This rigged model represents the fishing schooner 
Fredonia, designed by Edward Burgess and built 
at Essex in 1889 by Moses Adams, who in the same 
year built the \rllic Dixon from the same plans in 



Schooner Under Construction at Esse.x, Mass.'^chusetts, in VVillard A. Burnham's Yard. 1882, the Belle 
Franklin. Her register dimensions were 78.6' x 22.2' x 8.1 ', 76 net tons. An excellent e.xample of the "clipper" 
type, she was owned b\- John F. VVonson and Co., of Gloucester. Massachusetts. (Smithsonian photo J4gn-c.) 






Fishing Schooner Fredonia, rigged model 
USNM 1 6021 1. This vessel, designed by 
Edward Burgess and built in 1889, influ- 
enced the design of New England fishing 
schooners for about fifteen years. {Smith- 
sonian photos: Top, 4^g26~b; and bottom, 
44956-c.) 



East Boston, Massachusetts. Burgess was the first 
yacht-designing specialist to design a fishing schooner 
(Dennison J. Lawlor had designed yachts in his long 
career but had not specialized in them), and this 
design was the second made by Burgess for a fishing 
schooner, the first being for the Carrie E. Phillips, 
a straight-stemmed schooner built by Arthur Dana 
Story at Esse.x in 1887, which attracted much atten- 
tion by her sailing and appearance and was the first 
New England fishing schooner to have iron wire 
standing rigging. The Fredonia was somewhat more 
yacht-like, and this vessel, though built to fisherman 
specifications, was actually employed as a yacht for 
a season and was then refitted for a fisherman. 
Hence the less publicized Nellie Dixon was the first to 
sail as a fisherman. 

The Dixon, less ornately finished than the Fredonia, 
which had carved trailboards, was lengthened slightly 



by the stern, and the shape of the shoe, or outside keel, 
was altered slightly from that of the Fredonia, the alter- 
ations being made by the designer. Both vessels 
sailed well and attracted favorable attention, resulting 
in the introduction of the so-called "Fredonia model," 
having a clipper bow with strongly flaring and raking 
stem rabbet, adorned with a small gammon-knee 
head on which was carved an eagle's head. Head- 
rails and rail knees were omitted, being replaced by 
iron-rod Ijraces and cross straps. The Phillips had 
introduced the spike bowsprit, and the Fredonia em- 
ployed it, but all vessels built on the Fredonia model 
did not give up the old jib boom rig until about four 
years had passed. The Fredonia model was also 
marked by a shallow forefoot, more or less rockered 
keel, light and relatively narrow counter, and very 
sharp lines at bow and stern. The midsection was 
formed with strongly rising and often hollow floor. 



226 



high and moderately hard bilge, and tumble-home 
in the topsides. 

The rigged model of the Fredonia shows a sharp 
schooner having a straight keel rabbet with much 
drag and fairing into the stem rabbet just forward of 
the heel of the foremast, with the stem rabbet raked and 
flared forward. The sternpost has much rake and 
the counter rises steeply and fairs into a small V- 
shaped elliptical transom; in profile there is no break 
at the transom heel, the transom raking in line with 
the profile of the counter. The stern is narrow and 
light. The sheer is strong, the entrance is very long 
and sharp, with hollow at the forefoot; the run is 
relatively short and easy, the buttocks showing a 
slight curve as they rise aft; the midsection is formed 
with strongly rising floor having a slight hollow, a 
high and rather hard bilge, and tumble-home in the 
topside. The vessels had a long, low quarterdeck. 
A marked characteristic of this design and that of 
the Carrie E. Phillipsis a very deep keel outside the 
keel-rabbet and a marked curve in the shoe profile. 

The hull design of the Fredonia, a development of 
that of the earlier Carrie E. Phillips, had sharper 



Lines of the FismNO Schooner 
Fredonia, built in 1889, from a copy 
probably made from the plan of 
the designer Edward Burgess. 



ends, a harder bilge, and greater capacity. The 
Phillips was 104 feet 5 inches at rail, 95 feet between 
perpendiculars, 24 feet 6 inches beam, and 11 feet 
depth. The Fredonia was 111 feet 6 inches at rail, 
99.6 feet between perpendiculars, 23.6 feet beam, and 
10.3 feet depth of hold, her actual moulded beam was 
23 feet 9 inches. The Dixon was 114 feet 9 inches at 
rail, 101.9 feet between perpendiculars, 23.4 feet 
beam, and 9.1 feet depth of hold, the mould-loft 
measurements being 101 feet 2 inches between per- 
pendiculars, 23 feet 9 inches extreme beam, 10 feet 
2 inches depth of hold. The differences represent the 
average error in Customhouse measurements. All 
three schooners were trimmed well below their de- 
signed load waterline, the Dixon drawing 14 feet, 
compared with the designed draft of 12 feet indicated 
in the designer's plans. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. It is shown with 
all sails set: mainsail, foresail, forestaysail, jib, 
jib topsail, fore and main gaff-topsails, main-topmast, 
or fisherman's, stay.sail. The vessel has dories 
stowed upside-down on deck and lashed, as when 
making a passage. 

The rigged model shows the designed spar plan of 
the two vessels: bowsprit 36 feet 9 inches outside the 
rabbet at deck, foremast 60 feet 9 inches above deck, 




227 





Sail Plan of the fishing schooner 
Fredonia, buih in 1889, showing the 
spike bowsprit and small foresail 
then popular. From a probable 
copy of the plan of the designer 
Edward Burgess. 



fore-topmast 34 feet in total length, mainmast 70 
feet 3 inches above deck, the main-topmast 41 feet 
total length, main boom 68 feet 6 inches long, main 
gafT 38 feet, fore boom 29 feet, and fore gaflT 28 feet 
6 inches. 
Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

WELL-SMACK FISHING SCHOONER, 1890 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 57051 

A proposal for an improved well-smack fishing 
schooner made by Captain Joseph W. Collins of the 
LI. S. Fish Commission in 1890, and one of the series 
of designs proposed by him from 1883 to 1892, this 
model was the first referred to as the .New Era: no 
vessel was built to the design. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a long, 
sharp entrance with some hollow abaft the stem, a 
long flat run, straight keel with some drag, raking 
and curved stem rabbet decorated with a longhead, 
an upright sternpost, moderate length of coimter, a 
raking, V-shaped, and elliptical transom, handsome 
sheer, long quarterdeck, the greatest beam abaft mid- 
length, and the midsection showing a rising hollow 
floor, a high hard bilge and tumble-home in the top- 
side. The model shows somewhat more dead rise and 
depth than most schooners built in the 1880's. The 
design was intended to be built as a well-smack and 
was peculiar in that the mainmast was to be stepped 
on the after wall of the well, which gave that mast a 
very short bury below the quarterdeck. 

The scale of the half-model is '0 inch to the foot. 



The \'essel would have been about 86 feet on the rail, 
22 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 8 feet 3 inches depth 
of hold, and would draw about 10 feet 6 inches at post. 
She would have registered between 80 and 85 tons. 
Given by L^. S. Fish C'ommission. 



FISHING KETCH TRAWLER, 1891 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76288 



Resolute 



The ketch-rigged beam trawler Resolute of Glouces- 
ter was built from this half-model by Arthur Dana 
Story at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1891 as an experi- 
ment in beam-trawling in the New England fisheries. 
She was designed by her builder as a copy of the 
English ketch trawlers then in use, and was the first 
modern ketch-rigged fisherman to be built in New 
England. The Resolute caught large quantities of 
bottom fish in her trawl but their very low market 
prices and the frecjuent loss or damage to the trawl- 
gear caused her owners to abandon this method of 
fishing, as in the earlier experiment at Boston with the 
schooner Svlph. One of two unsuccessful attempts to 
introduce the ketch rig into the New England offshore 
fisheries while sail was employed, her ketch rig did not 
produce a fast enough sailer, so she was resparred and 
rigged as a schooner and employed as a dory fisher- 
man. 

The half-model shows a flush-decked vessel having 
a rather straight sheer, straight keel with drag, a 
straight, upright stem rabbet with a small round at 
forefoot, raking post with a short counter and ending 



228 



in an elliptical, raking transom. There is dead rise in 
the bottom, the entrance is sharp, the run easy, and 
the midsection is formed with straight rising floor, 
hard turn of bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. 

Scale of model is Ji inch to the foot, producing a ves- 
sel having a moulded length at rail 90 feet 11 inches, 
length between perpendiculars 82 feet 1 inch, moulded 
beam 20 feet 10 inches, depth in hold 9 feet 6 inches, 
and drawing 10 feet at post and 7 feet forward. 

Given by Arthur Dana Story, shipbuilder, Esse.x, 
Massachusetts. 

FISHING KETCH TRAWLER, 1891 
Rigged Model, usnm 76263 

Kesolute 

This rigged model of the fishing ketch Resolute is of 
the vessel represented by the builder's half-model 
USNM 76288. Her deck arrangement and much of 
her rig were copied from English trawlers, but her 
bowsprit was fixed instead of ''reefing" (i. e., capable 
of being hauled inboard) as in the English boats. 
There were also departures from English practices in 
the reeving of the running rigging and in rigging 
fittings. 

The Resolute was aliout 91 feet long at the rail; her 
bowsprit extended 39 feet outside the knightheads. 
the mainmast was 66 feet above deck to cap, main- 
lopmast was 39 feet 6 inches long overall, main boom 
41 feet 6 inches, main gaff 39 feet, mizzenmast 52 feet 
deck to pole head, mizzen boom 30 feet, mizzen gaff 
22 feet, main-topsail yard 13 feet 6 inches, mizzen- 
topsail yard 10 feet 6 inches (the gaff-topsails were lug 
headed). Scale of model is J^ inch to the foot. 

When fitted as a schooner the original deck arrange- 
ment was entirely altered. The Resolute was never a 
very fast sailer. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1892 
Builder's H.\lf-Model, usnm 76279 

New Era (No. 2) 

This model was a proposed design for a market 
fishing schooner based upon the most advanced ideas 
of the time, 1892. The design shows the influence of 
the Fredonia model, and was made by Captain Jo- 
seph W. Collins of the U. S. Fish Commission. No 
vessel was built to this design; had there been the de- 
signer would probably have been disappointed, as her 
run was too full to allow high speed under sail in 
strong winds. This was the second of two proposals 



for fishing schooners given this name by Captain 
Collins, the earlier one being for a smack-schooner. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a marked 
and graceful sheer, keel heavily rockered, sweeping up 
to a much cut away forefoot. The stern ral)ljet rakes 
sharply and is finished with a small cutwater and 
gammon-knee head, the post rakes a great deal. The 
counter is of moderate length, very high and light, 
ending with a small and extremely raking elliptical 
transom, somewhat V-shaped at the bottom. The 
entrance is long and sharp, the run rather short and 
full, with buttocks too round for high speed. The 
greatest beam is well abaft midlength and the section 
there is formed with slightly hollow garboard, rising 
floor, high and rather hard turn of bilge, and slight 
tumble-home in topside. 

Scale of model Js inch to the foot; the vessel would 
measure 85 feet at rail, 20 feet 3 inches moulded beam, 
and would draw about 10 feet 6 inches or 11 feet. 
This inodel was exhibited at the International Fishery 
Exposition, at Bergen, Norway, in 1898. 

Given bv U. S. Fish Commission. 



FISHING SCHOONER 
Rigged Model, usnm 76252 



New Era (No. 2) 



This rigged model of the proposal for a market fish- 
ing schooner in 1892, by Captain Joseph VV. Collins, 
represented by builder's half-model usnm 76279, 
was made for exhibition purposes. The model is 
representative in rig, deck arrangement, and general 
appearance of the Fredonia-model schooners of her 
class and date. 

Scale of the model is K inch to the foot. Had the 
schooner been built she would ha\e been about 85 
feel over the rail and her bowsprit would extend 24 
feet outboard the stem rabbet, foremast 50 feet deck to 
cap. fore-topmast 30 feet total length, fore boom 20 
feet, fore gaff 22 feet, mainmast 58 feet deck to cap, 
main-topmast 34 feet total length, main booin 55 feet, 
main gaff 38 feet 6 inches, fore crosstrees 1 1 feet, and 
inain crosstrees 13 feet. 

The model is under all sail — mainsail, foresail, fore- 
staysail, jib, jib topsail, fore and main gaff-topsails and 
"fishermen" or main-topmast staysail and shows the 
very short foremasts and very narrow fore gaff-sails 
which the Fredonia-model schooners often had, follow- 
ing the then yachting fashion. This model was ex- 
hibited at the International Fisheries Exposition at 
Bergen, Norway, in 1898. 

Given b\- U. S. Fish Commission. 



229 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1892 
Exhibition Half-Model, usnm 310887 

James S Steele^ Kicbard C. Steele 

An exhibition half-model was made from plans of 
the first fishing' schooners designed by Thomas F. 
McManus of Boston, Massachusetts. These were 
Iniilt at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1892. Their design 
was an extreme one for the date, as the vessels were 
very yacht-like in form. The two schooners, both flush 
decked, built to this design were the James S. Steele 
and the Richard C. Steele. The vessels were considered 
fast but lacking in ability to carry sail and so the design 
was not again used. The schooners were employed 
as market boats and in the mackerel fishery. The 
James S. Steele is said to have rolled over on her side 
on one occasion, spilling her crew and deck load of 
fish into the water, but as boats were towing astern 
the crew managed to save themselves. 

The half-model shows a schooner having a strongly 
rockered keel and rabbet, without any straight por- 
tion in the shoe. The post rakes sharply and the 
counter is unusually long and narrow for the date. 



ending with a very small V-shaped transom. The 
bow at rabbet and cutwater fairs gradually into the 
keel, giving a marked forward overhang. The stem 
has a small gammon-knee. The sheer is marked, 
The entrance is long, sharp, and slightly convex; and 
the run is very fine, with straight buttocks. The mid- 
section shows a sharply rising floor with much hollow 
at the garboard, a slack, easy bilge, and tumble-home 
in the topside. 

The James S. Steele registered 78.46 gross tons, and 
was 88 feet between perpendiculars, 23 feet beam, and 
10.4 feet in the hold. Scale of the model is ]{ inch to 
the foot, producing a vessel 98 feet 6 inches over the 
rail, 21 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 13 feet 6 
inches draft at greatest depth of shoe. 

Given by Thomas F. McManus, naval architect, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1899 
Rigged Model, usnm 285030 



John J. Flaherty 



The fishing schooner John J. Flaherty of Gloucester 
built at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1899 for the Grand 




Cod Fishing Schooner John J. 
Flaherty, 1899, an excellent ex- 
ample of the last clipper-bowed 
schooners built for the fisheries. 
Rigged model USNM 285030. 
(Smithsonian photo 4^6g2-) 



230 



Fishing Schooner Rob Roy built at 
Essex, Massachusetts, in 1900, one 
of the early fishing schooners de- 
signed with a long bow overhang 
and short keel. For a view afore, 
seep. 173. Rigged model USNM 
298232. (Smithsonian photo 4^g^6.) 




Banks codfishery and for the winter frozen-herring 
trade, represents an adaption of the Fredonia model 
to produce a large Banker combining speed with 
capacity. The model shows the schooner under full 
sail, ready for a passage to or from the Banks. She 
was reported to be able to carry 600,000 poiuids of 
cod or 2200 barrels of herring. She was designed 
by Captain George M. McLain of Rockport, Massa- 
chusetts. 

The Flaherty was a keel schooner having a sharp, 
long entrance and a moderately long and fine run, a 
straight keel with much drag and a shallow forefoot, 
raking stem rabbet with small gammon-knee head, 
and a raking post with short, high counter, narrow in 
width and ending in a sharply raking V-transom. 
Her sheer was great and the midsection showed a 
sharp floor, a high and rather hard bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. 



Scale of model is }■■, inch to the foot. The vessel was 
122 feet at rail, 102 feet at designed waterline, 25 feet 
6 inches beam, 12 feet 6 inches depth in hold, and 
166.35 gross tons. Her bowsprit extended out 36 
feet from rabbet, foremast (including 10 feet of head) 
64 feet above deck, fore-topmast 39 feet total length, 
fore boom 30 feet 6 inches, fore gaff 30 feet, main- 
mast (including 10 feet of head) 76 feet above deck, 
main-topmast 44 feet total length, main boom 70 feet, 
main gaff 39 feet 6 inches, and jumbo boom, or club, 
28 feet. 

Gi\en by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



FISHING SCHOONER, 1900 
Rigged Model, usnm 285031 



Senator Gardner 



The fishing schooner Senator Gardner, designed by 
Captain George M. McLain, was built at Essex, 



231 



Massachusetts, in 1900 for Gloucester owners for the 
summer mackerel fishery and the winter frozen- 
herring trade between the Maritime Pro\inces and 
New England. However, she was also designed to 
serve in all branches of the New England fisheries if 
occasion demanded. The model, representing a type 
popular in these fisheries between 1893 and 1906, 
shows this schooner ready for a mackerel fishery 
cruise, seine boat on deck and seine stowed ready to 
be taken into the boat. 

The Gardner was a schooner cf the Frcdonia model 
with some modifications, ha\ing the keel straight 
with much drag; the stem rabbet raking, cur\ed. and 
slightly flaring; the cutwater adorned with a small 
gammon-knee head; the posts raking; and the counter 
rather narrow and with sharply raking transcm; the 
sheer marked; and the midsection formed with a 
sharply rising floor, moderately hard bilge, and a 
slight tumble-home in the topside. The keel shoe was 
more curved than the rabbet and the deadwood out- 
side the keel rabbet deeper than in schooners of 20 
years earlier in design. 

Scale of model is !i inch to the foot, at which scale 
the length of the Senator Gardner was 114 feet at rail 
and about 92 feet at designed waterline, beam 25 feet, 
depth in hold 11 feet 6 inches, and her tonnage 135 
gross. The bowsprit outboard of rabbet was 30 
feet, foremast above deck 65 feet, fore-topmast 42 feet 
total length, mainmast 70 feet above deck, main- 
topmast 44 feet total length, main boom 67 feet, 
main gaff 37 feet, fore boom 31 feet, fore gafl~ 32 feet, 
and jumbo boom 27 feet. Seine boat was 40 feet 
long and 8 feet 6 inches beam, its greatest beam 
to a noticeable degree forward of midlength. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING SCHOONER, 1900 
Rigged Model, usnm 298232 

Kob Koy 

The fishing schooner Roh Roy was built at Essex in 
1900 for Gloucester, Massachusetts, owners from a de- 
sign by B. B. Crowninshield of Boston, a well known 
yacht designer. The Rob Roy received much pub- 
licity and introduced the long-overhang bow into the 
New England fishing fleet. Her hull was extremely 
yacht-like and combined the long bow overhang with 
an absence of forefoot; the keel rabbet and shoe were 
straight from post to about half-way between the fore 
and main masts, and there was a heavy drag. This 
underwater profile proved practical, as it permitted a 
cutaway forefoot yet retained enough straight keel to 



allow the vessel to rest securely on a marine railway 
when she was hauled out. The older, curved keel shoe 
of the Fredonia model, and some early McManus- 
designed fishing schooners, catised much trouble and 
some accidents; vessels on occasion "fell down" on the 
marine railway by rolling forward on their rockered 
keel and forcing the shores out of place. The new 
form was so popular after 1900 that it Ijecame known 
as the "fisherman profile." The short keel and cut- 
away forefoot were supposed to make a vessel very 
quick turning and handy compared to older schooners. 

Considered a very fine market schooner, the Rob 
Roy is a good example of a great many of the last sail- 
ing schooners built as fishermen at E.ssex and other 
New England shipyard towns. Her designer followed 
her with the Harmony, Tartar, Stratiger, and a number 
of other successful schooners of the same type, which 
remained in use until motor \essels replaced the sail- 
ing schooner. The only departure of importance from 
the Rob Roy model was McManus" knockabout de- 
signs beginning with the Helen B. Thomas (half-model 
USNM 310888), built in 1901, in which the spike 
bowsprit was omitted. Few clipper-bow fishermen 
of the Fredonia model were built after the appearance 
of the Rob Roy in 1900. 

The Rob Roy was a sharp schooner ha\'ing a short, 
straight keel and shoe with much drag, knuckling into 
a long rising forepiece that gradually faired in profile 
into the slightly curved stem forming a long forward 
overhang. Aft, the post raked and there was a long 
and rather narrow counter ending in a small elliptical 
transom with dead rise in its bottom. The sheer was 
moderate, and she had the fisherman's standard low. 
long quarterdeck. The entrance was convex and 
sharp, the run long and easy. The midsection showed 
a sharply rising and slightly hollow floor, high and 
rather hard bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. 

Scale of model is Jo inch to the foot. The vessel was 
about 110 feet at rail, 88 feet at load waterline, 23 feet 
6 inches beam and 1 1 feet depth. The spike bowsprit 
extended 26 feet outside the rabbet, the foremast 
stood 58 feet abo\'e the deck, fore-topmast 37 feet in 
total length, the fore boom 28 feet, and fore gaff 27 
feet. The mainmast stood 71 feet above deck, main- 
topmast 41 feet in total length, main boom 66 feet 
long, main gaff" 36 feet. Model shows the \'essel with 
all sail set, including mainsail, foresail, forestaysail, 
jib, jib topsails, fore and main gaff-topsails, fisherman 
staysail. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



232 



KNOCKABOUT FISHING SCHOONER, 1902 
Exhibition Half-Model, usnm 310888 

Hele)i B. Thomas 

This half-model was made to exhibit a proposed 
design for a fishing schooner without a bowsprit. 
The design was prepared in 1901 by Thomas F. 
McManus, of Boston, Massachusetts, who had then 
been designing fishing schooners for about ten years 
and had adapted the idea which had previously been 
employed only in small sailing yachts, the inboard- 
rigged "knockabout" sloops. McManus thought the 
new design would prevent the loss of fishermen by 
being washed ofT the bowsprit while handling head 
sails in heavy weather, a then too common accident. 

For nearly a year this model was exhibited by 
McManus on Atlantic Ave., in Boston, in an effort 
to attract someone who would build a vessel to the 
design. The owner who finally made the experiment 
was Captain William Thomas of Portland, Maine, 
who had the Helen B. Thomas built at Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, by Oxner & Story and the schooner was 
launched in 1902. She proved to be a very fast 
sailer, and was long considered one of the fastest of 
her rig; she was also a fine sea boat, and a successful 
fisherman. It is said she could tack full-to-full in 20 
to 25 seconds. 

The half-model shows a yacht-like hull having a 
short, straight keel with heavy drag, a long, pointed 
bow and long fore overhang, with a hollow profile 
below the load waterline like a racing yacht. The 
post raked sharply and the counter was very long, 
ending with a sharply raked elliptical transom. 
The sheer was great, particularly forward, and the 

The Shipv.^rd of Oxner and Storv at Essex, 
Massachusetts, in 1902. The schooner Helen B. 
Thomas, the first knockabout fisherman, is on the 
ways second from the left, ready to launch. (Smith- 
sonian photo 45/8^-d.) 



bow was high and light. The entrance was long and 
easy and the run very fine. The midsection showed 
a small, quick hollow at the garboards, a rising 
straight floor, and a hard bilge fairing into a slightly 
tumble-home topside. 

The rig of this vessel was that of contemporary 
schooners as to sails; she carried foresail, mainsail, 
forestaysail, and jib, fore and main topsails and main- 
topmast staysail, and a jib topsail. She differed from 
her sisters, however, in having her forestay and jib 
stay, as well as fore-topmast stay, all inside or on the 
stemhead. 

Scale of model is Y^ inch to the foot. The Helen B. 
Thomas was 106 feet 7 inches overall, 21 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, and she drew about 1 3 feet ready for 
sea. Her register dimensions were 94.2 feet in 
length, 21 feet 6 inches beam, 9.2 feet depth in hold, 
and 76.99 gross tons. Her foremast was 40 feet 
6 inches abaft the stemhead. She had 15 berths in 
the long forecastle and 4 in the trunk cabin aft. 

The Helen B. Thomas was not duplicated, as later 
designs, because of the cost had a shorter bow o\"er- 
hang; but many knockabout fishermen were built, 
and when auxiliary power came into use, practically 
all the new schooners were knockabouts. The 
introduction of this design and. later, of auxiliary 
engines, were the final, basic changes in the design 
of the New England fishing schooner. 

Given by Thomas F. McManus, naval architect, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

NEW JERSEY OYSTER SCHOONER, 1904 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311089 
Lines Plan, hamms 4-19. 

Anna M. Frome 

The schooner Anna M. Frome was built from this 
model at Greenwich Piers, New Jersey, in 1904 by 
William Parsons for the ovster fisherv. This schooner 



wsLk 




nm 



|*S 



-^Mfelikl 



was a shoal draft, cemerboard vessel of a model and 
size that was popular in the oyster fishery on the 
southern coast of New Jersey. 

The half-model shows a hull having moderate sheer, 
straight keel with slight drag, curved and very raking 
stem rabbet, and slightly raking sternpost, with a 
rather long coimtcr ending in a deep, raking, elliptical 
transom curved athwartships. The model also shows 
a short, low, raised quaterdeck. The midsection 
shows a moderately rising straight floor carried well 
out, and a full, round bilge, with vertical topside 
above. The dead rise is constant toward the stern, 
the entrance is sharp and without hollow, and the run 
is formed with very straight buttocks. The stem has a 
longhead somewhat like that employed in Chesapeake 
Bay schooners, but proportionately shorter. 

These large centerboard schooners employed as 
coasters and fishermen commonly had the long cen- 
terboard passing through the garboard on one side of 
the keel; the mainmast, abreast the after part of the 
case, was stepped off-center on the opposite side. The 
centerboard was lifted with nn iron rod which \vas 
shackled into the top of the board and carried well 
aloft alongside the mainmast, ending in an eye into 
which a tackle block was hooked, with the upper 
tackle block in the hounds, and the fall brought to 
deck. 

Scale of the model is I2 inch to the foot, to represent 
a vessel 77 feet moulded length at rail, aboiU 65 feet 
3 inches between perpendiculars, 20 feet 2 inches 
moulded beam, and 6 feet 4 inches moulded depth, 
and drawing 6 feet at the post and 5 feet 5 inches for- 
ward. 

Given by George Shillingsburg. 

NEW JERSEY OYSTER SCHOONER, 1926 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311090 
Lines Plans, hamms 4-42 

Noni/c 

The New Jersey oyster dredge Nordic was jjuilt from 
this half-model at Greenwich, New Jersey, in 1926 by 
William Parsons. A large centerboard auxiliary 
schooner with "baldheaded" rig, without topmasts or 
light sails, she was one of the largest schooners in the 
New Jersey fishery. The model is a <4ood representa- 
tion of the type of oyster schooner in this area during 
the last years in which sailing craft were built. 

The model shows a long centerboard schooner ha\'- 
ing a straight keel fairing up into a curved stem of 
slight overhang, some drag, a .slightly raking post, a 



short heavy coimter, elliptical and raking transom, 
moderate sheer, and a flush deck with a low, false 
quarterdeck rail. The midsection shows a straight 
rising floor, a high hard bilge, and an upright top- 
sidts. The dead rise amidships is carried aft at a 
nearly constant angle, and the bottom of the transom 
has dead rise. The entrance is sharp and convex, the 
run long, straight, and easy. The centerboard is 
alongside the keel to port. 

Scale of model is ji inch to the foot. The Nordic was 
101 feet over the rails, 23 feet 2 inches moulded beam, 
23 feet 7 inches extreme beam, about 81 feet 6 inches 
on the waterline, and drew about 8 feet with the cen- 
terboard raised. 

Given by George Shillingsburg. 

BILOXI FISHING and FREIGHTING SCHOONER, 

about 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311251 

This half-model represents a type of schooner 
em]5loyed on the Gulf Coast for both freighting and 
fishing, as schooners were employed on the Chesa- 
peake. It is believed that this model was used to 
build a centerboard schooner of this class at Biloxi, 
Mississippi, about 1885. 

The model shows a shoal centerboard schooner hull 
having a skeg aft and with a straight keel rabbet 
forward, but swept up aft to the bottom of the tran- 
som. The shoe of the keel would therefore be straight 
and have some drag. The stem rabbet is straight 
and raking, and to it was attached a long head. The 
transom is wide, flat, and raking; the sheer is great. 
The entrance is sharp but not long, and the run is 
short and cjuite full; and the midsection shows 
slightly rising straight floor, a hard round bilge, and 
a nearly vertical topside. 

Scale of the half-model is estimated as }^ inch to 
the foot, to measiu-e 74 feet moulded length at rail, 
21 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and about 4 feet 6 
inches moulded depth to deck. 

Gi\en by Henry Brasher, shipbuilder. Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

FISHING SCHOONER, about 1900 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311257 

A centerboard fishing schooner for South' Florida 
was built from this model by Samuel Johnson at 
Apalachicola, Florida, about 1900. The vessel was 
intended for shrimp fishing and for freighting, and was 



234 



built on what might be termed a coaster's model, a 
type once common on the Florida coast. 

The half-model shows a vessel having rising straight 
floor, a rather hard bilge and a slight tumi)le-home 
above. The keel is straight, with an upright stern- 
post having a raking V-shaped transom; the stem 
rabbet is straight and nearly upright; the sheer is 
great, and the entrance is long and quite sharp, and 
the run is rather short and full in the buttocks. 

Scale of the half-model is sup|3osed to be % of an 
inch to the foot, to represent a schooner 52 feet 3 
inches moulded length at rail, 18 feet moulded beam, 
and about 4 feet 6 inches depth of hold. 

Given by Samuel Johnson. 

BILOXI FISHING SCHOONER, 1901-1902 
Builder's Halp-Model, usnm 311254 

This half-model of a centerboard schooner of the 
type once employed in the oyster fishery near Biloxi, 
Mississippi, was made by Martin Fontain. Sr.. of 
Biloxi. It is not stated that a vessel was built from 
this half-model, which represents a typical schooner 
of the Biloxi type. 

The half-model represents a shoal centerboard 
schooner having a skeg aft and the keel rabbet 
straight forward but sweeping up aft to the bottom 
of the transom; the keel shoe is thus straight, with 
some drag, and the rudderpost is at the end of the 
skeg and well inboard, so a counter is formed aft. 
The transom is deep and strongly raking as well as 
wide. The stem rabbet flares forward clipper fashion. 
The sheer is moderate. The entrance is sharp and 
slightly hollow at the forefoot, and the run is long and 
the buttocks quite flat. 

Scale of half-model is li inch to the foot, to measure 
about 63 feet moulded length at rail, 18 feet 3 inches 
beam, and about 4 feet draft at post. 

Gi\'en by Martin Fontain, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI FISHING SCHOONER, 1910-11 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311232 

A fishing schooner was built from this model at 
Biloxi, Mississippi, in 1910-1911 by Henry Brasher 
for the local shrimp fishery. It represents the last type 
of sailing schooner built at Biloxi before auxiliary 
gasoline engines came into use. 

The half-model shows a centerboard schooner hav- 
ing a small skeg aft, a straight rabbet to the keel for- 
ward but sweeping up aft to the bottom of the tran- 



som, a curved and overhanging stem rabbet, a rather 
long counter ending in a wide and raking flat transom; 
moderate sheer; and a sharp convex entrance and a 
long, rather flat run. The midsection has a rising, 
straight floor; a rather hard bilge, and an almost up- 
right topside. 

Scale of half-model is % inch to the foot, the schooner 
built to the model measured 65 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at rail, 19 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
about 4 feet 3 inches depth of hold. These schooners 
had large centerboards, most often on the hull center- 
line between the fore and main masts, and almost 
reached from mast to mast. 

Given by Henry Brasher, shipbuilder. Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI FISHING SCHOONERS, 1917-21 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311226 

H. E. G/nnhel, I. Heidenheh/ij H. Golman^ 

Anna Eve 

This small half-model was used to build at least four 
centerboard schooners for the shrimp fishery at 
Biloxi, Mississippi, between 1917 and 1921: the H. E. 
Giimhel, the /. Heidenheim, H. Golman, and the Anna Eve. 
The hull-form of the Biloxi schooner resembles that of 
some centerboard schooner yachts of the early 20ih 
century. The schooner was a swift sailer, and the four 
built from this model won many races. 

The model appears to be to a scale of ]i inch to the 
foot, and represents a hull 53 feet 6 inches moulded 
length on deck, 17 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
4 feet 6 inches moulded depth. 

The schooners had centerboard, shoal-draft hulls 
having moderate sheer, a rockered rabbet on the keel, 
with a skeg aft, the bottom of keel outside the rabbet 
straight and with moderate drag, and the stem rabbet 
ciu-ved from keel to deck in a long sweep, the post of 
the skeg being rather upright and the stern ending in 
a rather long counter finished with a flat, raking tran- 
som. The midsection is formed with a straight, 
slighth' rising floor carried well out and the bilges well 
rounded, with the rounding carried almost to the deck. 
The dead rise is nearly constant in the rim. The en- 
trance is rather full and the run rather flat. 

The half-model does not show the bulwarks and is 
to deck only, the keel, skeg, post and head are not 
shown. 

Gi\'en by Jack Covacovich, shipijuilder, Back Bay, 
Biloxi, Mississippi. 



235 



BILOXI FISHING SCHOONER, 1929 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311255 

F. B. Walker, James Velich, L. L. Colle 

The Biloxi fishing schooners F. B. Walker, James 
Velich, and L. L. Colle were biiiU from this half-model; 
the first two in 1929-30 at Biloxi, Mississippi. They 
were clipper-bow, centerboard, shoal-draft schooners 
with auxiliary gasoline engines. 

The half-model shows a hull ha\ing a skeg aft, with 
straight keel rabbet forward, but sweeping up aft to 
the bottom of the transom, which is raking and wide. 
The stem rabbet is cur\ed and flaring, and rakes for- 
ward in the usual clipper style. The sheer is very 
marked. The entrance is sharp and the run easy. 
The midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, 
a hard low bilge, and a nearly upright topside. Scale 
is % inch to the foot, to produce a schooner about 63 
feet 6 inches over the rails, 20 feet moulded beam, and 
about 4 feet moulded depth, drawing about 4 feet 6 
inches at post loaded. 

Given by F. B. Walker, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

GULF COAST FISHING SCHOONER, 1929 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311247 

Baby Ann 

The auxiliary fishing schooner Bahy Ann was built 
from this half-model by Sideon Krebs & Son in 1929 
at Pascagoula, Mississippi, for the shrimp fishery. 
Such schooners were fast sailers and were very stiff, 
carrying a heavy press of canvas. They were capable 
of being employed both as fishing and freighting 
vessels and were somewhat similar to the New Jersey 
oyster schooners. 

The half-model shows a rather yacht-like center- 
board schooner of strong sheer, having a rounded 
stem rabbet, a long thin counter ending in a small 
and sharply raking transom, an upright stcrnpost, 
and a straight keel fairing into the stem rabbet and 
stem. The mid.section shows a rising straight floor, 
an easy bilge, and an upright topside. The entrance 
is sharp and the run is easy and rather flat in the 
buttocks. 

Scale of the half-model is % inch to the foot, to 
measure about 74 feet moulded length at rail, 18 
feet moulded beam, and drawing about 6 feet fully 
loaded, with centerboard raised. 

Given by Sideon Krebs & Son, shipbuilders. Pas- 
cagoula, Mississippi. 



V-BOTTOM FISHING SCHOONER, about 1906 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311265 

This model represents a V-bottom schooner built 
by Samuel Johnson about 1906 at Apalachicola, 
Florida, for the Gulf Coast fisheries. Schooners with 
this type of hull were used extensively, from 1900 to 
1915, on the Atlantic Coast from the Chesapeake to 
Florida in various fisheries and for oiT-season freight- 
ing. They usually had longheads, a trunk cabin 
aft. and large centerboards. They sailed well. 

The half-model shows a chine-built hull, to be fitted 
with centerboard and skeg, with rockcred keel rabbet 
sweeping up aft to the bottom of the raking, wide, 
flat transom. The stem rabbet is curved, with little 
rake, and the sheer is strong. The chine in profile 
has marked camber; the midsection shows a very 
moderate rise of straight floor to the angle of the 
chine, and the topsides above are straight and flare 
out a little. The rim is rather short and the entrance 
moderately sharp. 

Scale of the half-model is supposed to be V^ inch to 
the foot, indicating a schooner of al)out 46 feet 9 
inches length on deck, 13 feet 6 inches moulded beam, 
and drawing about 4 feet at the skeg. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, shipbuilder, Apalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

GREAT LAKES GILL-NET STEAMER, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 55812 

This model was made to represent an early type of 
small fishing steamer employed in the gill-net fisheries 
of the Great Lakes in the last quarter of the 19th 
century: the type was sometimes referred to as "fishing 
tugs" because of their similarity to a tug in form and 
often in general appearance. They varied from 10 
to 40 tons register and were single-screw vessels 
usually carrying a simple rig and moderate sail- 
power for steadying purposes. The nets were worked 
over the stern and bow; the fish were stowed in the 
fore hold; and a deckhouse and pilothouse were 
located about amidships. 

The model shows a tug hull having straight keel 
with drag; a curved upright stem; an upright post 
with round tug-stern; strong sheer; a midsection with 
rising floor, firm bilge, and upright topside; and a 
sharp, long entrance and easy run. The typical deck- 
house, rig, and gear are shown. These vessels in 
1880-85 had one mast, well forward in the eyes of 
the hull, and a gafl used for handling fish or to set 
a sail to steady the vessel. 



236 



Scale of the model is % inch to the foot; the vessel 
represented would be 61 feet at rail, 11 feet 6 inches 
beam, and would draw about 5 feet 6 inches. The 
mast was 34 feet above deck, the gaff was 1 5 feet 6 
inches long, the smoke-stack stood 12 feet above the 
rail, and the vessel had a screw 4 feet 6 inches in 
diameter. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

BiLoxi Fishing Schooner Under 
Sail. A builder's half-model 
(USNM 31 1226) of this vessel, the 
/. Heidenheim, is in the Watercraft 
Collection. {Smithsonian photo 

33463-) 



MENHADEN FISHING STEAMER, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 76012 

Jemima Boomer 

The model is of the menhaden fishing steamer 
Jemima Boomer of Tiverton, Rhode Island, designed es- 
pecially for this fishery by Dennison J. Lawlor in 1882 
and launched the following year. She was considered 
a good example of her type, carrying a large cargo and 
having a speed of 9 to 10 knots loaded. These steam- 
ers worked near the land and fished only in good 
weather. 

The model shows a single-screw wooden steamer of 
narrow beam having a straight keel with some drag, 
an upright and nearly straight stem, vertical post with 



k 



II 




237 




Paddle-Wheel Fishing Steamer Built in 1885 for Service on the North Carolina Sounds, the Camille. 
A model of this steamer, USNM 76236, is in the Watercraft Collection. (Smithsonian photo 34648-a.) 



round, overhanging stern, moderate sheer, a sharp 
and long entrance, and an easy run. The midsection 
shows a slightly rising straight floor, low and full 
bilge, and rather upright topside. 

The deck arrangement and gear common in this 
class of vessel at the date of building are shown. A 
deckhouse, forward, contains a pilothouse and cap- 
tain quarters. A large main fish hatch is amidships 
and the engine house with stack is aft. Two seine 
boats are carried in davits at quarters. The model is 
sloop rigged with a loose-footed gaff mainsail and a 
jib tacked to stemhead ; the rig was only adequate for 
steadying the vessel. 

Scale of model is ]i inch to the foot, to represent a 
vessel 110 feet at rail, 17 feet beam, 7 feet 6 inches 
depth, and drawing 7 feet 6 inches at post and 3 feet 
forward. The mast was 54 feet above deck and 38 
feet abaft the stem; the gaff was 21 feet long. 

Given by U.S. Fish Commission. 

STEAM SEINE BOAT, 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76022 

This half-inodel was a proposed design for a small 
shoal-draft side-wheel steamer, to be named Canvas- 
back, prepared in 1885 by Past Assistant Engineer 
George W. Baird U.S.N. The steamer was intended 
to operate a drag seine for the U. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries station at Havre de Grace, Maryland, and to 
work in the shallow waters of the upper Chesapeake 
Bay. The boat was not built. 



The design as shown by the half-model called for a 
hull having slight sheer, a very long and sharp en- 
trance, a very short and full run, a straight keel, an 
upright straight stem, raking post, and an upright 
rectangular transom that is wide and very shallow. 
The greatest beam is at the side wheels and well abaft 
midlength. The midsection is formed with a nearly 
flat floor, a low, hard, and round bilge, and a slightly 
flaring topside. The hull is double ended at the 
waterline, and forward it is rather wall sided; close to 
the stern, in the quarters, the flare is great. 

Scale of the half-model is Y2 inch to the foot, the 
steamer was to measure 66 feet between perpendicu- 
lars, 12 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and to displace 
IQfi tons. She was to have a HerreshofT patent 
boiler, two independent-cylinder engines, 10 x 20 
inches, of 62 indicated horsepower, and 9-foot-diam- 
eter sidewhcels. 

The ,Tiodel shows the side-wheel housing and wheel, 
deckhouse, and mast positions. It is painted and 
decorated. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

PADDLE-WHEEL FISHING STEAMER, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 76236 

Camille 

The model of the paddle-wheel steamer Camille rep- 
resents a type of shoal-draft steamer used on Croatan 
Sound, North Carolina, during the last quarter of the 
19th century, for working immense drag seines and 



238 



the transportation of the catch to market. The 
Camille built at Manteo, North Carolina, in 1885 and 
owned at Edenton, was considered one of the best for 
her work on North Carolina waters. 

The model shows a side-wheel steamer of very light 
draft having a very flat floor, quick bilge, and up- 
right topside; the entrance is sharp, the run long and 
easy, the keel straight, and stem upright. The post 
is upright and there is a round overhang stern. The 
vessel was fitted with wide guards and had a large 
deckhouse. In general design these steamers were 
small side-wheel tugs. 

Scale of model is Yi inch to the foot; the vessel was 
53 feet long, 17 feet 6 inches beam over guards, and 
5 feet depth of hull. The deckhouse was 24 feet long 
and 7 feet high; the stack stood 14 feet above the 
house roof. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

NEW HAVEN OYSTER DREDGE, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 76239 

Jeremiah StJiitb 

The oyster dredge steamer Jeremiah Smith was built 
at West Haven, Connecticut, for the oyster fishery at 
New Haven in 1885 and was one of the largest and 
finest of her type when built. She was designed for 
dredging oysters on Long Island Sound and for oyster 
cultivation on the leased oyster beds. Steam had 
been employed in this fishery as early as 1874 when 
a boiler and engine were placed in the sloop Early Bird 



to operate dredge-winches, and in 1875 or 1876 a 
screw was fitted to this vessel. After that date a num- 
ber of steamers were designed and built especially for 
oyster dredging at New Haven; they ranged from 20 
to 63 tons register, from 50 to 83 feet on deck, and 
from 12 to 18 feet beam. Steam oyster dredges were 
later replaced with gasoline-engined and finally with 
diesel-powered vessels. However, sailing .sloops, 
schooners, and sharpies continued to be employed in 
this fishery until well into the 20th century. 

The Jeremiah Smith was a wide and rather shallow 
single-screw steamer having a moderately sharp en- 
trance, a short and full run, straight keel, upright 
curved stem, straight above forefoot, slight sheer, up- 
right post, and a round overhanging stern. These 
boats, as in the model, were marked by large deck- 
house which gave protection to men and gear when 
working on the oyster beds in cold weather. They 
were not fast, 7 to 8 knots was considered sufficient 
speed. The dredge gear is shown to scale. 

Scale of model is Y^ inch to the foot ; the vessel was 
72 feet long, 24 feet beam, 6 feet draft, 113.38 gross 
tons, and 66.68 net tons. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FISHING STEAMER, 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usmm 76286 

Novelty 

The schooner-rigged steam fishing vessel Novelty was 
built from this half-model at Kennebunkport, Maine, 



Steam Schooner Novelty, built for 
the mackerel fishery at Kenne- 
bunkport, Maine, in 1885. In 
1889 she was sold as a gunboat to 
Haiti, and was sunk in a collision 
in 1 89 1. She is represented in the 
Watercraft Collection by builder's 
half-model USNM 76286. {Smith- 
sonian photo 438i/-g.) 




239 




Lines of the Steam Mackerel Schooner Novelty, drawn from mould-loft drawing and checked with builder's 
half-model USNM 76286. In building, the foremast was placed 5 feet forward and the deckhouse was short- 
ened, with the fore end and the stack 4 feet farther aft than shown. 



in 1885 from a design by Captain H. B. Joyce. The 
first steam vessel in the New England offshore fisher- 
ies, she was designed for mackerel purse-seine fishing, 
using a "double-gang" of 40 men eciuipped with two 
purse-seines and four seine-boats. The Novelty was 
employed in fishing until December 1889, when she 
was sold to Haitian revolutionists, and was said to 
have become an important factor in their success be- 
cause of her speed, being then known as the Jihiiicl. 
After the revolution she was taken to Philadelphia, 
refitted, and, after returning again to Haiti, was sunk 
in a collision with the Haitian naval ship Dessaliiies 
in 1801. 

This steamer had a long sharp entrance, a long easy 
run, straight keel with moderate drag, rather upright 
and curved stem, upright post, round tugboat stern, 
strong sheer, and a flu.sh rail fore-and-aft. The midsec- 
tion was formed with a rising straight floor, a full and 
round bilge, and nearly upright topsides. In general, 
the lines of this vessel were those of a sharp tugboat 
lengthened out. 

The Nonelly was rigged as a two-masted "bald- 
headed" schooner without a bowsprit; the sails car- 
ried were a boom-and-yaff mainsail, a loose-footed 
gaff-foresail, and a single large jib. Her mainmast 
was well aft; forward of it was the stack with a rather 
long deckhouse ha\ ing the pilothouse on the forward 
end. 

Scale ol lialf-niodel is 'i inch to the foot. The 
Novelty was 112 feet 6 inches nioulded length at rail, 
19 feet 3 inches moulded Ijeain. She drew nearly 9 
feet at post. 

Given by Captain H. B. Joyce. 



WELLED STEAM LAUNCH, 1890 
Exhibition Half-Model, usnm 160103 

This half-model was made from plans by the de- 
signer, J. W. Water. na\'al architect, New York, for a 
fishing launch proposed to the U^. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries in 1890. It was intended to have a well placed 
forward in the hull. No launch was built. 

The boat was to be a caravel-planked hull having 
strong sheer, a straight keel with some drag, curved 
and rather upright stem, upright sternpost, and a 
round fantail stern. The entrance and run were long 
and fine. The midsection was formed with a rising 
straight floor, well rounded and rather slack bilge, 
and a somewhat flaring topside. 

The model is mounted with keel, stem, and stern 
deadwoods, and propeller and rudder; the deck is 
strongly crowned; a large oval cockpit, or standing 
room, in which was to be the well, is forward; a small 
one is abaft the funnel; and another large one is aft. 
A stub funnel is shown. 

Scale of the half-model is 1 inch to the foot; the 
launch was to be 38 feet 6 inches long, 9 feet 3 inches 
moulded beam, 3 feet 6 inches moulded depth, and 
was to draw about 3 feet 9 inches at post and 2 feet 
10 inches forward. 

Given by J. \V. Waters, na\al architect. New York. 
New York. 

PACIFIC STEAM FISHING SCHOONER, 1891 
Rigged Model, usnm 76238 

Koyal 

This model represents the steam schooner Royal 
built at Benicia, California, by M. Turner in 1891 



240 



Rigged Model (USNM 76238) of 
the Alaskan salmon fishery steam 
schooner Royal built at Benicia, 
California, in 1891. She was em- 
ployed chiefly in transporting fish 
to market and to the canneries. 
(Smithsonian photo ^46gj~b.) 




for the Alaskan salmon fishery. She was intended 
primarily for transporting fish to market or to the 
canneries. A number of these au.xiliary schooners, 
of which this model is characteristic, were built aftet 
1890. They were pole-masted vessels having leg-of- 
mutton mainsails; the rig was that of the sailing 
schooners then fishing in Alaskan waters but with 
less sail area and without light sails. 

The model shows a sharp auxiliary schooner having 
strong sheer, a straight keel with marked drag, a 
sharp entrance and fine run, a strongly curved and 
raking stem, an upright post, and an overhanging 
round stern. The midsection is formed with a rising 
straight floor, easy bilge, and a slight tumble-home 
in the topside. The vessel had a quarterdeck flush 
with the top of the bulwarks for about one-third the 
vessel's length; on it w^as a rail made of iron stan- 
chions and wire. Also shown are a deckhouse with 
a pilothouse at its fore end, a fish hatch, a slide 
companionway to the forecastle, and a boat in davits 
amidships on the starboard side. 

The rig was large enough to permit good sailing, 
and the screw was therefore two-bladed so that it 
could be brought in line with the sternpost under 
sail to reduce its drag. 

Scale of inodel is Jj inch to the foot; the vessel was 
81 feet at rail, 20.6 feet beam, 8.2 feet depth, and 
29.54 net tons. The mainmast stood 56 feet above 
deck, foremast 56 feet, bowsprit outboard of rabbet 



13 feet, main boom 44 feet long, and fore gaff 16 feet. 
Given bv U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



FISHING STEAMER, 1S91 
Rigged Model, usnm 76240 



Golden Gate 



The screw fishing steamer Gulden Gate was 
built at San Francisco in 1891 for the local market 
fishery. The model represents a type of small sloop- 
rigged steamer, of which several had been built 
after 1889 for the California coastal fishery, employing 
the "parenzeila," a large net towed over the bottom, 
the Mediterranean equivalent of the otter-tiawl. 
These steamers were the result of the efforts of Cap- 
tain Joseph W. Collins to introduce steamers in the 
American fisheries; his paper "Suggestions for the 
Employment of Improved Types of Vessels in the 
Market Fisheries, etc.,"' published in 1888, attracted 
much attention among fisfiermen and resulted in a 
number of experiments with steamers in New England, 
California, and elsewhere. 

The model shows a wooden, keel \essel having 
marked sheer, a sharp entrance of medium length, 
a long easy run, straight keel with some drag, stem 
curved at forefoot but straight above the waterline, 
upright post, and a round, overhanging stern. The 
midsection shows a moderate rise of floor, hard bilge, 
and a slight tumble-hoine in die topside. The model 
has a long deckhouse with the pilothouse at the fore 



241 



end. It is rigged with one mast and a loose-footed 
gaff-mainsail, with a single jib tacked to the stem- 
head. The steamer was single screw, and the hull 
generally resembled that of a contemporary tugboat. 

Scale of model is y, inch to the foot; the Golden 
Gate was 80 feet overall, 18 feet beam, 7 feet depth; 
length of the mast from deck to truck was 60 feet and 
of the gaff 20 feet; the foot of the mainsail measured 
62 feet, luff 36 feet, head 18M feet, leach 59 feet; 
the foot of the jib measured 15 feet, leach 45 feet, 
luff 47 feet. The sails were thus large enough to 
make this steamer an auxiliary. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

GREAT LAKES FISHING STEAMER, 1894 
Rigged Model, usnm 298233 

Margaret McCann 

The Margaret McCann was built at Grand Haven, 
Michigan in 1894. "Fish-tugs" of this type were very 
popular in the Great Lakes fisheries after 1885. 



The model shows a small wooden steamer, in a])- 
pearance like a small harbor tug, having a straight 
keel with drag, a curved and rather upright stem, 
rounded forefoot, round stern with flaring bulwarks, 
vertical post, sharp entrance; and a long, easy run. 
The midsection is formed with a rising straight floor, 
firm bilge, and upright topside. The sheer is mod- 
erate. 

The pilothouse, at the fore end of the deckhouse, 
is slightly raised, and the whole deck structure is 
about one-third the length of the vessel. The model 
carries a small stack, boat stowed upside down on 
the deckhouse roof, a tall jack-staff at the bow, and 
an ensign and signal staff at the after end of the 
deckhouse. There is a net gurdy on the port side 
of the foredeck, a fish hatch forward of the pilothouse, 
and a tugboat-type iron windlass at the bow. Fish 
bo.xes are on the afterdeck. 

.Scale of the model is % inch to the foot. The 
Margaret McCann was 69 feet between perpendiculars, 



Rigged Model (USNM 285032) of the .Ste.\m 
Mackerel Schooner Alice M. Jacobs, built at Essex, 
Massacliusetts, in 1902. Her register dimensions 
were 133' x 24.8' x 12', 221 gross tons, 400 horsepower. 
{Smithsonian photos: bottom, ^^g^S-e; top, 4^gj6-d.) 




242 



15.2 feet beam, 6.6 feet depth, draft about 6 feet 9 
inches, and 35.57 gross, 22.03 net tons. 
Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

STEAM MACKEREL-SEINING SCHOONER, 1902 
Rigged Model, usnm 285032 

Alice M. Jacobs 

The mackerel-seining steamer Alice M. Jacobs was 
buih at Essex, Massachusetts, in 1902 for Gloucester 
owners and was the largest and finest vessel of her type 
that had been built in New England. At the time of 
her launching she was much admired and received 
much pubHcity. but her type was not immediately 
copied; the sailing schooner, and conversions of this 
class of vessel to auxiliary gasoline-engine powered 
schooners, continued to ])redominate in the fishery 
for many years. 

The model shows a schooner-rigged screw steamer, 
narrow and deep, ha\ing strong sheer, a long sharp 
entrance and long easy run, a straight keel with much 
drag, a curved and raking stem that is almost straight 
above the waterline, and an upright post with a round, 
overhanging tugijoat stern. The midsection is formed 
with a sharply rising floor, high easy bilge, and tum- 
ble-home in the topside. 

The model shows a small deckhouse and pilothouse 
well forward, a long, low quarterdeck with funnel just 
forward of the mainmast, and a seine boat in davits 
amidships on the port side. She is schooner rigged, 

Rigged Model (USNM 312017) of Diesel Steel 
Trawler Storm, built at Bath, Maine, in 1936, by 
the Bath Iron Works. Her register dimensions were 
1 3 1. 2' X 25.1' X 1 2.1', 309 gross tons. (Smithsonian 
photo 36yio-a.) 



with single large jib tacked to stemhead, a loose- 
footed gaff-foresail, and a gaff-mainsail with boom. 
A 2-bladcd screw is shown. This vessel wa.s not in- 
tended to sail well; the rig was mainly for steadying 
the vessel. 

Scale of the model is ]i inch to the foot; the vessel 
was 142 feet at rail, 24 feet Ijeam, and 14 feet depth; 
the mainmast was 88 feet long, the foremast 82 feet, 
main boom 48 feet, and main and fore gaffs 24 feet. 

The Alice M. Jacobs could steam at 10 knots, loaded, 
in seagoing trim. She was not a very .successful fish- 
ing vessel economically and was a very costly one to 
build. 

Given by Captain H. B. Joyce. 

DIESEL TRAWLER, 1928 
Plating Half-Model, usn.vi 310972 

Shaivmtit, Trimount^ William J. O'Brien 

From this jjlating half-model of a steel diesel-pow- 
ered trawler design three trawlers, the Shaivmtit, Tri- 
mount, and William J. O'Brien (hull nos. 1419-21), 
were liuilt in 1928 at Quincy, Massachusetts, by the 
Bethlehem .Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd. Plating 
strakes are marked on the model, which was prepared 
in the shipyard as part of the drafting operation in 
making plans. These vessels were of the rather full- 
ended trawler hull model once popular but now re- 
placed lay sharper and faster vessels of far greater 
power and size. 




243 



The half-model shows a straight keel with small 
drag; a well rounded forefoot and raking straight 
stem, round stern, upright post, long deadflat, short 
sharp entrance, short fine run, and rather straight 
sheer. A short, raised forecastle deck is shown for- 
ward. The midsection is formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low, hard, round bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside. 

Scale of the hall-model is 'o inch to the foot; the 
\essels measured 122 feet 4 inches overall, 23 feet 
moulded beam, and 12 feet 6 inches moulded depth. 

Given by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Ltd.. Quincy, Massachusetts. 

DIESEL TRAWLER, 1929-1934 
Plating Half-Model, usnm 310973 

Dorchester^ Qjdncy, Winthrop, Dartmouth, 
Amherst, Cornell, Thomas Whale)i, Atlantic, 

Plymouth 

From this plating half-model nine diesel-jjowered, 
steel trawlers were built at Quincy, Massachusetts, 
between 1929 and 1934 by the Bethlehem ShipJHiild- 
ing Corporation, Ltd. The hulls, nos. 1427-29, 
1433-35, and 1455-57, were named Dorchester, 
Qjiincv. ]Vinthrop, Dartmouth, Amherst, Cornell, Thomas 
Whalen, Atlantic, and Plymouth. This model repre- 
sents a class of small trawlers that today would ije 
called "dragers" in the New England fisheries. 

The model shows a piece inserted amidships to ex- 
tend the hull beyond the original design length. It 
represents a steel trawler hull having a straight keel 
with a little drag, straight and slightly raking stem, 
cutaway forefoot, round stern with an upright stern- 
post, strong sheer, short and rather sharp entrance, 
long deadflat, and a short but well-formed run. The 
midsection shows a slightly rising straight floor, a 
low, hard bilge, and an upright topside. 

Scale of half-model is ]i inch to the foot. The tra\vl- 
ers were 110 feel long overall, 22 feet beam and 11 
feet 6 inches moulded depth. 

Given by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Ltd., Quincy, Massachusetts. 



DIESEL TRAWLER, 1936 
Rigged Model, usnm 312017 



StOI 



m 



This model is of the diesel-powered steel trawler 
Storm, built at Bath, Maine, in 1936 by the Bath Iron 
Works for the General Seafoods Corporation. 



The model shows a modern steel trawler having a 
short and rather full entrance and a fine run of 
medium length; the keel is straight with slight drag, 
the stem curved and raking, and a cruiser stern 
l)rought up almost round, in plan, at rail. The mid- 
section has a slightly rising floor, a low and rather 
hard bilge, and an almost upright topside. 

The main deck is flush. .\ short raised foredeck 
breaks the sheer right forward; on it is a steel break- 
water. At the break and on the maindeck is a steel 
companionway. or booby hatch; abaft this are the 
mast and three fish hatches, then the trawl winch, 
and a long deckhou.se carried to the stern. At the 
fore end of the deckhouse roof is the pilothouse; 
abaft this is a stack, a short mast, and two lifeboats. 
A pair of trawling gallows are on each side. 

Tne model, made by Carrol Ray Sawyer of Man- 
chester, New Hampshire, is built of steel from ship- 
yard plans and is shown complete with trawl wires 
ro\e off and a trawl net alongside to port. Except 
for relatively minor details it represents the general 
design of the more recent New England steel trawlers. 

Scale of model is ?s inch to the foot. The Storm 
was 131.2 feet long, 25.1 feet beam, and 12.1 feet 
moulded depth. 

Gi\'en by General Seafoods Corporation. 

NEW ENGLAND WOODEN DIESEL DRAGGER, 

1951 
Rigged Model usnm 316743 

Albatross 

The wooden dragger Albatross was designed by naval 
architect Geerd N. Hendel in 1946, and a number of 
vessels were built on the moulds; among them, 
between 1946 and 1952, were the Albatross, ll'ild 
Duck, Pocahontas, and Clipper. The Albatross, built by 
Harvey Gamage, of South Bristol, Maine, was 
rammed and sunk by a tanker while yet new. These 
craft were approximately 132 tons gross, 89 tons net, 
79.1 feet tonnage length, 21.9 feet beam, and 11.8 
feet depth in hold. Diesel powered, they were 
intended for the New England trawl fisheries. The 
Albatross was used in red-fish trawling. 

The model shows the Albatross as built, on a scale 
of % inch to the foot. The vessel's length overall 
was 90 feet, her extreme beam 21 feet 6 inches, and 
her draft 10 feet 6 inches. The hull of the model has 
marked sheer, a straight keel with much drag, a well 
rounded forefoot, curved and raking stem, nearly 
vertical sternpost, and a round stern. The entrance 
is long and sharp, the run short and rather full. The 



244 



hull may be said to be fairly typical of the class, 
as is the deck arrangement, consisting of a turtleback 
and raised deck forward, a house well aft, and a fish 
hold amidships. 

The vessel was schooner masted, but many of the 
type are sparred ketch fashion. They are powered 
with 300-400 horsepower diesel engines and have a 
service speed of a little over 8 knots. 

Built for the Museum by Jay Hanna, Rockport 
Maine, from the builder's plans and from measure- 
ments of the vessel. 

WHALING SHIP, 1831 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160126 

Cornelius Howland 

The New Bedford whaling ship Cornelius Howland 
was built from this half-model at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1851. She was designed for whaling and 
sailed on her last voyage August 4, 1874, being nipped 
in the ice north of Bering Strait in 1876 and wrecked. 

The Hoivland was a clipper-model whaler of slight 
sheer, having moderately rising floors, easy bilges, a 
rather sharp but short entrance and a long, easy run, 
a short heavy roimd-tuck stern with upper and lower 
transoms, straight keel, upright sternpost, and rather 
raking stem, with the bow flaring forward. 

Scale of the model is ){ inch to the foot; producing 
a vessel approximately 128 feet long at rail and 27 
feet 2 inches moulded beam, to inside of plank. The 
register dimensions of the Howland were 123 feet 
length between perpendiculars, 27 feet 9 inches 
breadth, 13 feet lOJ^ inches depth in hold, and 
431 ■''95 tons; billet head, no galleries, square stern. 

Given by New Bedford, Massachusetts, Board of 
Trade. 

WHALING SHIP, 1851 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76324 

Nautilus 

The whaling ship Nautilus of New Bedford was 
built from this half-model at Fairhaven, Massachu- 
setts, in 1851. Reputed a smart sailer, she was re- 
rigged as a bark in 1859 and was sold foreign in 1881 . 

The Nautilus was a clipper-model whaler having a 
short and moderately sharp entrance; long, fine nm; 
a heavy, square round-tuck stern with rather upright 
sternpost and upper and lower transoms; slightly 
raking stem; rising floors with well rounded bilges; 
straight keel with slight drag; and slight sheer. Her 
capacity was 2400 barrels of oil. each of 31'; Ameri- 
can gallons. 



The model scales approximately 114 feet on rail 
and 27 feet moulded beam; the scale is ){ inch to the 
foot. Register dimensions of the Nautilus were length 
between perpendiculars 110 feet 9 inches, breadth 
27 feet Sji inches, depth in hold 13 feet 8% inches, 
374 '%5 tons; billet head, no galleries. 

Given bv Gideon Allen. 



WHALING SHIP, 1853 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160124 



Reindeer 



The ship Reindeer of New Bedford was built from this 
half-model in Rochester Township, Massachusetts, 
in the year 1 853. This ves.sel was designed for whaling 
and represents the superior cla.ss of ships and barks in 
this fishery. A "sharp bottom" was required in these 
vessels to make them "easy" on their spars, rigging, 
and hull-structure, when a whale being stripped of 
blubber alongside was kept afloat by a strain on the 
"cutting-in" tackles. If a whaling vessel had great 
initial stability, any roll caused by a sea would make 
her lift the carcass and thus cause massive strains. 
At the time the Reindeer was designed, speed under 
sail was deemed desirable and an effort was made to 
combine speed with capacity. This ship was con- 
sidered one of the swiftest and finest whalers afloat 
in her time; she was employed largely in the Bering 
Sea whale fishery, for which she was especially 
designed. In 1 862 her crew were attacked by Eskimos 
or Indians, and she was abandoned and crushed in 
the ice off the north shore of Alaska during September 
1 87 1 . .She was ship rigged throughout her career. 

The half-model shows a wooden clipper-hulled 
ship having much rise in the floor and an easy turn 
of bilge, the bow moderately sharp and without 
hollow, the entrance rather short, the run fine and 
relatively long. Above the load waterline the bow 
flares out a good deal; the stem also flares forward 
on the rabbet and the cutwater and head are long 
and graceful. The stern is wide and square, with a 
very short overhang, upper-and-lower transoms, 
round tuck, and little rake in the sternpost. The 
sheer is slight, in the fashion of the time. The keel 
is straight; the vessel sailed with a slight drag. 

Scale of the model is ji inch to the foot, giving a 
vessel 129 feet over the rails, 120 feet 10 inches Cus- 
tomhouse length, 27 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
18 feet 2 inches moulded depth to inside of plank. 
Customhouse dimensions were 123 feet 6 inches 
between perpendiculars, 28 feet 4 inches beam, 



4T2S46 — aO- 



245 




^-^ 



Lines of Whaling Ship Built at Rochester, Massachusetts, in 1853. The Reindeer is an excellent exaiBple 
of the clipper-model whalers built for the Bering Sea whale fishery in the 1850's. Lines taken off builder's 
half-model USNM 160 124. 



14 feet 2 inches depth in hold, 449^^^5 tons, reg- 
ister; billet head, no galleries. 
Given by New Bedford Board of Trade. 

WHALING SHIP, 1853 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76323 

Jireh Swift 

The whaling ship Jireh Swift was built from this 
half-model at Dartmouth, Massachtisetts, in 1853. 
This ship, one of the superior class of American whal- 
ing vessels of her time, was noted for her speed and 
was a good carrier. She was rerigged as a bark in 
1857, but on her third voyage was captured and i^urn- 
ed by the Confederate States cruiser Shenandoah in 
the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait, June 22, 1865. 
It is claimed that the Jireh Swift would have outrun 
the steam cruiser had not the wind failed her. Fast- 
saUing was required in Bering Sea whaling if a vessel 
were to escape being trapped by ice floes after a sudden 
shift of wind. 

The half-model shows a wooden, clipper-hulled 
ship having rising floors and a slack bilge, a sharp 
but rather short entrance and a long, fine run. The 
sheer is rather straight and the keel is straight fore- 
and-aft; the vessel sailed with moderate drag to the 
keel. The stem rakes forward rather markedly; 
the sections in the bow show strong outward flare; 
the sternpost is nearly upright, and the stern is wide 
and square, having upper-and-lower transoms with 
round tuck below. 

The model scales 125 feet over the rails for length, 
119 feet Customhouse length, 27 feet moulded beam, 
and 18 feet moulded depth. Scale of half-model is 
]i inch to the foot. Customhouse dimensions of the 



Jireh Swift were 122 feet 9 inches length between 
perpendiculars, 28 feet 7 inches beam, 14 feet 3J4 
inches depth in hold, and 454^5 tons register; 
billet head, no galleries. 

Model is painted, with white band and painted 
ports. 

Given by White & Allen, New Bedford, Massa- 
chu.setts, 1895. 



WHALING SHIP, 1854 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160125 



Onward 



The whaling ship Onward was ijuilt from this half- 
model in Rochester Township, Massachusetts, for 
New Bedford owners in 1854. The Onward belonged 
to the clipper-model class of whaling vessels, built 
after 1851, designed to have moderate initial stability 
and sharp ends. A good sailer, the ship w^as very 
successful. She sailed on her last voyage June 25, 
1872, and in 1876 was one of a fleet of whalers nipped 
in the ice north of Bering Strait; there she was aban- 
doned by her crew before she was crushed. 

The half-model shows a wooden, clipper whaling 
ship combining sharp lines with great capacity and 
having a rising floor, an easy bilge, a short but sharp 
entrance, a long and easy run, flaring bow sections 
and stem rabbet, a rather upright stern post, a short 
overhang in the upper-and-lower square transom 
stern, round tuck, slight sheer, and straight keel with 
a slight drag. The vessel had a long graceful cut- 
water with billet head. 

Approximate dimensions to inside of plank, scaled 
from the half-model, are length over rails about 133 
feet and beam 27 feet 6 inches. Scale of the model is 



246 



% inch to the foot. The vessel was ship rigged 
throughout her career, according to the Register, and 
her Customhosue dimensions were length between 
perpendiculars 124 feet 2)^ inches, breadth 28 feet 7 
inches, depth in hold 14 feet 3 J^ inches, and 4603%5 tons. 
Given bv New Bedford Board of Trade. 

WHALING SHIP, 1850-75 
Rigged Model, usnm 25726 

This model represents an ideal design for a large 
sailing whaler, ship-rigged. The name U. S. Grant, on 
the model, which was obtained for exhibition pur- 
poses, is fictional; no vessel of this name appears 
among the whaling fleet. 

The model is of a clipper whaler having a sharp and 
short entrance, a long and easy run, a straight keel 
with some drag, a rather upright stem rabbet, and a 
simplified longhead with eagle figurehead and single 
trail knee but no trailboards. The post is upright, 
with a short counter and raking elliptical transom. 
Midsection is formed with slightly rising floor, low 
and full bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the top- 
sides. The bottom is copper sheathed. 

Model represents a full-rigged ship under topsails, 
spanker and jilj. with cutting-in stage hoisted out and 
boats in da\its, to show the vessel cruising for whales; 
and it has the typical sailing whaler's deck arrange- 
ment: topgallant forecastle with catheads on it, large 
wooden windlass on main deck, forecastle com- 
panionway slide, foremast, tryworks, main hatch, 
mainmast, pumps, after hatch, scuttle, mizzenmast, 
box skylight, binnacle, and wheel. Three whale- 
boats are on davits on the starboard side, one whale- 
boat and cutting-in stage are to port, and two whale- 
boats are upside down on gallows between the main 
and mizzenmasts. 

Scale of model is supposed to be ji inch to the foot, 
for a vessel about 134 feet between perpendiculars 
and 31 feet 6 inches beam, about the size of some of the 
auxiliary steam whalers of the 1870's and 1880's. 

Purchased from C. H. Shute & Son, Edgartown, 
Massachusetts, 1875. 



WHALING STEAMER, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 76237 



Orca 



This large model represents the bark-rigged auxil- 
iary steamer Orca built at San Francisco, California, 
in 1882 for the Pacific and Arctic whaling out of that 
port. The largest of her type in the United States 
when built, the Orca was one of a number of this type 



built in this country during the last quarter of the 
19th century, and resembles the steam whalers built 
in Maine about the same time, among which arc the 
Alarj and Helen, 1879, which became the exploring 
vessel LI. S. S. Rogers; the Relvidere, 1880; the second 
Mary and Helen, 1882; and the Navarch, 1892; all 
built at Bath. The first steam whaler under the 
American flag on the Pacific was the Pioneer, fitted in 
1865, a former government transport rebuilt and 
strengthened. These American steam whalers re- 
sembled the vessels employed under the British flag 
and usually Scotch built; notable vessels of this class 
were the Bear and Thetis, long part of the Arctic 
patrol of the U. S. Coast Guard, and the exploration 
ship Alert of the U. S. Navy. 

These American-built whaling steamers, similar in 
size, model, and rig to the sealing steamers employed 
on the Canadian Atlantic seaboard, differed from 
most of their foreign counterparts in being ciuite 
sharp (clipper-built), with a very sharp entrance and 
fine run combined with marked rise of floor. The 
Scotch-built ships were usually rather flat floored; 
the last ship of this class was the Antarctic exploring 
ship Discovery, 1904. 

The Orca was designed and built as the most com- 
plete vessel of her type; she had a steam digester for 
drxing out oil and other apparatus considered new 
at the time of her building. Like many of her sisters, 
she carried full sail power and was fast under sail or 
steam because of her clipper lines. 

The Orca was one of a fleet of vessels nipped in the 
ice pack in 1897, off Point Barrow, Alaska, where she 
was abandoned, A government expedition was sent 
during the winter of 1897-98 to rescue the crews. 

The model represents a w'ooden, keel, clipper-model 
steam bark having a straight keel with slight drag, 
raking stem with longhead, upright posts with round 
stern of moderate overhang, and medium sheer. 
The entrance is sharp and the run fine. The mid- 
section is formed with slighdy rising straight floor, a 
low full bilge, and a slight Uimble-home in the top- 
side. This vessel had a much flatter floor than had 
most American steam whalers; her form resembles 
that of the first Mary and Helen, whose lines probably 
guided the designers of the Orca. The model has a 
deckhouse and a steam windlass forward, pilothouse 
just forward of stack at break of high quarterdeck, 
wheelhouse at stern, quarterdeck flush with rail and 
with stanchioned rail around it; she carried seven 
boats on wooden cranes, or davits and two boats on 
fore deckhouse. 



247 



Scale of the model is ,'■: incli to the foot. The Orca 
was 177 feet between perpendiculars, 32 feet 6 inches 
beam, and 18 feet 11 inches depth; her net tonnage 
was 462.39 and her nominal horsepower 280. Bow- 
sprit outside knightheads was 28 feet long. Foremast 
above deck 51 feet, fore topmast 40 feet, topgallant 
mast and royal in one 42 feet, fore yard 59 feet 9 
inches, lower topsail yard 51 feet 6 inches, upper 
topsail yard 49 feet 9 inches, topgallant yard 40 feet, 
royal \'ard 31 feet. Mainmast aijove deck 52 feet 
3 inches, main topmast 40 feet, topgallant and royal 
masts in one 42 feet, main yard 62 feet, lower topsail 
yard 51 feet 9 inches, upper topsail yard 50 feet 
6 inches, topgallant yard 41 feet, royal yard 31 feet 
6 inches. Mizzenmast above deck 47 feet, mizzen 
topmast 48 feet 9 inches, spanker boom 38 feet, 
spanker gaff 27 feet. Stack was between main and 
mizzen masts and stood 16 feet 6 inches above its 
housing. 

The On a, at 177 feet between perpendiculars, can 
be compared with the first Mary and HeUn, which was 
134 feet between perpendiculars, 30 feet 9 inches 
beam, 16 feet 10 inches depth of hold, displaced 496 
tons light, 1002)^ tons at full load, and drew 16!^ feet 
at post. A design prepared for a whaler built at 
Bath, Maine, in 1880 showed dimensions of 142 feet 
9 inches in length between perpendiculars, 27 feet 
6 inches moulded beam, 16 feet 6 inches depth of 
hold, draught of about 17 feet 6 inches at post with 
full load and nominal horsepower was 250. 

In most of these American whalers the propeller 
could be hoisted into a well in the counter when imder 



sail, and also to protect it when in the ice pack. In 
the Orca the screw was 2-bIadecl, so as to be turned in 
line with the stern and rudder posts when the vessel 
was under sail or in the ice, but in general the lifting 
screw was favored in this class of vessel. 

These steam whalers were heavily planked and 
ceiled and were sheathed outside from keel to well 
above the waterline with oak or greenheart, well 
metalled, particularly forward. Internally they were 
crossbraced in the hold and well kneed; and at bow 
and stern the timbering was particularly heavy. The 
Orca shows the very raking stem of the ice-working 
whalers; this was first introduced in sailing Arctic 
whalers about 1850 to improve their ice-working 
ability. This stem allowed the vessel to slide up and 
out on the edge of the ice enough to bring its weight 
into play to break ice. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

FISHERIES RESEARCH STEAMER, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 39422 

Fish Hawk 

The Fish Hawk was the first fisheries research steamer 
built in the United States; she was designed by Charles 
W. Copeland, consulting engineer of the U. S. Light- 
house Board and was built by Pusey & Jones Co., Wil- 
mington, Delaware, for the U. S. Fish Cf)mmission, 
being commissioned in 1880. Designed primarily for 
coastal fisheries research in relatively shoal water, and 
not for offshore, cleep-sca work, she \\"as considered 
a verv fine research vessel when built. 




Whaling Steamer Orca, built at 
San Francisco, California, in 1882. 
The largest of her type when built, 
and most completely fitted, her 
register dimensions were 177' x 
32'6" X i8'i i", 462.39 net tons, 
280 horsepower. Abandoned off 
Point Barrow, Alaska in i88g. 
Rigged model USNM 76237. 
{Stnithsonian photo 26y38-h.) 



248 




U.S. Fish Commission Iron Twin-Screw Steamer Albatios. 
Rigged model USNM 1604 14. {Smithsonian photo -'451.) 



the second vessel built lor fisheries research. 



The model shows an hon, twin-screw, fore-and-aft 
schooner-rigged steamer, wood-sheathed to the main- 
deck and coppered. She had sHght rise of floor, a low 
and rather hard bilge, and an upright topside; her 
entrance is long and sharp and the run is of medium 
length and easy; straight keel, upright post and round 
stern, straight stem, and raking and flaring bow. 

Above the maindeck the Fish Hawk's structure was 
entirely of wood. She had a hurricane deck extend- 
ing the full length of the hull; on it were located the 
pilothouse, captain's quarters, and laboratory. She 
had four watertight bulkheads and one nonwater- 
tight, and a portion of her main deck was fitted for 
hatching, with tanks and apparatus particularly de- 
signed for this purpose. She was also fitted for dredg- 
ing and the exploration of oyster beds. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot. The vessel was 
156 feet 6 inches overall, 146 feet 6 inches on the 
7-foot (load) waterline, 27 feet moulded beam, 10 feet 
9 inches depth of hold, and 6 feet S'o inches mean draft. 

Given by Pusey & Jones Company Wilmington, 
Delaware, shipbuilders. 



FISHERIES RESEARCH STEAMER, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 160414 

Albatross 

The iron twin-screw steamer Albatross was designed 
by Charles W. Copeland and built by Pusey & Jones 
Co. at Wilmington, Delaware, in 1882 for the U. S. 
Fish Commission. The second and largest vessel then 
built in the United States for fisheries research, she was 
equipped with all appliances known for this work; 
she was fitted for sounding and dredging, and in e\ery 
way was especially designed for her emploNonent. 

She was an iron, brigantine-rigged, twin-screw 
steamer havijig medium sheer, a sharp entrance, mod- 
erately long and well formed run, straight keel, 
upright post, round stern, and raking and flaring stem. 
Her midsection was formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, a low easy bilge, and an upright topside. 
She had six watertight bulkheads, a poop cabin ex- 
tending 30 feet forward of the sternpost, a deckhouse 
83 feet in length and 13 feet 6 inches wide, with pilot- 
house and stack on it. and a topgallant forecastle 44 
feet long. 



249 



Scale of the model is V, inch to the foot. The Alba- 
tross was 324 feet long overaU, 200 feet on the 12-foot 
(load) waterline, 27 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 
16 feet 9 inches depth inside. Her displacement ton- 
nage on 12-foot draft was 1,000 tons, and her register 
tonnage 400 net tons. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

TANCOOK WHALER, about 1910 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311598 

This half-model was made by O. B. Hamm, Ma- 
hone Bay, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, to repre- 
sent a "Tancook whaler" of about 1910. 

The model represents a double-ended clipper-bow 
centerboard schooner, 37 feet long, of the type built 
at Tancook Island in Mahone Bay on the southeast 
coast of Nova Scotia from about 1890 to about 1910. 
Three boats are supposed to have been built from this 
model. The whalers ranged from about 26 to 45 feet 
in length and were noted for their speed and sea- 
worthiness, being used in the shore fisheries at Ma- 
hone Bay and its vicinity. Now e.xtinct as a type, 
they were replaced about 1910^12 by boats mod- 
eled on the fishing schooners. Though early boats 
of this type were lapstrake planked, the half-model 
represents a caravel, or "set work," planked hull, 
having a straight plank keel wider in the middle than 
at the ends, with much drag, a very raking sternpost, 
raking clipper bow with small gammon-knee head, 
strong sheer, and sharp stern. The entrance and run 
are both hollow and very sharp, the run sharper than 
the entrance. The midsection shows very hollow 
garboards, a rising floor, and a high and moderately 
hard bilge with slightly flaring topsides. 

These boats were half-decked; a cuddy was under 
the foredeck. They had an iron centerboard and were 
rigged with two pole masts, schooner fashion. They 
set a single jib to a stayjon a short bowsprit, and had a 
loose-footed gaff -foresail, the clew of which overlapped 
the mainsail, a gafT-mainsail and a main-topmast or 
"fisherman's" staysail set to the mainmast pole head. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot; 37 feet 
moulded length at gunwale, 9 feet beam, 4 feet draft 
at post, and 2 feet 3 inches forward. 

Given by George Stadcl, Jr., naval architect, Stam- 
ford, Connecticut. 

QUODDY BOAT, 1880 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54478 

This half-model represents a large fishing boat from 
Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, of a type sometimes 




.S.\RDiNE Carrier of the smaller size in use at East- 
port, Maine, in the i88o's. This type was known as 
a quoddy boat, after Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine. 
Rigged model USNM 12099. {Smithsonian photo 
45605-]-) 

called '"Quoddy boat" but more generally called 
"pinky" locally, though it does not have the pink stern 
tisually associated with the pinky schooner in North 
America. These boats were employed in the local 
herring fishery for attending the weirs and carrying 
fish to the factories. The boats were double-enders 
and varied in length from about 20 to 40 feet on deck. 
Boats from 20 to 28 feet in length usually had one mast 
and a single gaff-sail. These, as late as 1890, were 
clench built, as a rule. They .sometimes had a small 
bowsprit, built to unship, on which was set a small 
flying jib. The larger boats were caravel built; they 
were sloop rigged and had a standing bowsprit, gaff^ 
mainsail, and one large jib hanked on a stay. They 
always had a cuddy in a small trunk cabin forward, a 



250 




Qt'ODDY Boat Yankee Hero, 1889. Rigged model 
USNM 76266. An average size boat of her type, she 
was built to carry sardines from the weirs to the 
canneries. The builder's half-nnodcl of this boat is 
U.SNM 76293. (Smithsonian photo 4^6g6~g.) 

large fish hatch amidships, and a standing well, or 
small hatch, right aft for the helmsman. 

The Quoddy boat was noted for its seaworthiness, 
and this half-model represents one of the larger class. 
It shows finer lines than w^ere usual in this type. but 
represents a typical boat from the builder's yard, and 
the boats built from it were said to be among the 
swiftest of the type. 

The model shows a double-ended, keel hull haxing 
strong sheer, a raking and somewhat cursed stem, a 
raking straight post, the keel straight and with much 
drag, the greatest beam slightly forward of mid- 
length, a sharp entrance, and a long, well formed run. 
The midsection has a straight, rising floor ending in a 
hard turn of bilge and rather vertical sides. There is 
hollow in the sections fore and aft, with the most 
marked hollow in the after sections, near the post, 
which are strongly S-shaped. 



Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, giving a 
boat about 37 feet 3 inches on deck, 12 feet 9 inches 
moulded beam, 5 feet 8 inches moulded depth, and 
drawing about 5 feet 3 inches at post and 3 feet for- 
ward. These boats were usually ballasted with iron 
ore obtained locally. 

Model made at Eastport, Maine, about 1880 and 
given by Albert Hallet, boatbuilder, Eastport, 1882. 

QUODDY BOAT, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 12099 

This model represents the smaller cla.ss of Quoddy 
ijoat, as Iniilt by the donor, Albert Hallet of Eastport, 
Maine, about 1880. These ijoats, which ranged 
from 20 to 28 feet in length, were cat-rigged with a 
single gaff-sail. Most were lapstrake planked but in 
later years caravel planking became fa\orcd in all 
sizes of the Quoddy Ijoat. 

The model is cataloged as being on a scale of li inch 
to the foot, and this produces a large boat for the rig, 
35 feet at gunwale and 12 feet beam, with the length 
of mast 39 feet 6 inches. On a scale of Y^ inch to the 
foot, the boat would be 23 feet 5 inches at gunwale 
and 8 feet beam, with the length of mast 26 feet 4 
inches. It is probable that the model was on the 
latter scale. 

The model shows a caravel-planked, keel, half- 
decked, sailing boat having a straight keel with much 
drag, sharply raking straight sternpost, curved and 
raking stem, much sheer, sharp entrance, and sharper 
run. The midsection is formed with a rising straight 
floor, firm round bilge, and slightly flaring topside. 
The mast stands well forward, with heel over the fore 
end of the straight keel; it has marked rake. The gaff 
is rather short and has a single halyard. Deck ar- 
rangement shows a forward cuddy deck entered 
through a slide hatch just aliaft the mast, and abaft 
this the boat is open, with the washboards along the 
sides having low coamings. The open portion is 
fitted with pen boards and hatch boards forward to 
form standing and fish rooms. Chock rails are lo- 
cated near the bow and stern. In summer weather 
some of these single-sail boats set a flying jib on a 
plank bowsprit that could be readily unshipped. 

Given by Albert Hallet, boatbuilder, Eastport, 
Maine. 

QUODDY BOAT, 1889 

Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76293 

Yankee Hero 

The Quoddy boat Yankee Hero was built from this 
half-model by J. Brown in 1889 at Lubec, Maine, for 



251 




-------"--= ^^ 


- -----■"-- "^ .-^^ - ^ 


--■cr_. ^-^.*A* 


• ; l-:^m&^ 



QuoDDY Boat Yankee Hero built at Lubcc, Maine, in 1889, jib-and-mainsail rig. Lines taken uli' builders 
lialf-model USNM 76293. Deck arrangement and spar dimensions are from rigged model USNM 76266. 



use as a sardine carrier, to attend a weir and carry the 
catch to a cannery. The model is for an a\crage size 
boat of the type. The Tankee Hero is represented by a 
rigged model (usnm 76266) in the VVatercraft Collection . 

Boats of this type were very popular in the shore 
fisheries of eastern Maine, from the Penobscot to the 
Canadian border and beyond, on the western shore 
of the Bay of Fundy, in New Brunswick. Some were 
smacks having live wells, and on occasion were em- 
ployed in the loljster fisheries. 

The half-model represents a caravel-planked, keel, 
double-ended, decked sloop having strong sheer, 
straight keel with heavy drag, straight and raking 
post, slightly curved and raking stem. The midsec- 
tion formed with sharply rising straight floor, hard 
ijilge, and rather upright topside. The bow sections 
flare; the after sections are somewhat Y-shaped near 
post. Greatest beam is at midlength; the entrance is 
sharp, long, and somewhat convex; the run is long, 
easy, and quite hollow. 

Scale of the model is y^ inch to the foot, producing a 
vessel 33 feet 6J2 inches overall, 32 feet 3 inches on 
deck, 1 1 feet 1 inch moulded beam, 5 feet 3)4 inches 
moulded depth, and drawing about 5 feet 6 inches aft 
and 3 feet 3 inches forward. 

Given by J. Brown, boatbuilder, Lubec, Maine, 
1894. 



QUODDY BOAT, 1889 
Rigged Model, usnm 76266 



Yankee Hero 



This sloop-rigged model is of the Quoddy boat 
Tankee Hero, represented by the builder's half-model 
USNM 76293, shows the rig and deck arrangement 



common in this type of sardine carrier once employed 
in the vicinity of Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine. Boats 
of this type and size usually referred to locally as 
pinkies, were decked and fitted, with a small cuddy 
abaft the mast, a large fish hatch amidships and a 
small standing room for the helmsman well aft. 
Noted for seaworthiness, the type was swift and handy 
imder sail. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, representing a 
boat 32 feet 3 inches in length. The mast stands 39 
feet 3 inches above deck, bowsprit 6 feet 6 inches out- 
board of stem rabbet at deck, boom 29 feet and gaff 
10 feet long. The rudder is hung outboard and the 
boat is steered with a tiller. 

Gi\en by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

SURFBOAT, 1875 

Rigged Model, usnm 24999 

This model represents a class of boats used rather 
extensively by the old Lighthouse Board and to a 
lesser extent by the old Life Saving Service in Maine 
coastal areas before 1876. The boat was somewhat 
similar to some of the double-ended Hampton whalers 
built at Hampton Beach, New Hampshire, for the 
fisheries, except that the surfboat had no sails. Boats 
of this form and size were very seaworthy and could 
be easily worked under oars or sails. The model some- 
what resembles also the Labrador whaler once built 
in Nova Scotia. Canada, for the Laiirador fisheries. 

The model shows a double-ended, open, lapstrake 
rowing boat having a straight keel, upright curved 
stem, raking post with rudder hung outboard, strong 
sheer, sharp entrance and run, and midsection with 
rising floor, moderately hard bilge, and flaring side. 



252 



Fitted with fi\-e thwarts and a horseshoe-shaped 
stern seat with backboard. It is fitted to steer with a 
tiller; but is not fitted for sail. 

Scale of model is 2 inches to the foot, for a boat 22 
feet at gunwale. 6 feet 3 inches Ijeam, about 3 feet keel 
to gunwale amidships, with oars 14 feet 6 inches long. 

Given by Cragin & Sheldon, boatbuilders, Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

MAINE PEAPOD, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 56864 

The Maine peapod was a double-ended rowing- 
sailing boat developed about 1870 at North Haven, 
Maine, for use in the lobster fishery. The building 
of this type of boat finally centered at Jonesport, 
Maine, and it became well-known on the Maine coast 
as a safe and handy small rowing boat. The type 
was built lapstrake. caravel, or strip planked; and 
there was much \-ariation in the model; but the boats 
were commonly around 1 5 feet long, though a few 
w-ere as long as 18 feet. This model is of a type also 
employed by lighthouse tenders on the Maine coast. 
Many peapods, though primarily a rowing tvpe, were 
fitted to sail. 

The model shows a double-ended, lapstrake- 
planked, keel, open rowing-sailing boat having a 
strong sheer, straight keel with some drag, a curved 
and upright stem and stern, with rudder mounted on 
post, and a sharp entrance and run. The midsection 
is formed with a rising straight floor, firm round bilge, 
and flaring topside. Cat-rigged with a single gaff- 
sail having a single halyard from an iron crane at 
masthead. The boat has two thwarts widely spaced 
so that the amidships is left clear to handle lobster 
pots. These boats were often rowed standing, and 
for this long-shanked iron oarlocks were fitted. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
15 feet at gunwale, 4 feet 6 inches beam, 1 foot 6 inches 
depth, fitted with a 14-foot mast 14-foot boom and 
6-foot gaff. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

JONESPORT PEAPOD, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 57561 

This model represents a type of peapod once popular 
at Jonesport, Maine, and employed in the alongshore 
lobster fishery, working among the ledges where a 
large boat would be in danger. A burdensome boat, 
with fine ends, the type is said to ha\e been swift, 
having been modeled particularly for sailing, but it 
was also capable of being rowed easily. The model 



shows a double-ended, keel, lapstrake, open boat 
having strong sheer; a sharp entrance and run, the 
latter the finer of the t^vo; a straight keel with much 
wood outside the rabbet and some drag; a straight 
raking sternpost with rudder hung on it; a curved and 
rather upright stem; and the midsection with slightly 
rising straight floor, low round bilge, and flaring 
topside. The two thwarts arc widely spaced to make 
room amidships for lobster pots. The mast thwart is 
well forw-ard. Rigged with the single loose-footed 
spritsail common to the type. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 1 5 feet over gunwales, 4 feet 9 inches beam, 
and 1 foot 10 inches depth, mast 13 feet long and 
11 feet 6 inches above its thwart, and spritsail 12 feet 
6 inches long. Fitted with thole-pins and one pair 
of oars. 

Model gi\-en by U. S. Fish Commission. 

MUSCONGUS BAY SLOOP, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 55795 

This model represents a class of centerboard sloops 
once employed in the \icinity of Muscongus Bay, 
Maine, in the shore and lobster fisheries. ^Vith clip- 
per bow and counter stern, they were originalh' built 
at Friendship, Bristol, and Bremen, Maine, but the 
building of the type spread along the coast in the 
1880's and 1890's. These sloops were the forerunners 
of the better known Friendship sloops, which they 
resembled in rig and abo\-e-water appearance. The 
Muscongus Bay sloops were built with either caravel 
or lapstrake planking on the same model, and this 
rigged model, though finished cara\'el, was evidently 
intended to represent a lapstrake boat, judging by 
the model builder's use of a lower moulding on the 
sheer strake. These boats, which had a fine reputation 
for speed and seaworthiness, ranged in size from 16 
to about 26 feet length at gunwale and carried a jib- 
and-mainsail rig. 

The model shows a rather deep centerboard sloop 
having a straight keel with some drag, raking post and 
short counter stern ending in a raking V-shaped 
transom (sometimes this was elliptical), and a raking 
stem with a simple longhead supported by trail knees. 
The midsection has a sharply rising straight floor, an 
easy round bilge, and an upright or slighdy flaring 
topsides. The entrance is long and sharp, the run 
well formed and of moderate length, and the sheer 
very strong. Small boats had an oval cockpit; the 
larger boats, as shown in the model, had a trunk cabin. 
These boats usuallv had live wells on each side of the 



472S4G— 60- 



-IS 



253 



centerboard case, and the stone ballast was floored 
over in the cockpit. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, producing a boat 
26 feet at gvniwale, 8 feet beam, mast 25 feet 6 inches 
above deck, bowsprit 6 feet outside rabbet, main boom 
25 feet 9 inches, and gafT 15 feet. The model repre- 
sents a large boat of the type. 

Model by U. S. Fish Commission. Restored by 
Merritt Edson, 1958. 

MAINE HAMPTON BOAT, 1879 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54484 

This model represents a small, lapstrake, 2-masted 
centerboard Hampton boat, a type once popular 
among fishermen on Casco Bay and along the coast 
to Muscongus Bay. The half-model, one of the 
earliest of this type that has been found, is of a boat 
built some time prior to 1879 at Phippsburg, on the 
lower Kennebec River, and intended for the inshore 
fisheries at the mouth of that river. These boats had 
a great reputation, in the period when sail was used 
in small fishing craft, for being swift, close-winded, and 
seaworthv. Thev received their name from the old 



double-ended boats of the type originated at Hampton 
Beach, New Hampshire; they do not, however, re- 
semble the old double-ender, being an entirely 
different form of ijoat. As fishing craft they had long 
wash boards and, except for a very short stern deck, 
were rarely otherwise decked, but when built for 
pleasure craft they had an oval cockpit and a long 
forward deck. The planking was usually lapstrake, 
but caravel planking was sometimes employed, and 
by 1890 was replacing clench work. Typically they 
had two thwarts with the centerboard case between, 
oval coamings, a platform over stone ballast, standing 
rooms formed by pen boards, a fish room amidships, 
and were fitted with oars and locks or tholes. When 
gasoline motors first came into use, many Hampton 
boats, because of their peculiar form could readily be 
converted from sailing craft to launches. They 
carried two spritsails, the foresail the larger. The 
foremast was stepped close to the bow and the foresail 
had no boom, overlapping the mainsail slightly and 
sometimes with a short club at the clew; the shorter of 
the two masts, the mainmast, was stepped close abaft 
the centerboard case; the mainsail had a boom. 




Muscongus B.w Sloop, i88o. A 
tvpe of centerboard boat used on 
the Maine coast in the vicinity of 
Muscongus Bay. It was a fore- 
runner of the later and better 
known Friendship sloop. Rigged 
model USNM 55795. (.Smith- 
sonian photo 4^606-c.) 



254 



Both masts were supported by the thwarts, and the 
sprits were relatively long, so the sails as a rule had 
peak. Some boats carried a short plank bowsprit 
that unshipped; on this a small jib was set flying in 
light winds. There were variations in the rig of 
Hampton boats on the Maine coast, but the one 
described was by far the most common. 

The half-model is of an open, centerboard boat, lap- 
strake planked, the plank keel is wide alongside the 
centerboard and tapered toward bow and stern; it is 
straight in profile and extends only a little outside the 
rabbet. The keel has much drag; the stem is slightly 
rounded and raking; the sternpost is raking, with a 
flat, raking transom and the rudder hung outboard; 
the sheer is strong, the midsection shows a hollow, 
rising floor, a high and hard bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside; the entrance is long and very sharp; 
and the run is rather short but very well formed. 

Model has been repaired and a lift added below 
the plank keel by error, it being supposed that the 
wide, moulded plank keel was the top of a missing lift. 



MAINE HAMPTON BOAT, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 57032 

This model represents a variati(jii in the Maine 
Hampton boat type once employed at Matinicus 
Island, Maine, in the shore and lobster fisheries. 
Unlike most boats of the type, the Matinicus Island 
boats had a single mast. Swift sailers and good sea 
boats, they were usually lapstrake planked. They 
were fitted to row, and some towed a small skiff when 
lobstering. 

The model shows a Maine Hampton boat hull 
having a centerboard, side decks, strong sheer, straight 
plank keel with some drag, nearly straight and up- 
right stem, raking post, short counter ending with a 
raking elliptical transom, long and very sharp en- 
trance, and a long and very fine run. The midsec- 
tion shows a rising floor with hollow at the garboard, 
a firm round bilge, and a slight tumble-home in the 
topside. The model appears unusual in having a 
counter; most contemporary descriptions and some 
half-models show that these boats commonly had a 




Plan of a Maine Hampton Bo.\t of 1879, Built at Phippsburg, Maine. Lines taken off builder's half-model 
USNM 54484, the oldest of the type yet found. 



This model is less sharp at deck forward and not so 
wall sided forward as later boats of this type whose 
half-models are in the Watercraft Collection. 

Scale of model 1 inch to the foot, for a boat meas- 
uring, to inside of plank, about 21 feet 10 inches at 
gunwale moulded length, 7 feet 11 inches moulded 
beam, 3 feet 9 inches moulded depth, rabbet to gun- 
wale, 22 feet 5 inches overall length, and 3 feet 9 
inches draft at post. 

Given by Charles H. Mclntire, Phippsburg, Maine, 
1879. 



flat, raking, and rather heart-shaped transom with 
the rudder hung outboard. The rigged model some- 
what resembles the builder's half-model (usnm 
311150, p. 257) of the Egretta, which has a counter. 

The model shows a U-shaped seat at the stern, 
ballast platformed over, and a fish-room made with 
pen-boards amidships. The rig is that of a spritsail 
jib-and-mainsail boat, with a large rather square- 
headed spritsail having no boom but a short club 
at the clew, and a jib set up on a bowsprit. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; for a boat 
21 feet at gunwale, 6 feet 3 inches beam, 3 feet 6 



255 




Maine Hampton Boat Under Sail, about 1890. 
{Photo courtesy Albert Barnes and the Mariners' Museum, 

J\ewport News, J'irginia.) 



inches depth, 3 feet draft with ijoard raised, bowsprit 
outboard of stem 5 feet 6 inches, mast 20 feet 6 inches, 
sprit 16 feet, and club 2 feet 6 inches. 
Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

MAINE HAMPTON BOAT, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 57031 

This model represents a variation of the Maine 
Hampton boat from Monhegan Island. It differs 
from boats of this class in other areas of its range 
in having the counter stern and elliptical transom 
seen in half-model usnm 57032 instead of the usual 
hull profile shown in half-models usnm 54484 and 
311151; probably the counter was employed most 
commonly when these boats were built as pleasure 
craft. 

The model shows a vessel with a sharp entrance, 
the greatest beam on deck well abaft midlength and 
the run long and fine. The sheer is marked, the 
keel is made of plank tapering each way from amid- 



ships, where it is widest, and straight in profile with 
strong drag. The post is raked and there is a counter 
of moderate length finishe'd with a raking elliptical 
transom like that of a contemporary fishing schooner 
(usually, the::e boats had a raking flat heart-shaped 
transom, with the rudder hung outboard). The 
stem is upright and bold. The midsection shows a 
rising floor, very hollow at garboard, a high and 
hard bilge, and an upright topside, the forward 
sections near the bow markedly wall sided, while 
aft the sections are strongly Y-shaped. 

The rig shown consists of two spritsails, the foresail 
the largest and loose-footed. The mainsail is boomed. 
Many boats, as in the model, were fitted with a light 
bowsprit that could be imshipped; on it was set 
a jib in fine weather. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot. The boat 
represented is about average in size for her date — 
20 feet 6 inches at gunwale, 6 feet beam, 2 ftet 9 
inches draft with centerboard raised, mainir.ast 
al)o\-e thwart 1 3 feet 6 inches, foremast above thwart 
19 feet, bowsprit outside rabbet 5 feet, main boom 
9 feet. The boat shows the typical arrangement 
described under half-model usnm 54484. 



256 



This model was obtained at Friendship Maine, 
1883, from FrankHn Thompson, and was given by 
U. S. Fish Commission. Restored by Merritt Edson, 
1958. 

MAINE HAMPTON BOAT, about 1900 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311150 

Egretta 

The Hampton boat Eoretta was built from this model 
by Frank Johnson at Bailey's Island, Maine, about 
1900, and anotiier boat was later built from her 
moulds. 

The model, which represents a somewhat larger 
Hampton boat than was usual in Casco Bay, is made 
to a scale of Y^ inch to the foot, giving a vessel 27 feet 
2% inches overall, 8 feet 6^2 inches moulded beam 
and 8 feet 7, '4 inches extreme beam, and drawing 
about 2 feet 9 inches with centerboard raised. The 
Egrelta carried the usual Hampton boat 2-mast sprit- 
sail rig without jila. The boats from this model were 
clench-built. 

The half-model shows the overhanging counter 
which some Hamptons had as early as 1882; it repre- 
sents moulded lines and shows the exaggerated sharp- 
ness of the bow at plank-sheer that usually character- 
ized the Casco Bay Hampton boat. The entrance is 
long and sharp with rather wall-sided sections well 
forward and the greatest beam at the gunwale well 
abaft midlength, but moving forward at each level 
line in the model as the rabbet is approached; the 
total shift of greatest beam between the lowest lift, or 
level line, in the model and the greatest beam at gun- 
wale being 4 feet 6 inches toward the stern. The run 
is long and very fine, beginning well forward of amid- 
ships. The stem profile is rounded and the sternpost 
and transom both rake, the transom, which has the 
greater rake, is somewhat U-shaped and flat across. 
These boats had foredecks 8 feet long and after decks 
4 feet long; the side decks were about 12 inches, with 
the cockpit thus formed having a low oval coaming. 
The rudder post came up through the counter in the 
after deck. This model shows the last developments 
in the Casco Bay sailing Hampton boats. 

Given by Frank Johnson, Bailey's Island, Maine, 
1936. 

MAINE HAMPTON BOAT, 1900-01 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311151 

This half-model represents two boats, said to have 
been smart sailers, built at Orr's Island, Maine, for 



the Casco Bay fishery. They were modeled by Her- 
bert Wilson and built by Dennis Wilson, it is believed 
in 1900-01. 

This half-model represents the common type of 
fishing Hampton boat of Casco Bay, having a straight, 
rather upright stem, and a raking post and flat tran- 
som with the rudder hung outboard. The sheer is 
lively and the keel is a plank on the flat, wide amid- 
ships and tapered toward each end. The centerboard 
is slightly forward of midlength. The mid.section has 
hollow floors and a firm bilge, the forward sections 
being rather U-shaped; the run is long and extraor- 
dinarily fine, beginning well forward of amidships. 
The greatest beam at gunwale is well abaft mid- 
length, but moves progressively forward as the lifts, or 
level lines, approach the rabbet; this is an exaggerated 
shift, the distance from greatest beam at gunwale to 
that at the lowest level line being about 10 feet. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, to repre- 
sent the moulded form of a boat approximately 22 
feet long, 1){ feet beam, and drawing nearly 3 feet 
with centerboard raised. 

Given by Dennis Wilson, Orr's Island, Maine, 1936. 

NEW ENGLAND BOAT, 1876 
Rigged Model, usnm 26585 

Little Maud 

This model represents a variation in the Hampton 
boat that was once common on the New England 
coast from Massachusetts to eastern Maine. This 
style of Hampton boat, with its caravel-planked hull, 
had a short vogue. The hull had much the appear- 
ance of the contemporary fishing schooner, which 
prol^ably influenced the type. It reputedly sailed well 
and was seaworthy. Boats of this model but with flat 
heart-shaped transoms and rudder outboard, and with 
rather upright, straight stems and lapstrake hull, 
were once ired at Rockport, Massachusetts, foi the 
lobster fishery. 

These vessels had a strong sheer, straight keel with 
some drag, raking straight or flaring stem, raking post, 
and V-shaped transom with rudder post through its 
heel, or a very short counter with elliptical transom. 
The entrance was sharp, long and often rather hellow 
at the forefoot. The run was long and very fine. The 
midsection was farmed with a straight, rising tloor, 
high and moderately high bilge, and tunible-home in 
the topside. 

The model shows a long foredeck, oval cotkpii,or 
standing room, short after deck; steering witli a tiller. 
The rig is that of the Haniplon boat — two spritsails, 



257 



the foresail the larger and loosefooted, the main with 
boom. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot; this boat was 19 
feet 2 inches at gunwale, 6 feet 6 inches beam, fore- 
mast 13 feet 6 inches above deck, mainmast 12 feet 9 
inches above thwart. The bald clipper bow of the 
model was very popular in small New England fishing 
boats, between 1865 and 1885, even when no bow- 
sprit was employed. 

Given by Johnson & Young, lS7f). Restored by 
Merritt Edson, 1958. 



GLOUCESTER WATERBOAT, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 56937 



Aqua Pura 



Cat-rigged keel waterboats of the type illustrated 
by this model were used to supply the fishing schooners 
at Gloucester, Massachusetts. Water was carried in 
wooden tanks below deck amidships and some boats 
also carried ice in a hold abaft the tanks. Water was 
transferred by manually operated force-pumps placed 
on deck. The boats ustially had no cabin or trunk, 
as they did not leave the harbor and usually had a 



Gloucester Waterboat Aqua 
Pura, built in 1883. This rigged 
model, USNM 56973, shows very 
well the typical deck arrangement 
and rig. {Smithsonian photo ^^6y-j-m.) 



permanent station at a wharf, leaving only upon 
rcc[ucst to supply a vessel with either water or ice. 
The boats, which ranged in length hum about 35 to 
45 feet, usually carried two men and were handv 
craft, designed to work among the wharves and in the 
crowded slips and harbor. Most of the waterboats 
were built at Essex, Massachusetts; similar boats 
were also employed at Boston to supply its fishing 
fleet. 

The model represents a waterboat having a sharp 
and moderately long entrance, a rather short but 
well formed run, straight keel of moderate drag and 
with a skeg and more than average deadwood outside 
the rabbet, flush decked and with log rail, moderate 
draft, good sheer, upright curved stem, and a round 
fantail stern like that of a tug. The midsection shows 
a rising straight floor carried well out, a firm, roimd 






258 



bilge, and an upright side with heavy guard at gun- 
wale. The mast is stepped right forward. A hatch is 
shown on port side to the Ibrehoid. a hatchway to 
tanks amidship, pumps, and a cockpit for the helms- 
man. There arc heavy mooring cavels along the deck 
at rail for tying the boat to vessels when supplying 
them. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; the vessel 
represented was 37 feet on deck, 12 feet Ijcam, length 
of mast above deck 39 feet, boom 37 feet, and gaff 
16 feet. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

PURSE-SEINE BOAT, about 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 25826 

This model is of a purse-seine boat of the form em- 
ployed in the New England mackerel fishery about 



The model is painted in the style of 1875, bright 
green bottom, white topsides, sheer strake set of!" with 
beading, red and yellow. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 36 
feet long, 8 feet beam, depth amidships 2 feet 6 inches 
and at ends 4 feet 6 inches, length of oars 12 feet and 
of steering sweep 18 feet. 

These boats rowed easily, turned quickly, and could 
be towed at speeds of 10 to 12 miles per hour with 
safety. Later boats were fuller forward at gunwale 
and more straight-sided in plan. 

Gi\en liy U. S. Fish Commission. 

NEW ENGLAND SAILING DORY, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 160179 

This is a model of the sailing dories once employed 
in the shore fisheries in the vicinity of Rockport. Massa- 




New England Sailing-Rowing Dory, 1880-83, Employed in the Shore Fisheries. Rigged model USISTM 
160179, with centerboard case abaft the second thwart. These boats were rigged with one mast and a spritsail 
and jib or with two masts and leg-of-mutton sails. (Smithsonian photo ^^SgS-c.) 



1875-80. It is said that the boats were developed 
from whaleboats and were at first 28 feet long. The 
length was increased to 35 to 38 feet in 1875 and to 40 
feet in 1882. The lioats were lightly but strongly 
built and in general, resembled burdensome whale- 
boats except that the seine boat was usually wider aft, 
to carry the seine near the stern. 

The model shows a double-ended, caravel-planked. 
keel, open boat having slightly rockered keel, curved 
stem and sternpost, strong sheer, the hull wide and 
full at gunwale aft and sharper forward, and an easy 
and sharp entrance and run, the latter the fuller. The 
midsection shows a slightly rising floor, easy turn of 
bilge, and a slightly flaring topside. Fitted with row- 
locks, purse seine, pursing gear, oars, oar holders, pump, 
towing link, six thwarts, roller, and the usual gear of a 
mackerel seine boat about to leave the schooner. 



chusctts. They were rigged with a sprit-mainsail 



and 

a jib tacked to the stemhead, but some of the Cape 
Ann dories in the 1890's used a leg-of-mutton main- 
sail instead of the spritsail. These boats, considered 
fast and seaworthy for their size, were worked by one 
or two fishermen for short periods, but in exposed 
waters. 

The boat represented was of the dory type having a 
narrow fliat bottom with some fore-and-aft camlier, a 
raking and very slightly curved stem that is straighter 
than usual in this type of vessel, a raking "tomb- 
stone" transom with rudder hung outboard, strong 
sheer, and a sharp entrance and run. The lapstrake- 
planked topsides are heavily flaring and nearly 
straight. The model shows a centerboard amidships, 
washboards along the sides, a short bow deck with 
coamings, three thwarts with pen boards, and oars. 



259 



The mast step and clamp are not shown, and the 
rig is omitted. 

The scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, giving a 
dory 23 feet on the gunwales, 5 feet 3 inches beam, 
and 2 feet depth. 

Given by Captain J. \V. Collins. 

NEW ENGLAND SAILING EXDRY, 1880-83 
Rigged Model, usnm 57573 

This large rigged model represents a class of rowing- 
sailing dories once common in the New England shore 
fisheries, particularly in the vicinity of Cape Ann, 
Massachusetts. They had the reputation of being 
seaworthy and swift. The range of length was from 
about 17 feet to 24 feet at gunwale; the boats were 
fitted with centerboards and were either rigged with 
one mast and a loose-footed spritsail and a jib tacked 
to the stemhead, or with two masts and leg-of-mutton 
sails having high-cocked booms and moderate hoists. 

The model shows an open lapstrake dory having 
rather narrow flat Ijottom slightly rockered fore-and- 
aft, flaring and straight topsides, a sharp entrance 
with a raking and slightly curved stem, a narrow 
V-shaped transom sharply raked and with the rudder 
hung on it outboard, and a strong, lively sheer. 

The boat is fitted to row with two pairs of oars. 
There are washboards along the sides and short fore- 
deck, three thwarts with pen boards under and mast 
holes in the two forward thwarts; the after hole is for 
a sloop rig and the forward hole to allow the mast to 
be shifted forward and the jib omitted (the usual heavy 
weather rig). There is a centerboard amidships. 
The boat has three strakes to a side. 

Scale of the model is 4 inches to the foot (one-third 
full size); the dory was 21 feet on the gunwale, 5 feet 
beam, 2\% inches depth amidships, and length of 
mast 14 feet. The side frames in some of these boats 
were curved rather than straight, as in the model, 
which appears to represent a "stock," or standard, 
sailing dory from a once-noted boat builder, Higgins 
& Gifl^ord, Gloucester, Massachusetts. 

Given by Captain J. \V. Collins. 

NANTUCKET DORY, 1876 
Rigged Model, usnm 25657 

This model represents the type of dory once used 
at Nantucket and nearby Cape Cod by clam diggers 
and alongshore fishermen. It was a dory of small 
size and light weight in order to allow the iioat to 
be pulled over the flats by one man. 

The model shows an open dory having a strong 
sheer, a narrow, flat ijottom with some fore-and-aft 



rocker, raking stem and V-shaped transom, and 
flaring straight sides lapstrake planked. It was in- 
tended for rowing only. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot; the dory was 
16 feet 6 inches overall, beam 4 feet at gunwales 
and 2 feet 6 inches on the bottom, and about 18 
inches deep. 

Given by W. H. Chase, 2nd. 

FISHING DORY, 1876 
Rigged Model, usnm 55792 

This is a model of the standard or "stock" fishing 
dory carried by fishing schooners in the period 1 860- 
95, usually referred to as a "15-foot dory." 

The model shows a rowing boat of the dory form 
having a rather narrow flat bottom with slight 
fore-and-aft camber, straight flaring sides planked 
lapstrake, strong sheer, raking and slightly curved 
stem, raking V-shaped transom, very narrow at the 
bottom, wider at the gunwale and "tombstone" 
shaped, and fitted with movable thwarts to allow 
the dory to be nested on the deck of a fishing schooner, 
by stowing one inside another. 

These boats usually had three sets of tholes and 
three thwarts, in the foremost of which was a mast 
step. A small spritsail was sometimes rigged, and 
when loaded and under sail in a fresh wind, the dory 
skillfully handled could be worked to windward after 
a fashion, even though without a keel or centerboard. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, providing a 
boat 18 feet 6 inches on the gunwale, 15 feet on the 
bottom, 5 feet beam, and 24 inches depth. 

Given by Starling & Stevens, boatlmilders, Ferry- 
ville, Maine. 

SCHOONER'S YAWL BOAT, 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 25000 

The yawl i)oat was emjjloyed on coasting schooners 
throughout their existence in the trade; yawls were 
also carried by most fishing schooners until the period 
1875-85, when they were almost entirely replaced 
with the dory. In fishing schooners, until about 1866, 
the stern davits were usually wood; by 1870 iron davits 
were being fitted to all new schooners and also to 
coasters. The yawls varied in model and size to fit 
their work and the ideas of the individual builder. 
In many localities along the coast these boats were a 
standard production of the boat shops. 

The model represents a typical yawl of a New Eng- 
land fishing schooner or coaster of about 1855-70. 
It shows a caravel-planked open boat having a straight 



260 




New England Shore Fishery Scene, 1862. A keel 
New England 2-niasted lobster boat is in the fore- 
ground. Dories and a spritsail rigged skiff are on 
the beach. {Smithionian photo ^^ycjo-j.) 

keel with skeg, a curved raking stem, a raking flat and 
heart-shaped transom, sharp entrance, easy run, and 
strong sheer. The beam is great and is carried \\ell 
aft; the gunwale is full at bow to give flaring forward 
sections. The midsection is formed with a rising 
straight floor, rather slack bilge, and flaring topside. 
There is a good deal of wood outside the keel rabbet. 

The rudder is hung outboard and fitted with a steer- 
ing yoke; the model has fi\e thwarts and stern sheets. 
Square tholes are shown. Boats of this type were usu- 
ally fitted to sail as well as to row; the usual rig was a 
loose-footed spritsail, but other rigs were employed, 
particularly the boomed gaff-sail. 

Scale of model is 2 inches to the foot, for a boar 20 
feet on the gimwales. 6 feet beam, and 2 feet 6 inches 
rabbet to gun\vale. The model is of a large yawl, 
the range of length being from 16 to 22 feet; 18 feet 
was a common length on fishing schooners. 

Given by Cragin & Sheldon, boatljuilders, Boston, 
Massachusetts. 



BOSTON FISHING CUTTER, 1890 
Rigged Model, usnm 57131 

This model of an improved Irish fishing cutter such 
as was used at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1857 to 
about 1906, represents a more finished design than 
most of the Irish cutters but shows the general features 
of their design. This type of sailing fishing boat, in- 
troduced at Boston in 1857 by Patrick Gannon, a 
boatbuilder from County Galway in Ireland who had 
settled at Boston, was the old Galway hooker, a cutter 
having a good turn of speed. The Boston boats were 
variously called 'Trish boats," "Boston hookers," and 
■"dundavoes." As the years passed, the Irish boat 
changed in details from the old Galway hooker, de- 
veloping a sharper entrance, a straighter and more 
upright stem, and an improved rig. The Boston 
boats were often swift sailers, seaworthy and weatherly, 
though sometimes roughly built and finished. 

A cuddy deck forward is entered through a com- 
panionway. Abaft the break, these boats were open, 
with the after end partitioned off with pen-boards to 
form a steering well there, with a large fish pen amid- 
ships. The stone or iron ballast was floored over in 
the open part of the l)oat, and the fish pen was often 



261 



covered with hatch boards when making a passage. 
The standing room aft was often fitted with side seats 
or thwarts. Though the model does not ha\'e them, 
these lioats usually had low monkey rails of plank-on- 
edge from the stern forward to a point abreast the 
mast. One characteristic of these i)oats was a hawse 
chock, often with an outward curve, bolted to the 
outside of the log rail forward and to one side of the 
stemhead; the model-builder has not shown this but 
has shown in its place, farther aft, a cathead ne\er 
used on this craft. 

The rig is that of a cutter with reefing bowsprit, 
carrying a gaff-mainsail laced to the boom, forestay- 
sail and a jib set flying on an iron traveler on the 
bowsprit. No topsails were commonly fitted nor were 
topmasts employed. The bowsprit in the model is to 
port of the stemhead, which stands high above rail. 

The model shows very well the hull characteristics 
of an ideal boat of the type, having strong sheer, a 
straight keel with mtich drag, straight and rather up- 
right stern with almost angular forefoot, raking post 
with rudder hung outboard, transom flat and heart- 
shaped, sharp entrance, long and fine run, and mid- 
section with rising straight floor, high and rather hard 
bilge, tumble-home topsides. In the model the 
tuml)le-home is perhaps less marked than in some of 
the actual boats, though wall-sided boats may be seen 
in old photographs of the Boston Irish boats at T- 
Wharf (in the VVatercraft Collection). The boats 
steered with a short, heavy tiller. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot. The boat shown 
would have been 36 feet at gunwale, 29 feet on the 
keel rabbet, 9 feet 3 inches beam, drawing 5 feet 8 
inches at post and 2 feet 9 inches forward, mast 34 
feet 9 inches above deck, bowsprit 10 feet 6 inches 
outside the stem, main boom 32 feet 6 inches, and 
main gaff 21 feet 3 inches. 

Given by Captain J. \V. Collins. 

WHALEBOAT, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 57199 

This is a miniature of a ftilly equipped New Bedford 
whaleboat of the old 30-foot length class employed 
in the Arctic whaling, 1860-85. These boats, built at 
New Bedford, Massachusetts, were batten-seam 
caravel-planked hulls having very light and strong 
construction. The topsides were usually lapstrake. 
The length varied from 28 to 30 feet at gunwale. 
They were noted for their good qualities under oars 
and sail and in all conditions. 



The model shows a double-ended, open, caravel- 
planked, centerboard, rowing-and-sailing i:)oat having 
a straight keel, raking and curved stem and stern 
posts, strong sheer, sharp entrance and sharper rim, 
rising floor, round and easy bilge, and flaring topside. 
The boat has five thwarts, one mast, and a boomed 
gaff-sail and a jib tacked to the stem. A timberhead 
or "loggerhead" was placed aft near the stern to 
belay the harpoon line. 

Scale of model is 2 inches to the foot; the boat was 
30 feet at gunwale, 6 feet 6 inches beam, and 2 feet 
3 inches depth amidships keel to gunwale. The 
mast was 24 feet 4]^ inches in total length, main 
boom 19 feet 6 inches, gaflF 13 feet 3 inches, oars 18 
feet, and steering sweep 21 feet. These boats carried 
a large spread of sail, as they could use the weight of 
their crew when under sail to keep the boat on its feet. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

BLOCK ISLAND BOAT, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 25825 

The old Block Island boats, known as "cowhorns," 
were noted for their seaworthiness. Originally built 
to be launched from beaches, they were small craft 
from about 18 to 26 feet long but, from the middle of 
the 19th century on, larger boats, up to about 40 feet 
gunwale length, were built, as these could work out of 
the partial harbors built at various times prior to com- 
pletion of the "Government harbor" in 1873. Tradi- 
tion claims that only one of these boats was lost, but 
the Customhouse records show that two were lost or 
wrecked: the Vanderbilt was lost in November 1871, 
and the mail boat Thomas J. Lynch was wrecked in 
1889 on Peaked Rock off Point Judith. Considering 
the nimibcr of these boats and the exposed waters in 
which they worked, this record is an excellent one. 

The rig of these boats was 2-masted, with the fore- 
mast stepped in the eyes of the boat; the masts were 
usually of nearly equal height and with some rake. 
The sails had short gaflTs with single halyards; the 
foresail was Ijoomless and overlapped the mainsail; the 
latter had a boom but the foot of the sail was not 
laced. The boats were fitted to row. 

The model represents a typical Block Island boat of 
the small class in 1875; it illustrates a lapstrake, 
doui)le-ended, open keel boat having a straight keel 
with marked drag, raking straight sternpost with rud- 
der hung outboard, raking and slightly cur\ed stem 
with prominent stemhead, strong sheer, upright wash- 
boards along the gunwales for about two-thirds the 
boat's length, and fitted with thwarts and stern sheets. 



262 



The midsection shows a sharply rising floor and very 
slack bilge, with sharply flaring topside — the section 
is an almost perfect V. The entrance is sharp, as is 
the run, the latter being the finer of the two. 

Scale of the model is cataloged as ]i inch to the foot, 
which would produce a vessel measuring 33 feet at 
gunwale, 13 feet beam, 4 feet 6 inches depth to gun- 
wale, and washboards 12 inches high. Spar dimen- 
sions at this scale would be foremast above gunwale 
34 feet 3 inches, mainmast 22 feet 6 inches, fore gaff 5 
feet, main gaff 4 feet 3 inches, and main boom 1 9 feet 
8 inches. These spar dimensions show a much shorter 
mainmast and longer gaffs than appears to have been 
usual; a sailmaker's drawing and old photographs 
indicate that these dimensions in a boat of this ap- 
proximate length commonly were mainmast above 
gunwale 32 feet 6 inches, foremast 34 feet, fore gaff 
and main gaff 4 feet, and main boom 20 feet. Due to 

Eastern Catboats and Block Island Boats in 
harbor, about igoo. {Smithsonian photo ^6^g/-b, 
Courtesy of the late John Howard Benson.) 



the drag of the keel the mainmast appeared shorter 
than it actually was, when the l)oats were afloat. 

Details of this model, which include oyster tongs, 
suggest the cataloged scale is in error and the model 
may be to a scale of % inch to the foot, making it 
represent a boat 22 feet 3 inches overall, 8 feet 8 
inches beam, about 3 feet 3 Inches depth, foremast 22 
feet 6 inches above the rail cap, mainmast 18 feet 
(it should be 21 feet 6 inches), main l)oom 13 feet, and 
gaffs 3 feet (they should be 2 feet) . Boats of this size 
were once common in this type. 

Made and given by Captain H. C. Chester. Re- 
stored by Mcrritt Edson, 1958. 

NO MAN'S LAND BOAT, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 25898 

The No Man's Land l)oat, also known as the Vine- 
yard Sound boat, was once a common form of beach- 
ing boat on the south side of Cape Cod. It varied 
somewhat in model. Originally it was a light. 





M^. ' >«ajigr^^w 



263 



lapstrake-planked. ojjen l)oat with a rather deep keel 
outside the rabbet; l)y 1880 it was commonly being- 
fitted with a centerbcard placed a little forward of 
amidships; and the last sailing model was caravel- 
planked, half-decked, and unsuited for beach work. 
The later style, developed at Martha's Vineyard in the 
1890's, was deeper and more powerful, beaching not 
being required. It carried two masts and small sprit- 
sails, and was fitted to work under oars. 

This model shows the early keel fishing boat in- 
tended for beach work and designed to sail well in 
strong winds and rough water. It is a double-ended. 
lapstrake, open boat having a straight keel, straight 
raking post, slightly curved raking stem, strong sheer, 
sharp entrance, fine run, and the midsection formed 
with straight rising floor, firm round bilge, and flaring 
topside. The rudder is hung outboard on the post. 

The rig is a 2-masted spritsail form; a tall foremast 
is stepped in the eyes of the boat and a short mainmast 
is stepped a little abaft midlength. The spritsails arc 
rather square headed and loose footed; the foresail 
overlaps the main; and the latter has a short clul) at 
its clew. 

Scale of model is 1 'o inch to the foot: the boat would 
be 22 feet 8 inches at gunwale, 8 feet 10 inches beam, 
4 feet 6 inches from Ijottom of keel to gunwale, the 
foremast 15 feet and the mainmast 13 feet 4 inches 
above thwart. This model appears to have been 
somewhat deeper than was average: more emphasis 
jjeing placed on sailing than beaching qualities in this 
exainple. 

Given by Captain William H. C;ie\eland. 

NO MAN'S LAND BOAT, about 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54477 

This half-model was made about 1880 and from it 
a number of beach-fishing boats, employed on the 
island of No Man's Land as well as at Nantucket and 
Martha's \'ineyard and along the Cape Cod shore 
in the vicinity, were built by James Beetle at New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Boats of a similar type were 
Iniilt at Martha's Vineyard, Fairhaven, and along 
the shores of Vineyard Sound. 

The model represents a double-ended open boat 
with straight keel, strong sheer, curved stein, and a 
straight, raking post. The beain is carried well 
fore-and-aft, and the greatest beam is about at mid- 
length. The floors are rising and the turn of the 
bilge is rather hard, with the topsides slightly flaring. 
The entrance is sharp and slightly hollow abaft the 
stem, and the run is easy, with a marked hollow just 



forward of the post. The centerboard slot, in these 
boats, was usually in the garboard to prevent beach 
pebbles from jamming the case during beaching or 
latmching. 

The boats measured 17 feel ]-j inch moulded length, 
5 feet 8-''4' inches moulded beam, and 2 feet 2% inches 
moulded depth: the model is on a scale of 1 inch to 
the foot. 

Given i3y James Beetle, ijoatbuilder. New Bedford, 
Massachusetts. 




No Man's Land Boat L'nder Sail. This recently 
restored boat has proved to be a fast sailer. {Photos 
courtesy oj Hubert Baker.) 



264 



VINEYARD HAVEN HALF-SKIPJACK, about 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160122 

This half-model represents several boats built at 
Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts, about 1885, for 
shore fishing. They appear to have been experi- 
mental and combined a round-bottom sloop hull 
forebody with the V-bottom and chine of a skipjack, 
or "corner boat" as the type was called at Province- 
town. The V-bottom hull form seems to have ap- 
peared on Narragansett Bay and spread eastward 



form was very economical to l)uild. These vessels 
used a jib and mainsail rig. Some boats built on the 
model were lapstrake planked, or "clinker built," 
also called "clench built." 

The half-model represents a shoal ccnterboard 
sloop having forward a round bottom of the normal 
form, with nearly straight and upright stem, straight 
keel with some drag, and skeg aft; and a V-bottom 
beginning slightly forward of midlcngth and ending 
in a V-shaped transom flat across and set at a sharp 



Fishing C.atbo.at of the type used 
on the Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island coast, 1875-80. Rigged 
model USNM 25026. {Smithsonian 
photo 4^6oj-h.) 




soon after the Civil War, but it also appeared in 
southern waters in the 1870"s along the Gulf and, 
Florida coasts. The origin of the V-bottom modr' is 
obscure. Apparently the half-model was an attempt 
to secure the seaworthiness of a round bottom for- 
ward with the sail carrying power of a wide V- 
bottom aft, for it is doubtful that this combination of 



rake, tlie rudder stock being inboard and entering 
hull just forward of the heel of the transom. The 
sheer is strong; the sternpost rakes; and the midsection 
is V-bottom with a straight, rising floor right out to 
the angular bilge, and above this chine the topsides 
arc slightly convex and flaring, the flare being carried 
aft to the transom. The forebody is somewhat U- 



265 



shaped; the entrance is lone and sharp, with tlie 
greatest beam abaft midlength; and the run is short 
and rather full. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; at this 
scale the vessel would be about 21 feet on deck, 
7 feet 3 inches moulded beam, draft aft about 1 foot 
9 inches, 1 foot 1 inch forward, and centerboarcl 
6 feet long. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

EASTERN CATBOAT, 1875-80 
Rigged Model, usnm 25026 

Catboats of the type illustrated in this model were 
formerly used in the Massachusetts and Rhode Island 
shore fisheries from Narrangansett Bay to Cape Ann, 
with some \'ariation in model. The fishing cats were 
generally quite seaworthy and fast; their rig was 
smaller for their length than in the racing and 
pleasure -sailing catboats, and their hulls were usually 
better formed for rough water work. Catboats of the 
appearance of this model were particularly popular 
at Newport, Rhode Island, and in Massachusetts at 
Buzzard's Bay, Martha's \'ineyard, Nantucket. Fal- 
mouth, and to the eastward at Plymouth, Cohasset, 
Hingham. and in Boston harbor. In other ports 
the cats often had rather tipright flat transoms with 
the rudder hung outboard; this model of cat was 
particularly popular at Chatham, Cape Cod, and 
vicinity and became known as the "Cape cat.'' 
Usually the Chatham catboats were more powerful 
boats than the type shown in the model. 

This model is of a wide, centerboard catboat having 
a long, sharp entrance, rather long and very fine run, 
straight keel with some drag, skeg, upright post, 
raking V^ransom with rudder post through its heel, 
an upright and nearly straight stem, and strong sheer. 
The midsection shows a rising straight flooi, a high 
and rather hard bilge, and an upright or slightly 
flaring topside. The mast is stepped close to the 
stem, abaft this is a tnmk cabin and an oval cockpit 
in which are seats around the sides and after end 
(stone or iron ballast was stowed under the cockpit 
floor). The large centerboard is located amidships. 
Rigged without shrouds or stays pnd with a boomed 
gaff-sail. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 19 feet 9 inches on deck, 7 feet 6 inches 
beam, moulded depth amidships about 3 feet, mast 
standing above deck 19 feet 6 inches, boom 22 feet, 
and gaff 1 1 feet. 

The model represents a medium-size fishing catboat 



built about 1875; this type ranged in length from about 
18 to 25 feet, but catboats for use in the fishing-party 
business in the summer season were as large as 40 feet 
on deck, and the Cape cats commonly ranged from 
20 to 24 feet. Some of the eastern cats had counters 
which brought their deck length above the average, 
without a comparative increase in beam, depth, and 
waterline length. Catboats in the vicinity of Mar- 
tha's Vineyard often had live wells on each side of 
the centerboard case and some had these covered by 
a deck and hatch at gunwale height, so that the cockpit 
was separated from the cabin tnmk by a bridge deck, 
but the cockpit coaming usually enclosed the well 
hatches as well as the cockpit, which was not self- 
Ijailing though often watertight. Some cats had a 
plank bowsprit and forestay, often no more than a form 
of cathead to handle the ground-tackle, but some set a 
small jib on the forestay. The catboats of the 1870's 
and 1880's usually steered with a tiller but all large 
boats, and later boats above 25 feet in length, were 
steered with a wheel and gear. 
Gi\cn by \\'illiam H. Chase, Jr. 

PROVIDENCE or NEWPORT BOAT, about 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 29537 

This rigged model of a small, rowing-sailino, fishing 
boat represents a type, variously named Pro\idence 
River boat or Newpcrt boat, once popular on Narra- 
gansctt Bay, in Rhode Island, in the lobster and hook- 
and-line fisheries. 

The model shows a lapstrake, keel, rowing-and- 
sailing boat, open and with wide gunwale caps, hav- 
ing a sharp entrance and short run, a live well amid- 
ships, good sheer, straight keel and skeg, curved 
stem, raking transom with rudder outboard, and 
midsection with rising floor, easy bilge, and flaring 
topside. It is cat-rigged with the mast stepped in a 
thwart and a gafT-and-boom mainsail, and is fitted to 
row. A bowsprit and jib were added in light weather. 

Made by a prominent boatbuildcr, T. D. .Stoddard, 
of Newport, Rhode Island, it represents a boat built 
before 1876. Boats of this form and size, varying 
slightly in model and appearance, were built at 
Providence, Newport, Warren and Bristol; they ranged 
in length from about 1 1 feet to nearly 1 5 feet. 

Model represents the larger of the boats; scale is 
1 Jo inch to the foot, producing a boat 13 feet 6 inches 
long, 1 ] feet 8 inches on the straight part of the keel, 
and 5 feet 4 inches beam; the mast was 15 feet long. 

Given by J. M. K. Southwick. Restored by Merritt 
Edson, 1958. 



266 



"^mf /May,*, r**» 




fta, lie tmrtt y/// e/ 



NoANK Well-Smack Sloop Manhattan, built at Noank, Connecticut, in 1854 for the New York fisheries. Lines 
taken off builder's half-model USNM 160118. 



NOANK WELL-SMACK SLOOP, 1854 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 160118 

Manhattan 

The sloop-rigged well-smack Alanhattan was built 
from this model in 1854 at Noank, Connecticut, 
for local owners. Clipper built and intended as a 
swift sailer for use in the New York market fishery, 
she was similar to sloops such as the Pronto and 
Viva, built at New York by William H. Webb in 
1842 for the Havana, Cuba, fishery. Noank ship- 
builders had a great reputation for fine seagoing 
sloops, having built such craft for the fisheries and 
for whaling, sealing, and coastal trade since colonial 
times. The Manhattan was built at the time the large 
sloops were beginning to be replaced with schooners 
in the New York fisheries, and represents the final 
development of the Noank seagoing sloop model. 

Employed as smacks, these sloops had a fish well 
amidships and were rigged with a large gafT-mainsail 
and a single large jib, with gaff-topsail and jib topsail 
to be set in light weather. They also had a square 
course and small square topsail set flying, as in the 
New "\'ork pilot schooners. Some had flush decks 
and others low quarterdecks like that of the Man- 
hattan; earlier vessels had high quarterdecks like those 
of the North River sloops, and usually an open rail. 
These vessels were heavily sparred and canvassed. 

The half-model shows a keel, clipper sloop with 
straight sheer; a straight keel with some drag; raking 
post and stem; a short, sharj) entrance with the 
greatest beam well forward of midlength; and a 



long, lean run. The midsection shows a rising floor, 
rather hard bilge, and little tumble-home ai)ove. 
The head is long and pointed; the transom is square 
and raking. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, for a vessel 
47 feet 9 inches moulded length at rail, ai)out 44 feet 
9 inches between perpendiculars, 15 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, 5 feet 1 1 inches moulded depth, and 
drawing about 6 feet 4 inches at post and about 5 
feet forward. 

Given by L. D. Ashby of Noank, Connecticut. 

NOANK SLOOP, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 26809 

Sloops of the type and size represented by this model 
were employed in the lobster fishery on Long Island 
Sound from Saybrook to New London, Connecticut, 
and on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. The type 
is thought to have originated at Noank, Connecticut, 
and for that reason they were often called "Noank 
sloops" though built elsewhere. The majority of 
them were smacks between 18 and 30 feet long, with 
centerboard and on each side of the centerboard case 
a live well. They usually carried a jib-and-mainsail 
rig; a few of the larger boats carried gaff-topsails and 
jib topsails. Considered seaworthy, the type was 
noted for its .speed, and ijoats up to about 28 feet 
length were usually handled by one man. 

The model indicates a rather deep centerboard 
sloop having a straight keel with some drag, a curved 
and rather upright stem nearly straight above the 
load waterline, an upright post, and a skeg. The 



267 



stern is Ibniied with a strongly raking V-transom 
with the rudder stock Ijronght up through its heel, 
steering with a tiller. The sheer is great. The 
entrance is long and sharp, with some hollow at the 
forefoot; the run is of moderate length, with rather 
flat buttocks. The midsection is formed with a rising 
floor, moderately hard bilge, and flaring topside, the 
sections near the stern over the skeg having some 
hollow in the garboards. The boat shown was half- 
decked, with live wells on each side of the centerboard 
case; larger boats had trunk caisins forward, usually 
U "shaped so that, in plan, the cabin sides and 
coamings formed an oval. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot. The boat 
shown w'ould be 24 feet 6 inches at gunwale, 10 feet 
6 inches beam, 4 feet 6 inches from keel rabbet to 
gunwale amidships, and drew about 2 feet 6 inches 
with centerboard raised; bowsprit 9 feet outside the 
stem, mast 26 feet 6 inches abo\'e deck, main boom 
26 feet, and gaff 11 feet 6 inches. Boats up to about 
24 feet in length did not usually have shrouds, but 
the larger iaoats often had one or two on a side. The 
bowsprit was usually made of a wide plank and was 
hogged down outijoard the stem. The type remained 
in use in the commercial fisheries on the Sound until 
about 1914-15, particularly in the oyster fishery. 

Given by Captain H. C. Chester. Restored by 
Merritt Edson, 1958. 

MENHADEN CARRY-AWAY BOAT, 1865 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 54341 

This model represents the type of menhaden 
fishing boats used immediately after the Ci\'il War; 
these were soon replaced by small sloops, which as 
early as 1871 began to be replaced by steamers. 
It was employed to build tweKe boats at Greenport, 
Long Island, in 1865. The boats worked in "gangs" 
of three, with one of the three boats in the "gang" 
acting as seine boat, the other two as carry-away boats. 

The boats were open, double-ended caravel-built 
hulls, with one mast well forward: they had a gaff 
rig, the gaff rather short and the boom long. The 
boats ijuilt on this model were reported very fast 
sailers and stiff" when carrying sail in a breeze. It is 
said that the first boats to be employed in the men- 
haden fishery were the Block Island "cowhorns" 
and that this model represents the result of the ex- 
perience with Block Island boats. 

The half-model represents a wide, shoal, double- 
ended hull having strong sheer, a straight keel with 



some drag, and a strongly rounded stem and sternpost, 
with a curved rudder himg outboard on the latter. 
The midsection is formed with a slightly rising straight 
floor, and a slack, well-rounded bilge, with slightly 
flaring topsides. The bow sections flare somewhat 
and the after sections near the stern flare to a greater 
degree. The model resembles the whaleboat, or 
Gloucester seine boat, in profile but is more burden- 
some and wider than either. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, to measure 
about 35 feet 10 inches at the rail, 13 feet 10 inches 
moulded beam, 3 feet 8 inches moulded depth, and 
drawing aliout 3 feet 3 inches aft and 2 feet 8 inches 
forward. In lieu of a centerboard. the keel is quite 
deep ijelow the rabbet. 

Gi\'en by Charles A.Jackson. 

MENHADEN CARRY-AWAY SLOOP, 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 57029 

This model represents the small sloops that soon 
after the Civil War replaced the double-ender boats 
(shown by ijuilder's half-model usnm 54341) in the 
menhaden fishery on Long Island Sound. As with the 
double-enders. three such sloops made up a sailing 
gang, two boats usuallv working the purse seine and 
the third carrying away the catch to market or plant. 
By 1885 these gangs were oijsolete, and the men- 
haden steamers were driving the sloops out of the 
fishery. 

These sloops were shoal, yacht-like, centerboard 
craft ha\ing a long, sharp entrance, fine run, strong 
sheer, straight keel with some drag, upright post, 
strongly raking V-shaped transom with rudderpost 
passing through its heel, and a raking stem rabbet 
with longhead of moderate length. The midsection 
was formed with a slightly rising straight floor, low, 
round and firm liilge, and rather upright topside. 
Amidships was a cargo hold entered through a large 
hatch, aft was a small cai)in trunk, and forward of the 
mast a windlass. 

Scale of the model is '•> inch to the foot; at this scale 
the sloop shown would measure 43 feet 6 inches on 
deck, 14 feet beam, 3 feet 6 inches draught at post, 
hatchwav amidships 14 feet long and 8 feet wide, 
mainmast 45 feet 6 inches above deck, bowsprit 15 
feet outside rabbet at deck, topmast 22 feet 6 inches 
total length, main boom 44 feet, main gaff 21 feet, 
and sharpie skiff" 11 feet 9 inches long and 4 feet 
beam. 

The sloops carried a large gaff-mainsail, a jiij- 
headed gaff-topsail, a large single jib, and a jib topsail. 



268 




Centerboard Noank Si.oop of the 
type used in the lobster fishery on 
Long Island Sound, 1875 1900. 
Rigged model USNM 26809. 
(Smithsonian photo 4^6o^~d.) 



Often fast sailers, they were very similar to the center- 
board oyster sloops used on Narragansett Bay in the 
same period; some had the clipper bow shown in this 
model, others had straight and upright stems; some 
had the V-transom of the model, others had a short 
counter or fantail. The model represents a sloop 
steered with a tiller, but some employed steering gear 
and wheel. The sloops were commonly rather low- 
sided, the bulwarks were usually no more than log 
rails, and the centerboards were large. Usually each 
sloop could accommodate four men. 
Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

LONG ISLAND FISHING SLOOP, 1869 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315706 

A centerboard fishing sloop, name unknown, was 
built on this model by John Ewing, in 1869, in the 
vicinity of East Moriches, Long Island, New York. 
Sloops of this size and type usually had a large oval 
cockpit-cabin trunk arrangement and much re- 
sembled contemporary sloop yachts. They were fast, 
weatherly and very handy craft; in experienced hands 
they were seaworthy enough for the oyster and other 
inshore fisheries in which this sloop was employed. 

The half-model represents a wide, shoal, centerboard 
sloop having strong sheer, a straight keel with some 
drag, nearly vertical curved stem rabbet with rounded 



forefoot, raking post, and a sharply raking V-shaped 
transom. The entrance is long, sharp, and markedly 
hollow abaft the stem; the run is long, flat and fine. 
The greatest beam is at midlength, the model showing 
the "raking midsection" that permits maximum 
length in both run and entrance. The midsection 
shows a rising straight floor, a high, firm, round bilge, 
and a slightly flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot. The sloop 
had a moulded length on deck of 25 feet 9 inches, 
moulded beam of 9 feet 6 inches, and a moulded depth 
of 2 feet 7 inches. The frames were spaced 12 inches 
apart, the centerboard was 7 feet long, with the 
pivot about 7 feet 8 inches from the stem rabbet. 

Rigged with a single, large jib and a gaff-mainsail; 
the bowsprit was of plank and long outboard; the 
centerboard was on the centerline of the hull, and the 
stem was straight and unadorned. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 



LONG ISLAND FISHING SLOOP, 1889 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315696 



Estelle 



The centerboard fishing sloop Estelle was built on 
this model in the vicinity of Jamesport, Long Island, 
New York, in 1 889, by M. Corwin. The model is of a 



269 



type of sloop then popular in Great South Bay and 
elsewhere on Long Island for oyster tonging and other 
purposes. 

The half-model represents a shallow, wide, center- 
board sloop having graceful sheer, a straight keel with 
moderate drag, raking curved stem rabijet with the 
forefoot rounded in a hard curve, skeg aft having a 
raking post and the stern formed with a raking V- 
shaped transom, with only a short overhang beyond 
the sternpost. The entrance is rather short, but sharp 
with some hollow in the forefoot; the run is long and 
rather flat; the greatest beam is a little forward of 
midlength; the midsection is formed with a rising 
straight floor, a high firm bilge, and a slightly flaring 
topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a sloop 
with a moulded length at deck 26 feet 6 inches, 
moulded beam 10 feet, and moulded depth 2 feet 5 
inches. Model is made to deck. The sloop had low 
log rails, the centcrboard was on the centerline of the 
hull, and was about 6 feet long, with the pivot about 
10 feet from the forward end cf the deck. 

Sloops of this model usually had a plain, straight 
stem, but some had billet heads. They had an oval 
cockpit with a trunk forward; the mast was stepped 
well forward; and they carried a large, single jib, a 
gaff-mainsail and sometimes a gaff-topsail and jib 
topsail, both hoisted on a long pole head on the mast. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

LONG ISLAND FISHING SLOOP, about 1890 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315705 

A centerboard fishing sloop, name unknown, was 
built on this model about 1890 near East Moriches, 
Long Island, New York. 

The half-model is of a shoal, rather wide, center- 
board sloop having moderate sheer, a straight keel 
with some drag and a skeg aft, stem raijbet curved 
and somewhat raking, with a well rounded forefoot, 
and a round fantail counter stern overhanging the 
slightly raked sternpost on the skeg. The hull is 
formed with a raking midsection, giving a long, sharp 
entrance with marked hollow in the forefoot, and a 
rather long and straight run. The midsection shows 
a rising straight floor, a rather firm round bilge, and 
a slight tumble-home in the topside. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, for a moulded 
length at rail of 30 feet 2 inches, moulded beam 10 
feet 3 inches, and a movdded depth to rail 3 feet 3 
inches; the rail height is Gji inches amidships, 5% 



inches at stern, and 7}^ inches at bow. The center- 
Ijoard was on the center line of the hull and was about 
7 feet 6 inches long, with the fore end of the slot about 
10 feet 6 inches from the stem rabbet at rail. The 
sloop had a clipper bow with trails. It had a cockpit 
and was jib-and-mainsail rigged with a single, large 
jib and a gaff-mainsail. This type of sloop was very 
popular on the shores of Long Island and in New- 
York Bay in the 1880's and 1890's. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

FISHING LAUNCH, 1915 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315701 

A small fishing and general service launch was built 
on this model at East Moriches, Long Island, New 
York, by Otis A. Palmer, in 1915. In general, this 
model is similar in form to usnm 315702 by the 
same builder. 

The model shows a straight-sheered low-sided launch 
hull having a long, straight and flat run, the rabbet 
of the keel straight from the stern to a point about a 
third of the overall length from the stem, where the 
keel rabbet cambers moderately and fairs into a well 
rounded stem rabbet. The transom is flat, with a 
sharp tumble-home. The entrance is rather short and 
convex; the greatest beam is slightly forward cf 
midlength. Midsection shows a slightly rising straight 
floor, a full round bilge, and a flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a moulded 
length overall of 21 feet 8 inches, moulded beam 5 
feet 8 inches, and moulded depth 2 feet. The boat 
probably had a skeg; the rudder post was inboard of 
the top of the transom. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

FISHING LAUNCH, 1915-16 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315702 

A launch for fishing and general service was built 
on this model at the LI..S. Coast Guard station, .Smith's 
Point, Long Island, New York, by Otis .■\. Palmer, in 
1915-16. The launch was powered with a 4-cylinder 
Mora automobile engine and a 16-inch propeller. 
It was fast, and a number of similar design were built 
by Palmer. 

The model shows a long, low and rather narrow 
launch, much like some early racing launches, having 
straight sheer, a straight keel rabbet from the stern 
to a point about a third the length of the hull from 
the stem, where there is a gentle rocker to the heel of 



270 



the stem. The stem rabbet is curved and raking-, with 
a well rounded forefoot. The stern is formed by a flat 
transom having a marked tumble-home. The en- 
trance is long and convex, the run is long and very flat. 
The greatest beam on deck is about a third the length 
abaft the stem, and the midsection is formed wdth a 
straight, slightly rising floor, an easy turn of bilge, 
and a flaring topside. The dead rise dies out as it 
approaches the stern. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a moulded 
length overall of 27 feet 6 inches, moulded beam 6 
feet 1 inch, and a moulded depth 2 feet 1 inch. The 
boat had skeg and was built to 30 feet overall length 
by lengthening the spacing of the mould stations. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New York. 

SHARPIE LAUNCH, 1947 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315699 

Sharpie launches have had periods of popularity 
on the shores of Long Island and Connecticut. This 



half-model represents a 23}i>-fool sharpie launch de- 
signed in 1947 by Otis A. Palmer of East Moriches, 
Long Island. A number of launches of this type, 
which is cheap and eOkient and very suitable for 
fisheries in protected waters, have been built in this 
area. In 1949 Palmer built the Sassafras, 20 feet 
overall, for which a speed of 22 miles per hour was 
claimed; the engine was a 4-cylindcr 144-cubic-inch 
Scripps, the propeller a 13- .\ 8}^-inch narrow blade. 
Some of these boats have a trunk cabin forward. 

The half-model is of a square-sterned sharpie hull 
having moderate sheer, a rockered flat ijottom, raking 
and curved stem rabbet, and a flat transom set at 
slight rake. The entrance is long and sharp. The 
greatest beam on the Ijottom is slightly abaft mid- 
length, the greatest beam at gunwale a little forward 
of midlength. The boat is somewhat like a dory in 
general design. The midsection is formed with a flat 
bottom, an angular Ijilgc, and stronglv flaring straight 
sides. 



Centerboard Sloop used as car- 
r>'-away boat in the menhaden 
fishery on Long Island Sound in 
the I Syo's. Rigged model USNM 
57029. {Smithsonian jiholo ^j6o^-e.) 




271 



Scale of model is 1 inch lo (he foot, giving a moulcied 
length at gunwale 23 feet 4 inches, moulded beam at 
gunwale 7 feet 2 inches and at chine 4 feet 6 inches, 
and moulded depth 2 feet 9 inches. Width of bottom 
is 3 feet 8 inches at transom. 

Gift of Mrs. Otis A. Palmer, East Moriches, Long 
Island, New ^'ork. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY LOG CANOE, about 1875 
Rigged Model, usnm 25003 

This is a rather crude model of an early type 
Chesapeake Bay log canoe in which a keel was used 
instead of a centerboard; the model apparently 
represents a canoe, relatively small for the type, 
from the vicinity cf Tilghman's Island, Maryland. 
These canoes, built cf two or more logs hewn to 
shape and bolted together to form a shoal, double- 
ended, canoe-like hull and rigged in various fashions, 
were used for longing oysters, crabbing and fishing 
on the lower Chesapeake Bay. 

The model represents a double-ended, shoal- 
bodied hull having washboards along the sides, keel 
straight with much wood below the rabbet line, 
straight raking sternpost with rudder hung outboard, 
curved and slightly flaring stem, and a short bowsprit 
secured to the foredeck. Entrance and run are 
sharp, the run the finer of the two. Midsection 
formed with slightly rising straight floor, firm round 
bilge and slightly flaring topside. Rigged with small 
jib and two leg-of-mutton sails, of which the foresail 
is the more lofty; on sharply raking masts. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot; the canoe repre- 
.sented was 27 feet 6 inches long, 5 feet 3 inches beam, 
2 feet 9 inches height of side, foremast 20 feet 3 inches 
above thwart, mainmast 16 feet 3 inches. Boat 
shown with oars 9 feet long and tongs 17 feet long, 
with heads 2 feet wide. 

Given by T. B. Ferguson, Baltimore, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY LOG CANOE, about 1890 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312328 

Oyster Creek 

The standing-rig canoe Oyster Creek was built from 
this half-model on Taylor's Island, Maryland, by 
Joseph T. Spicer about 1890. This canoe was of log 
construction, and the half-model is made to meet the 
requirements of this mode of building, in that the 
lifts are vertical rather than, as in normal construc- 
tion, horizontal. There are three vertical lifts, indi- 
cating a "five-log canoe.'" with a center log and two 



wing logs on each side. The Oyster Creek was reputed 
to be a fast sailer on the wind and was employed in 
the oyster and crab fisheries. The canoes of this 
class were '"half-decked,"' having a long cockpit with 
narrow side decks and short end decks, and a cuddy 
in a small trunk forward; they were used in tonging 
and dredging oysters as well as for crabbing and 
transportation. 

The half-model indicates a canoe-like hull with a 
large centerboard. ha\ing a moderately sharp en- 
trance and a fine run; the midsection is slightly for- 
ward of midlength o\erall. The model shows a 
moderate sheer, straight keel, and a straight-raking 
post and stem. The midsection shows straight rising 
floors carried well out and a high and rather hard 
bilge. The Oyster Creek had a long, deep, and pointed 
head like a bugeye and. according to the donor's 
description, a small trunk cabin forward. She was 
rigged with two leg-of-mutton sails, the fore the 
larger, and a single large jib hanked to a stay set up 
on a short ijowsprit. 

Scale of the half-model is ^i inch to the foot. The 
model scales 40 feet at gunwale, 8 feet 4 inches ex- 
treme beam, and 2 feet 9 inches rabbet to gunwale. 

Given by James K. Spicer, Taylor's Island, Dor- 
chester County, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY BUGEYE, SCHOONER- 
RIGGED, 1860-85 
Rigged Model, usnm 42757 

This model represents an early bugeye hull with 
schooner, or "square rig," instead of the standard leg- 
of-mutton rig. Schooner-rigged bugeyes appear to 
have had a period of great popularity on the Chesa- 
peake from 1870 to 1885, and were considered to be 
faster sailers than those with the leg-of-mutton sail 
plan. To carry the schooner rig the bugeye hull had 
to be powerful and stiff, and as the cost was the greater, 
the leg-of-mutton eventually replaced it, though a few 
bugeyes retained the square rig until recent years. 

This model illustrates one of these vessels employed 
in the oyster fishery, complete with winches, or "wind- 
ers," and with all sails set: large jib, foresail, mainsail, 
main gaff-topsail, and main-topmast staysail. It 
shows a double-ended hull having marked sheer, 
straight keel with some drag, raking post and stem, 
and longhead. Midsection with slight rise of floor, low 
and well-rounded bilge, and nearly upright topside. 
The bow is sharp and the run fine, the latter a little 
longer and sharper than the entrance. The model 
appears to be intended to represent a centerboard 



272 



boat, though some early bugeyes, like the log canoes, 
had keels instead of centerboards. This model is of 
the period where a keel might have been employed. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot: the vessel 
would measure 48 feet at rail, 12 feet beam, and 4 
feet in depth; bowsprit 13 feet 6 inches long outside 
knightheads, foremast 38 feet and mainmast 38 feet 
6 inches above deck, main-topmast 7 feet 6 inches 
total length, main boom 25 feet, main gaflf 1 1 feet 6 
inches, fore boom 16 feet 9 inches, and fore gafT 11 
feet. 

Like most of her class this \essel had log rails and 
prominent knightheads. 

Given by T. B. Ferguson. Restored by Eugene 
Beach, 1958. 



decked, is of a bugeye though the size represents that 
of a canoe. 

The model shows a double-ended hull ha\'ing a 
straight keel, raking sternpost with rudder hung out- 
board on it, raking stem with a long head, marked 
sheer, sharp entrance, and a long and rather easy run. 
The beam is greatest forward of midlength, and the 
midsection shows a rising floor, very easy and slack 
bilge, and a somewhat flaring topside. The keel out- 
side the rabbet, is very deep (1 foot along the bottom) 
and takes the place of the later centerboard. The 
masts rake sharply; the bowsprit "hogs" down mark- 
edly at its outer end. The deck arrangement shows 
a short trunk cabin with a hatch built into its forward 
end, then the mainmast, dredge winches and rollers, 



Schooner - Rigged Chesapeake 
Bay Bugeye, 1865-75, referred to 
locally as "square-rigged." Rigged 
model USNM 42757. (Smithsonian 
photo 4560J-J.) 




CHESAPEAKE BAY BUGEYE, SCHOONER- 
RIGGED, 1865-75 
Rigged Model, usnm 55807 

This model of a small schooner- rigged, or "square 
rigged," bugeye of about 1865-75, having a keel 
instead of a centerboard, represents the transition be- 
tween the small log canoe of the Bay and the larger, 
decked bugeyes. This model, being completely 



main hatch, foremast, and heel bitt. These vessels 
steered with a tiller. They early obtained a reputa- 
tion for speed and seaworthiness. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot. The vessel 
would have been 35 feet long at deck or log rail, 33 
feet on the keel. 7 feet 6 inches beam, 3 feet depth in 
hold, bowsprit outboard of knightheads 9 feet 6 inches, 
foremast above deck 25 feet, mainmast above deck 



273 



25 feet, main-topmast 8 feet 6 inches total length 
(with 2 feet of doublin!i), fore-boom 13 feet 6 inches, 
foregaff 9 feet, main boom 18 feet, main gaff 10 feet, 
jib club 3 feet 6 inches. The spars were very light. 
Model is shown under full s:iil, with jib, foresail and 
mainsail, and main gafi-topsail. 

There were no knightheads, in fact, in this model, 
but the log rail is brought up sharply near the bow to 
serve in their place. 

Given by U. S. Fish C^ommission. 



CHESAPEAKE BAY BUGEYE, 1885 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76290 



Lillie Sterling 



The bugeye Lilhe Sterling of C'risfield, Maryland, 
was built from this half-model at Pocomoke City, 
Maryland, by E. James Tull in 1885, and the design 
won an award for the builder at the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition in 1893. The Sterling was built for 
the Chesapeake Bay oyster fishery. The half-model 
represents a small vessel of her type, by later standards, 
but one popular in her period of build. She does not 
have the overhanging stern platform, or "patent 
stern," of the later bugeyes, nor does she have 
the "drake's tail" or "pink'' enclosing the rudderpost 
head that also marked later bugeyes. 

As a development of the older log canoe of this 
area the bugeye difTered from the various classes 
of these canoes only in being completely decked, 
a characteristic that appears to have determined 



whether or not a vessel was a bugeye. Canoes larger 
than the Sterling were often built; these were called 
"brogans," "standing-rig canoes," and "coastin' 
canoes." When so called they had large cockpits 
with only short decks at the ends, a small cuddy well 
forward, and narrow side decks. 

The Sterling was not log-built, but framed and 
planked in the conventional manner, a style of con- 
struction slowly becoming common in bugeyes when 
the Sterling was designed. However, log-bottom 
bugeyes, with the logs forming the whole bottom to 
just above the turn of the bilge, and with plank-and- 
frame topsides, remained popular until recent times 
because of the great durability of the log construction. 

Small bugeyes of the class of the Lillie Sterling, 
which is also represented by a rigged model in the 
Watercraft Collection, had a small trunk cabin; in 
the Sterling this was well aft but in many the trunk was 
forward, just abaft the foremast. A large cargo hatch 
was placed between the masts and sometimes a small 
hatch was placed \vell forward. In the Sterling there 
is a small hatch abaft the mainmast against the fore- 
end of the trunk cabin. The early bugeyes steered 
with a tiller and the mainsheet set up to the rudder- 
head. Some small bugeyes had a small cockpit, 
or a "standing room" or hatch for the helmsman 
during heavy weather. A larger hatch was some- 
times fitted amidships in which stood the crew oper- 
ating the dredge winches; this standing room was 
in addition to a cargo hatch; sometimes the standing 
room deck, or sole, was self-bailing. 



Stufr' fliicK)*' Off. *» y ^^ 



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V>-^' 




--^*^?fe=;..iia 


\^,„Ji:^^£^-i=^'- - 




Lines of the Sm.m.l Ches.'\pe.\ke B.av Bugeye, Lillie Sterling, built at Pocomoke City, Maryland, in 1885. I he 
lines were taken off builder's half-model USNM 76290, the deck arrangement and spar dimensions are from 
rigged model USNM 76256. 



274 



The half-model represents a double-ended canoe- 
like vessel of shoal draft, fitted with a large center- 
board nearly amidships and having moderate sheer, 
straight keel with some drag, raking stem and stern 
rabbets, long pointed head, rudder hung outboard on 
the sternpost, a sharp, well-formed entrance and run, 
apd midsection with slightly rising straight floor and 
full round bilge carried to deck, so the topsides flare 
somewhat. The run is longer and sharper than the 
entrance. Greatest beam is about at midlength. 

Scale of half-model is % inch to the foot. The 
bugeye was 45 feet 7 inches on deck, 13 feet 6 inches 
moulded beam, 3 feet 1 inch moulded depth, and 
drew 3 feet at post and 2 feet 8 inches at bow; the 
centerboard was 1 1 feet long and 4 feet deep. 

Given by E. James Tull, shipbuilder, Pocomoke 
City, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY BUGEYE, 1885 
Rigged Model, usnm 76256 

Lillie Sterling 

This rigged model represents the Lillie Sterling, 
which was built on the builder's half-model usnm 
76290 at Pocomoke City, Maryland, in 1885. It 
shows the typical deck arrangement and rig of the 
bugeye of the Sterling's size and date of build. These 
two models brought an award to the builder at the 
World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. 

The bugeye rig is more nearly related to the schooner 
than to the ketch rig. The foresail is slightly larger 
than the after or mainsail; the masts are nearly of 
equal length; and the distribution of sail area in 
the bugeye is very like that of the old pilot-boat 
schooner rig. The sails are jib headed, and the masts 
rake sharply, with two shrouds to a side on the fore- 
mast and one to a side on the main. 

Scale of model is % inch to the foot, representing 
a bugeye 42 feet in length, in which the bowsprit 
extends 10 feet outboard the stem rabbet at deck, 
the foremast is 46 feet deck to truck, mainmast 40 
feet deck to truck, jib club 5 feet long, fore boom 16 
feet 3 inches, main boom 22 feet 6 inches long, and 
centerboard 11 feet long. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY BUGEYE, 1893 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311015 

Triumph 

The large framed bugeye Triumph was built from 
this model at Tilghman's Island, Maryland, in 1893 
by John B. Harrison and represents the highest 



development of the type. A typical large bugeye 
employed in the oyster fishery on the Chesapeake, 
with moderate sail area and graceful appearance, 
the Triumph is said to have been very swift. When 
built she did not have the "patent stern," and the 
model shows only the "drake's tail," the projecting 
pink-like structure at the stern enclosing the head 
of the rudderpost and intended to give the rudder 
support and protection, that has been a character- 
istic of the bugeye type in recent years. 

The half-model shows a canoe-like doui)le-cnded 
centerboard hull to deck and to moulded lines, 
having bold sheer, straight keel with small drag, and 
raking stem and post, with the stem rabbet slightly 
rounded at forefoot. The head is very long and 
pointed, the rudder is hung on the post, and the 
midsection shows a rising straight floor, round easy 
bilge, and slightly rounded topside. 

A low, log rail is surmounted by a low open rail 
made of a wooden cap supported by short, closely 
spaced pipe stanchions with a bolt pa.ssing through 
each. A small trunk cabin is aft. The masts rake 
about lYi inches to the foot. 

Scale of half-model is '2 inch to the foot; the 
Triumph was about 65 feet long at deck, 18 feet 2 
inches moulded beam, 5 feet 3)^ inches moulded 
depth, and drew about 3 feet 6 inches with center- 
board raised. 

Given by John B. Harrison, shipbuilder, TUgh- 
man's Island, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY SKIPJACK, 1897 
Rigged Model, usnm 312828 

Carrie Price 

The Chesapeake Bay skipjack, or "bateau," Carrie 
Price was built at Holland's Island, Maryland, in 
1897 by James H. Price for an oyster dredge. 

The model shows her to have been a rather typical 
early type of skipjack having a long, sharp entrance 
and very long and flat run; the stem at rabbet is 
straight and raking; the transom is flat and rakes 
sharply. The sheer is slight. The rudder is hung 
outboard of the transom on a false sternpost which also 
supports the long skeg. The keel is straight and 
there is moderate drag; the centerboard is long 
and shallow. The midsection is formed with very 
slightly rising bottom, low angular chine, and straight 
flaring topside. The chine is low forward, being be- 
low the load waterline. The deadrise of the bottom 
increases from amidships each way to bow and stern. 



275 



The skipjack is shown witli ihc typical lonahcacl. 
hcadrails, and trails. The single mast is stepped well 
Ibi'ward and has much rake. Risj is typical and in- 
cludes a single larg;e jil) and a lesj-ot-mutton mainsail 
laced to a long boom. Model shows this skipjack as 
taken off and does not show the usual deck plan of an 
ovster dredge skipjack of tiiis size. The deck arrange- 
ment shown is heel bitts right forward, iron jib horse, 
mast, low trunk cabin, main hatch, and after hatch. 

Scale of model is 's inch to the foot; the Price was 
40 feet 6 inches over the log rail, 14 feet 3 inches beam, 
and drew 2 feet at post and 1 foot 5 inches at stem 
with centerboard raised. Her mainmast stood 56 
feet 9 inches above the deck, the boom was 41 feet 3 
inches long, and the bowsprit extended 14 feet 9 
inches outboard of the stem rabbet at deck. 

Made and given by William E. Lee. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY SKIPJACK, 1903 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312329 

Lillie G. Spicer 

The Chesapeake Bay skipjack, or "bateau." LilUc 
G. Spicer was built from this model at Taylor's Island. 
Dorchester County, Maryland, in 1903 by Joseph T. 
Spicer for the oyster fishery. This model of sloop, 
which became popular on the Chesapeake about 1890, 
was an adaption of the skipjack model that appears to 
have come into use on Long Island Sound about 1860. 
The skipjack or "V-bottom." or "diamond bottom," 
or "corner boat" was a framed hull ha\ing sections 
made up of straight lines with the bottom V-form and 
usually planked fore-and-aft. The C'hesapeake build- 
ers, however, adapted the skiff or sharpie construction 
and planked the bottom athwartships; to obtain the 
necessarv twist in the bottom plank thev put it on so 
that the seams raked aft on each side of the keel. This 
form of bottom plank, locally known as "herring- 
bone," is now used in Chesapeake Bay V-bottom 
motorboats. 

The rig of the Chesapeake skipjacks was usually a 
large jib-headed mainsail and a single large jib 
hanked to a stay set up on a bowsprit. The mast 
raked sharply aft and the bowsprit was hogged down 
outboard. These sloops had the long head of the 
bugeye and most of them, like the Spicer, had the 
rudder "outdoors," hung on the stcrnpost outside the 
transom. The oyster dredge skipjacks ranged in 
Custom House measurement from about 35 feet to 60 
feet on deck. A few were rigged like bugeyes, with 
two masts. 



The half-model shows a V-bottom hull, wide and 
shoal, having a wide square stern raking slightly and 
the stem rabbet straight and also with a slight rake. 
The kerl raljbct cambers fore-and-aft (the model 
shows the skcg); the keel was thus straight and had 
some drag. The entrance is rather long and sharp 
and the run somewhat short and full; the dead rise of 
the bottom is moderate and the sides flare out above 
the chine, or angular bilge. The sheer is moderate 
and the freeboard low. 

These very shoal-draft craft had a long centerboard; 
the Spicer' s was 1 3 feet 6 inches. This sloop had a 
trunk cabin forward, just abaft the mast, and a large 
cargo hatch amidships with a sip.all standing-room 
hatch for the helmsman. In recent times skipjacks 
often ha\e an after trunk in place of the old standing- 
room hatch. 

Scale of the half-model is 1 inch to the fool; the 
Spicer was 40 feet 4 inches on deck, 1 5 feel 3 inches 
moulded beam, and 34 inches moulded depth (regis- 
ter dimensions 38.2 feet .x 15.0 feet .x 2.7 feel). A 
rigged model of a skipjack is in the \\atercraft Col- 
lection (usnm 312828, on p. 275). 

Gi\en by James K. Spicer, Taylor's Island, Dor- 
chester Covmty, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY 'CRAB SCRAPER," 1915 
Rigged Model, usnm 316629 

Jesse Willard 

Model is of a small skipjack, or "bateau." of a type 
once used on the Eastern .Shore of Maryland in the 
Chesapeake Bay crab fishery, in summer. These 
lioats were also used in \vintertime oyster longing, in 
some localities. The boats ranged in size from 24 to 
30 feet on deck and. as a class, they were smart 
sailers. The sailing crabber and oyster longer went 
out of fashion after the 1 '514-18 war. being replaced 
by launches. 

The model represents a boat built at Dames 
Quarters, near Deal Island, Maryland, in 1915, 
named the Jesse Jl'illard in honor of the boxing 
champion of the world at that time. The Ji'illard 
was a typical boat of her class in rig, form, and size. 
These boats were V-botlomed, of the form known as 
"skipjack" to yachtsmen but called "bateau" on the 
Eastern Shore. The Willard was abandoned at 
Cambridge, Maryland, about 1950, after being 
converted to a motor lioat. 

The model shows the Willard as a bateau having a 
strong sheer, a straight keel line formed by a skeg. 



276 



nioderaie drag, a raking straight stem rabbet, and a 
raJiing, flat transom. She has a longhead, trails, and 
head rails. The midsection is forined by a rising 
straight floor, an angular, or chine, bilge, and a 
straight and flaring topside. The rail is formed of a 
cap with pipe stanchions set on a log rail; the rudder 
is hung outboard on a false sternpost; the mast is 
stepped well forward, with some rake. The Iroat is 
"half-decked." with a large cockpit and a small 
portable cabin trunk, which was placed over the for- 
ward end of the cockpit in w'inter oyster tonging but 
was usually removed for the summer fishery. The 
entrance is rather long, sharp and convex, the rim 
easy and quite straight. .\ large centerboard is 
housed amidships. The rig is jii) and mainsail, 
the latter a leg-of-mutton fitted with a laced boom. 
Model is painted as the actual boat. 

The Jesse U'illaid was 25 feet 6 inches long at the 
rail cap, 8 feet 8 inches extreme beam, and drew 
1 foot 8J4 inches at the sternpost, with centerboard 
raised. Model was constructed from plans taken off 



the l)oat and shows all important details of construc- 
tion. Scale of model is ji inch to the foot. 
Made for the museum i)y Merritt .'\. Edson, Jr. 

RACING LAUNCH, 1902 
Builder's H.alf-Model, usnm 311239 

Fairbanks No. 2 

The racing launch Fairbanks .\n. 2 was built from 
this half-model in 1902 at Oxford. Maryland, by 
Charles \V. Langdon. A champion racing launch 
in her day, she was powered with a Smalley engine, 
made by the Fairbanks Scale C^ompany and rated 
at 12 to 15 horsepower; the boat is reputed to have 
reached a speed of nearly 26 statute miles per hour. 
This boat was used as a model for the Chesapeake 
Bay fishing launches, now known as "Hooper Island 
boats"; these, until very recent years had practically 
the same features of design, except that they had a 
little more beam and depth in proportion to their 



Chesape.\ke Bay Skipj.\ck, or 
"crab scraper," Jess Willard, built 
near Deal Island, Maryland, in 
1 91 5. Rigged model USNM 
316629. {Smithsonian photo 4^606-g.) 




4T2S46 60- 



277 



length. The modrl has proved to he a good sea boat 
in the Chesapeake, and \ery efficient. 

The half-model shows a long and very narrow V- 
Ijottoni, hunich. having the gi'eatest depth of keel 
rabbet at the forefoot; the bow is curved and raking 
and the keel rabbet runs nearly in a straight line, 
from the forefoot up and aft, to the bottom of the 
stern, which is round in plan, with much tumble- 
home, a form once called a "torpedo stern" but now 
called ■■do\e-tail" by some on the Chesapeake. The 
sheer is straight. On deck the greatest beam is about 
amidships, but at the chines it is close to the stern. 
The entrance is therefore very long and sharp, while 
the run is also long and very flat. The chine in profile 
is nearly coincident with the load waterline over its 
full length. The half breadth of tlie model is to the 
keel rabbet, not to the centerline. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; the boat was 
37 feet overall, 34 feet 3 inches on deck, 4 feet 2'^ 
inches moulded beam at deck, 3 feet S'^ inches at 
chines, drew about 1 foot lOJ.i inches at the propeller, 
and displaced 1890 pounds without crew. 



steep, short-dangerous seas of the Chesapeake and 
ran steadily on their course, as required in the trotline 
crab fishery. 

The half-model is of a long, low, and narrow V- 
bottom wooden launch having slight sheer; a rockered 
keel rabbet; a slight camber in the chine profile, with 
the chine almost coincident with the load line at bow 
and stern; a straight, raking stem rabbet with small 
round at forefoot: and a dove-tail, or torpedo, stern 
round in plan, with the sides of the hull brought 
around in a sharp tumble-home by vertical, tapered 
staving. This marked tumble-home in the stern, in 
profile, was the hallmark of this type of launch. The 
deck plan shows the beam to be carried well fore and 
aft; the greatest breadth at rail is slightly forward of 
midlength. The chine, in plan, is also carried well 
fore and aft with only moderate reduction in width, 
l)ut at the Imw the chines are brought in to form a 
very sharp entrance. The nm is long and flat, being 
nearly straight in the buttocks as the stern is ap- 
proached. The midsection is formed with a straight, 
rising floor, an angular chine-bilge, and a straight, 



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Lines oka Racing V-Bottom Motor Boat of 1902, the Fairbanks .No. 2. This model inspired the modern 
fishing launches of the Chesapeake Bay region. Taken off builder's half-model U.SNM 31 1239. 



Gi\en by Charles VV. Langdon, l^oatbuilder, Ox- 
ford, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY FISHING LAUNCH, about 

1912 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 315109 

This model of a typical Chesapeake Bay Hooper 
Island fishing launch was employed to build a boat 
in Dorchester County, Maryland, at or near Cam- 
bridge about 1912, and represents the class built 
there between 1910 and 1925. Boats of this type were 
employed in the crab fishery in summer and in oyster 
tonging in winter. The half-model represents a fish- 
ing launch adaption of the racing lavmch form of the 
Fairbanks No. 2, the half-model of which (usnm 311239, 
p. 211) is in the Watercraft Collection. Well adapted 
10 their work, these boats were seaworthv in the 



strongly flaring topside. In the forebody the topside 
flare is very great, becoming hollow near the stem 
rabbet. Toward the stern the flare of the topsides 
gradually decreases and becomes tumble-home near 
where the stern begins to be rounded. A skeg and a 
shallow outside keel are fitted; the propeller and 
rudder are well inboard of the extreme stern; and 
the rudderpost, of iron, is fitted with a semibalanced 
wooden rudder blade. The dead rise carried to the 
extreme stern is an unusual feature shown in this 
model. 

Heavily built of pine and oak, these launches have 
a long cockpit in which is located the engine in a box 
abaft midlength. The side decks are narrow and the 
cockpit has a low coaming its full length. Near the 
bow is a short forward deck and a small, low trunk 
caliin that usually contains two Ijunks and a stove; 



278 



at the extreme stern is a short deck, on which the iron 
tiller traverses; and steering is by steering lines or by 
a steering lever near the engine box. In recent years 
the cabin of these boats have commonly been fitted 
with a high hatch which serves also as a sheltered 
steering position, and a small steering wheel is some- 
times fitted here. The fuel tank is usually under the 
after deck. Boats built since 1925 have more beam 
in proportion to length and have upright square 
transoms, called locally "box sterns." 

This model of launch was originally developed for 
low power and used marine gasoline engines of 5 to 
15 horsepower (most of these boats were intended 
for engines ranging from 7 to 10 horsepower), with 
which they are said to have achieved speeds of from 
7 to 12 miles per hour under service conditions. 
Automobile engines are now employed; ratings up to 
250 horsepower and speeds up to 30 miles per hour 
are claimed for some launches. 

The model is to the inside of plank and its half- 
breadth is to the keel rabbet. The scale is % inch 
to the foot; launches built to this half-model were 



The half-model shows a V-bottom hull having the 
keel rabbet straight in the forebody but sweeping up 
aft to the bottom of the stern, there to be fitted with 
a skeg. The stern is round in plan and raking in 
profile and is intended to be formed by vertical 
staving on stern frames at chine and gunwale. The 
bow is straight and raking. The midsection shows a 
straight, rising floor carried to the angular chine 
and a straight, somewhat flaring topsides above the 
chine. The sheer is marked. In profile the chine 
curves slightly fore-and-aft and is low at the bow, so 
that it would not show there when boat was afloat. 

Scale of the half-model is '/, inch lo the foot, for 
a boat to measure 60 feet moulded length at gunwale, 
18 feet moulded beam, and drawing about 4 feet 
at skeg. 

Boats of this size and type had a pilothouse and 
engine trunk aft, with quarters there for the captain, 
a cargo hatch and hold forward of the engine room, 
and a forecasde in the bow. The boats usually 
carried one mast and a gaff-sail and jib to steady 




RuwiNu Galley Used For Shad Fishing on the Puiuma(j River, 
{Smitluonian photo 40^8.) 



1880. Rigged model USNM 55877. 



about 34 feet long stem rabbet to extreme stern at 
chine, 6 feet 4 inches extreme beam at deck, depth 3 
feet 1 inch rabbet to gunwale, and draft about 2 feet 
3 inches at heel of rudder post. A notation on the 
model indicates that the cabin was 8 feet long. 

Given by James B. Richardson, boatbuilder, Cam- 
bridge, Maryland. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY V-BOTTOM MOTOR VESSEL, 

1929 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311016 

This half-model was made by John B. Harrison in 
1929 for a V-bottom, motor vessel for use as a "buy 
boat" in transporting oysters and to haul shell as 
well as general freisrht. No boat was built from it. 



the boat in heavy weather. The rudder post was 
inboard of the stern. 

Given by John B. Harrison, shipbuilder, Tilghman's 
Island, Maryland. 

POTOMAC RIVER SHAD DRAG-SEINE GALLEY, 

1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 55877 

This model represents a lar^e rowing boat, or 
"galley," once employed in the Potomac Ri\cr shad- 
fishery to work a drag seine. These boats carried 
about 1200 to 1500 fathoms of seine, made 30 feet 
deep at the channel, or hauling, end and 12 feet deep 
at the shore end. The mesh was 2)i to 3 inches. 
The boats rowed 2 oars single-banked and, def)ending 



472846—60- 



-20 



279 




Croatan Fishing Boat used for shad fishing in the 
vicinity of Roanoke Island in the North Carolina 
Sounds, i88o's and 1890's. Rigged model USNM 
76255. {Smithsonian photo 4^606-a.) 

on their length, 14 to 24 oars double-banked. Nets 
were carried in the stern and most boats had a net 
roller on top of the transom. 

The model represents a very long, open, keel, rowing 
boat having a long, sharp entrance and a short, full 
rim, with a \ery wide transom stern, the stem curved 
and raking, the post nearly upright, the sheer rather 
straight, and the keel straight, with some drag. The 
midsection had a slightly rising straight floor, an easy 
bilge, and a slightly flaring topside. To give longi- 
tudinal strength, the boat was braced along its center- 
line by a "hogrod" truss passed over some of the 
thwarts. The after quarter of the boat was without 
thwarts. 

Scale of model is ,^ inch to the foot, for a boat 72 
feet long, 12 feet beam, and 3 feet 9 inches depth 
atnidships. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



POTOMAC RIVER FISH LIGHTER, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 56950 

During the latter part of the 19th-century fishermen 
on the lower Potomac River employed a special form 
of lighter, or barge, to transport fish to market. 
Aboard these craft, which were between 45 and 60 
feet long, the daily catch was placed, and at a fixed 
time a number of them were picked up by a tug and 
towed to port. Most of them operated out of Wash- 
ington and Alexandria. 

The lighters represented by the model were of 
flatiron shape and had a flat bottom, usually rockered 
aft only in profile, with little flare to the straight sides 
and wide at the stern, a rather sharp bow, long en- 
trance, short but easy run, rather raking stem, and 
the greatest beam just forward of the transom, which 
was rather upright. 

They were steered with an outboard rudder having 
a tiller. Aft was a small cuddy for the crew and amid- 
ships a long hatch with covers. A strong towing bitt 
was placed forward. The boats were tarred instead 
of painted and were roughly built. 

Scale of model is f^, inch to the foot; the boat repre- 
sented was 52 feet overall, 14 feet 8 inches beam, and 
about 5 feet 4 inches depth. The lighers were towed 
quite fast, hence their unusual form. 

Given by George Woltz. 

ROANOKE RIVER DUGOUT CANOE, 1893 
Rigged Model, usnm 76275 

Dugout canoes of this type were once used on the 
Roanoke River, in North Carolina, in the shad 
fishery employing dip-nets. The canoes were made 
by hollowing out a cypress log; they were rowed, 
paddled, and poled. 

The type of canoe shown by the model was double- 
ended, having a nearly flat bottom and slightly 
flaring topside. It was roughly decked with plank 
for a short distance at each end and fitted with three 
seats, or thwarts. Amidships it had a deck, under 
which was a shallow live well, or box, in which the 
bottom of the canoe was perforated to allow circula- 
tion of water. Some of these canoes had a stern seat 
and were employed by sportsmen in fishinsj on the 
river. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, for a canoe 
18 feet 3 inches long, 3 feet beam, and 14 inches 
depth, with a well 1 foot 9 inches square on the 
bottom, and its hatch 6 by 9 inches. 

Given bv U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



280 




Albermarle Sound Shad Boats Being Built at Roanoke Island, North Carolina, at the yard of the noted 
local builder, Washington Creef, in the 1890's. These boats, fitted with planked stern deadwoods, are large for 
their class. A good example of the simple boat shops in which these small fishing boats were built. {Smith- 
sonian photo 44793— f-) 



CROATAN FISHING BOAT, 1890 
Rigged Model, usnm 76255 

Boats of this type were once employed in the shad 
fishery on the North Carolina Sounds in the vicinity 
of Roanoke Island. They were noted for sailing 
qualities and seaworthiness. Hulls of some of these 
boats, with gasoline engines installed, were to be seen 
at Roanoke Island in 1953. 

The model is of an open, caravel-planked, center- 
board boat, like a yawl boat in form and having 



strong sheer, a straight plank keel with some drag, a 
straight raking stem, a raking heart-shaped transom 
with rudder hung outlxiard, the greatest beam a 
little forward of midlength, a sharp entrance, and a 
long and fine run. There is some reverse curve in 
the afterbody sections, and the midsection is formed 
with a rising straight floor, easy bilge, and flaring 
topside. 

Model shows narrow washboards and low coamings 
along the sides, a very short stern deck, six thwarts. 



281 



and sternsheets. The centerboard is slightly forward 
of midlength. The model does not have the usual 
skeg, the run being formed with a planked deadwood 
not commonly found in this type. The mast is stepped 
in the third thwart, at the fore end of the center- 
board case, and rigged with a loose-footed sprit- 
mainsail; the jib is tacked to the stemhead; there is 
a pole topmast, with much of it overlapping the 
mainmast, and a jib-headed boom topsail is sheeted 
independently of the mainsail. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
24 feet long, 7 feet 3 inches beam, and about 2 feet 
3 inches depth, mainmast 14 feet 6 inches above 
thwart, sprit 20 feet 6 inches long, and topmast 21 
feet 9 inches total length and standing 13 feet 11 
inches above masthead. The boat is fitted to row two 
oars to a side; six sandbags are shown as ballast. 
Made and given by U.S. Fish Commission, 1893. 

Restored by Merritt Edson, Jr., 1958. 

SHARPIE, about 1890 
Rigged Model, usnm 76249 

The sharpie, a flat-bottom sailing boat with the 
bottom planked athwartships, was employed widely 
in the American coastal fisheries during the last half 
of the 19th century. The boat type, developed some- 
time before 1849, first rose to prominence at New 
Haven, Connecticut, and by 1876 the "New Haven 
sharpie" had become a standardized model and rig 
built in two basic sizes. One, between 24 and 28 
feet overall, carried about 75 to 100 bushels of oysters, 
and was rigged with one or two masts and leg-of- 
mutton sails; the other, between 34 and 36 feet, 
carried 150 to 175 bushels. The New Haven sharpie 
was low sided and rather narrow; the beam on the 
bottom was one-sixth to one-fifth the length; the 
beam of a 35-foot boat was about 6 feet at chines, 7 
feet 2 inches at rail; that of a 28-foot boat was 4 feet 6 
inches to 4 feet 9 inches at chine and about 6 feet 
beam at rail. The stem was straight and upright, 
the stern was either round (with a vertically staved 
fantail) or finished in a flat and much raked transom. 
The sheer was strong and the rocker of the bottom 
was such that the heel of the stem was brought just 
clear of the water. The bottom was flat athwart- 
ships and the sides straight and cjuitc flaring. A 
large centerboard was fitted; its length was almost 
one-third that of the boat, and the sharpies were 
half-decked, with a large o\al cockpit. The masts 
could be shifted so that the boat could be sailed with 
various combinations of sail. The rig was simple 



nnd efficient; the sails were loose-footed and spread 
by a sprit boom whose heel was set up by a mast 
tackle to give flat sails on the wind. 

From this parent type many variations of sharpie 
were developed as the type was introduced into new 
localities. In general, the variations were in the di- 
rection of increased size, particularly in beam, to 
give greater capacity for a given length. The sharpie 
was introduced on Lake Champlain and on the 
Great Lakes, on the North Carolina Sounds, and, 
by 1885, on the Florida coast. It was also adapted 
to yachting in the years between 1857 and 1885. 

The model represents a small sharpie of the type 
developed first on the North Carolina sounds. This 
was a close copy of the New Haven type except for 
a marked increase in the beam. The first New Haven 
sharpie was brought to the Carolina Sounds in 1875 
and was a 34-foot boat. Soon the sharpie was being 
built there in lengths up to 45 feet and by 1890 the 
rig had become that of a gaff-schooner. In Florida 
the type was first a yacht, but commercial sharpies 
were soon being built with some modifications in 
rig, and as schooners up to about 60 feet of length. 
Generally speaking, the sharpies had the reputation 
of being inexpensive and swift, as well as of carrying 
heavy loads on light draft. This model is of an oyster 
sharpie of Newbern, North Carolina, built about 
1889. 

The model shows a flat-bottom, skiff-like hull 
having a large centerboard, two masts and two Icg- 




Sh.\rpie Schooner 28-32 feet long, a type once pop- 
ular in the Middle and South Adanuc Coast fisheries. 
Drawing b)' Kunhardt, from Forest and Stream, 1885. 



282 



of-mutton sails with sprit booms, a long and sharp 
bow with heel raised to clear the water, a straight 
and upright stem, a bottom rockered fore-and-aft, 
a flat and raking transom, strong sheer, and flaring 
sides. The deck arrangement is for a half-decked 
boat having a large oval cockpit, a long foredeck, 
and a short afterdeck. The foremast is stepped in 
the eyes of the boat, the main at the after end of the 
center board case. 

The model is on a scale of 1 inch to the foot, and 
is for a sharpie 35 feet on the gunwale, 10 feet 9 inches 
beam, 2 feet 2 inches depth, cockpit 15 feet 9 inches 
long, and 7 feet 9 inches wide, foremast 33 feet 6 
inches above deck, mainmast 29 feet 9 inches above 
its thwart, fore sprit 20 feet, main sprit 14 feet 6 inches. 
Rail chocks are fitted at bow and stern. The model 
shows an unusually wide hull; 8 feet 10 inches beam 
would probably be the normal width of a boat of 
this length and date on the Carolina sounds. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

NORTH CAROLINA FISHING LAUNCH, 1929 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311?44 

Seabird 

The gasoline-engined fishing launch Seabird was 
built from this half-model at Beaufort, North Carolina, 
in 1929 by VVhitehurst & Rice. 

The Seabird had a raised deck forward, imder 
which there was a cuddy. She was caravel-planked 
and had a skeg, the keel rabbet cambering fore-and- 
aft (more sharply aft). She had a straight shoe to 
the keel and skeg, a raking square stern, a curved 
and rather upright stem rabbet. The sheer was 
rather straight. The midsection showed a rising floor, 
rather slack round bilge, and nearly plumb topside. 
The entrance was long and sharp, the run short and 
rather full. 

Model is believed to be on a scale of '^i inch to 
the foot, to produce a launch about 28 feet 8 inches 
moulded length at gunwale, 9 feet 4 inches moulded 
beam, and drawing about 2 feet 9 inches. The 
engine was in box in cockpit well aft. 

Given by John Rice, shipbuilder, Beaufort, North 
Carolina. 

MENHADEN STRIKER BOAT, about 1932 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311245 

A rowing striker boat was built from this half-model 
about 1932 by VVhitehurst & Rice at Beaufort. North 
Carolina. 



The boat was a rowing dinghy in model, having a 
square upright transom with a slight dcadrisc in the 
bottom, rather straight upright stem rabbet, straight 
keel shoe with skeg, the keel rabbet rising aft, and 
moderate sheer. The midsection shows a rather 
rounded, rising floor, a slack bilge, and nearly 
upright topsides. Both in model and arrangement 
it generally resembles a yacht tender. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
13 feet 6 inches long, 4 feet moulded beam, and 
about 1 foot 4 inches deep. 

Given by John Rice, shipbuilder, Beaufort, North 
Carolina. 

MENHADEN FISHING BOAT, 1934 
Builder's Half-Modbl, usnm 311243 

A menhaden fishing boat was built from this 
model at Beaufort, North Carolina, in 1934 by 
Whitehurst & Rice. 

The half-model is for a V-bottom launch, or 
"Hatteras boat," having a moderate rise of floor 
amidships, angular chine, and flaring straight topside. 
The stem rabbet is straight and rather upright, the 
stern is round, flaring and formed by \ertical staving. 
In profile, the chine has little camber and is low 
forward, the foremost section just abaft the stem 
being almost a V-shape from gunwale to rabbet; 
afloat, it is not visible forward. The sheer is moder- 
ate; keel rabbet is straight forward and rises aft to 
the bottom of the stern; keel-shoe is straight, with 
some drag, and has a skeg; rudder post is inboard of 
the stern; forward sections have a hollow flare; 
entrance is sharp and has the appearance of being 
slightly hollow near the stem at waterline; and the 
run is short but easy. These boats have a reputation 
for seaworthiness. 

Scale of model is )i inch to the foot, for a boat 50 
feet 6 inches moulded length at gunwale, 10 feet 
4 inches moulded beam, and drawing about 4 feet 
at the skeg. 

Given by John Rice, shipbuilder, Beaufort, North 
Carolina. 

KEY WEST SPONGE SLOOP, 1880 
RiGGFD Model, usnm 76251 

The sloop represented by this model was built at 
Key West, Florida, in 1 880 for the sponge fishery on 
the Florida reefs and among the Keys, in shoal water. 
She was caravel-planked and had a skeg and straight 
keel with some drag, upright post, raking V-transom, 
upright straight stem, strong sheer, long and sharp 



283 







entrance, and a long, easy run. The midsection had 
a rising floor, high and rather easy bilge, and sUghtly 
flaring topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; the boat was 
24 feet 3 inches at gunwale, 10 feet 3 inches beam, and 
2 feet 6 inches moulded depth. It has a jib and main- 
sail rig, and the spar dimensions, which are also re- 
corded as those of the Terror, are mainmast 27 feet 
6 inches above deck, topmast heel to truck 11 feet 9 
inches, bowsprit outside stem 12 feet, main boom 26 
feet 6 inches, and main ajaff 12 feet 9 inches. 

The model, which shows an elliptical cockpit and 
trunk, appears to have been built with some reference 
to the half-model of the Terror (usnm 76083), but it 
does not have the cuddy and there are other de- 
partures. Aijout 1890 sharpie sloops 24-28 feet in 
length became popular as small spongers at Key 
West. Resembling in hull and rig the small half- 
decked sloop yachts of 1870-80, they represent biu 
one of the many types of small sloops employed in the 
Florida sponge fishery. 

Given bv U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



KEY WEST SPONGE SLOOP, 1881 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76083 



Te 



rror 



The small centerboard sloop Terror was iiuilt from 
this model at Key West. Florida, in 1881, for the 
sponge fishery on the Florida reef and among the 
Keys, where shoal draft was desirable. She was simi- 
lar, in hull, rig, and arrangement of deck to many of 
the small sloop yachts of 1870-80, which apparently 
inspired this design. The craft employed in the Key 
West sponge fishery were not homogeneous in type. 
Some were old yachts, some were centerboard schoon- 
ers of small size, some were sharpie sloops, some were 
centerboard sloops similar to Terror, while others were 
small keel sloops of the same model and rig as the 
Key West smackee and Bahama sloops. 

The Terror was a shoal centerboard sloop hax'ing a 
nearly plumb stem, raking and V-shaped flat transom, 
a long and sharp entrance, and a rather short run. 
The hull had a skeg and the after sections were slightly 
hollow at the garboard. The midsection showed a 
rising floor and an easy bilge. The rudder post was 
inboard, entering the hull at the heel of the transom. 



284 



Key West Sponge Sloops and 
smackees, about 1892. (Smithsonian 
photo ^^ygi-h.) 



Key West Sponge Sloop . Rigged 
model USNM 762 5 1 . (Sniithsonian 
photo 4j6oj~g.) 



The model shows an elliptical house and cockpit 
coaming. Rig was a gaff mainsail and a single jib 
hanked to a stay. The sloop had a long main boom 
and bowsprit, the latter well hogged down, and a 
large sail area, as spongers did not work in heavy 
weather, and speed rather than seaworthiness was 
much prized. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, giving a ves- 
sel about 24 feet 3 inches on deck, 10 feet moulded 
beam, 2 feet 8 inches moulded depth, and drawing 
about 2 feet with centerboard raised, the latter being 
about 7 feet long and 3 feet 6 inches wide, and located 
in the middle third of the length. 

Given by Lawrence Higgs, Key West, Florida. 

KEY WEST SMACKEE, 1883 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76086 




Jeff Brown 



The leg-of-mutton sloop Jeff Biowri was built from 
this model at Key West, Florida, in 1883. She was 
a small-well smack. Sloops of this size and type, 
locally known as "smackees," ranged in length from 
17 to 26 feet length and were shoal, keel craft with 
skegs, most with the rudder hung outboard. Some 



had straight stems, others had small gammon-knee 
heads and, in general, they resembled the small 
fishing and sponging sloops of the Bahamas. Most 
had a flat transom with post and rudder outboard 
and some had clipper bows or stems rounded in 
profile 

The Jeff Brown is also represented by a rigged model 
(usnm 76258) in the Watercraft Collection. 

The half-model, for a fast and seaworthy small 
boat, shows a shoal, keel-sloop hull having a hand- 
some sheer, raking curved stem, sharply raking V- 
or heart-shaped flat transom, with rudder stock pass- 
ing through its heel, nearh vertical post, straight keel 
with drag, sharp entrance, and a very long easy run. 
The midsection shows a sharply rising and slightly 
hollow floor; the hollow is carried right aft to the 
transom but disappears forward; an almost constant 
deadrise is shown in the after sections. Forward the 
flare is moderate. The keel outside the rabbet is 
quite deep. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, to scale 
about giving a vessel 25 feet 3!^ inches overall, 24 
feet 3 inches on deck, 8 feet 5)^ inches moulded 
beam and 2 feet lOH inches moulded depth. The 
draft at post would be about 3 feet and about 2 feet 



285 



2 inches forward. The well amidships was about 5 
feet 6 inches square at bottom and 3 feet 6 inches at 
underside of deck. Most of the boats contemporary 
with tiie Jeff Brown were somewhat smaller than she 
was, but by 1895 the smackees were generally of her 
size. 
Given by the U. S. Fish Commission. 



KEY WEST SMACKEE, 1883 
Rigged model, usnm 76258 



Jejf Brown 



The leg-of-mutton sloop Jeff Brown that was built 
at Key West, Florida, in 1883 from half-model 
USNM 76086 was fitted as shown in this rigged model. 
Most of these small smacks carried a variation of 
the leg-of-mutton Bermuda or Bahama rig, a jib- 
headed mainsail and large single jib. The model, 
however, shows the mainsail laced to the booin, 
which was not done in either of these rigs. Some 
had a small cabin trunk that could be fitted over one 
of the hatches when it was desirable to shelter the 
crew. 

The model show^s a small sloop-rigged boat having a 
straight keel and skeg, straight raking stem, rather 
upright post and V-shaped transoin with rudder 
stock passing through its heel, sharp entrance, good 
run, and a midsection with rising floor slightly hollow 
at the garboard, firm bilge, and flaring topside. 

The deck arrangement shown includes a U-shaped 
standing well for the helmsman, a well hatch amid- 
ships, and a small hatch to a cuddy forward. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot; the boat was 
25 feet 3)^ inches overall, 24 feet 3 inches at gimwale, 
8 feet 3J^ inches beam, about 2 feet 10 inches depth; 
the mast stood 28 feet 9 inches above deck, the bow- 
sprit extended 6 feet outside the stem, and the boom 
was 23 feet long. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

BAHAMA SCHOONER SMACK, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 76010 

This model represents the type of schooner smack 
used in the Bahama Islands; many schooners of this 
type worked out of Great Abaco and nearby islands, 
supplying fish to Nassau. In general they resembled 
the old pungy schooners of the Chesapeake Bay, 
some had overhanging sterns but many had heart- 
shaped raking transoms with outboard rudders and 
sternposts. The schooners had a reputation for speed 



and weatherliness. Sloops W'cre built on the same 
general model but with greater proportionate beam. 

The model shows a caravel-planked, keel schooner 
having a straight keel with much drag, a curved and 
raking stem rabbet with longhead, a light square 
stern, moderate sheer, a long and sharp entrance, a 
long easy run, and the midsection formed with a 
sharply rising straight floor, an easy round bilge, and 
an upright topside. These schooners were flush 
decked, with low bulwarks or a log rail; they usually 
had aft a trunk cabin, amidships a large well entered 
through a hatch with grating, and just abaft the fore- 
mast a slide companionway to enter the forepeak. 

This model shows a schooner having a single large 
jib, a loose-footed foresail, boomed loose-footed main- 
sail; the main topmast is fitted but the main gaff- 
topsail and main-topmast staysail are omitted. Model 
is equipped with two square-stern dinghies. 

These schooners were usually metal sheathed with 
Muntz metal or "yellow metal" and the inside of the 
wells was sometimes sheathen with sheet-lead, as 
yellow metal was thought to poison the fish in the 
well. The lead also had the advantage of being 
easily worked around frames, keel, and in the per- 
forations of the bottom. The marine boring worm 
toredo caused damage to these smacks in Bahamian 
waters. 

Scale of the model is H inch to the foot, for a schooner 
54 feet at rail, 14 feet 3 inches beam, 5 feet depth (the 
keel outside rabbet scales 21 inches deep), trunk 
cabin 12 feet long and 7 feet wide, bowsprit outboard 
of rabbet 10 feet, foremast above deck 44 feet, main- 
mast 44 feet, main topmast 15 feet total length, fore 
gaff 12 feet, main boom 30 feet, and main gaff" 13 
feet. In latter years these schooners often had a 
boomed foresail and in the late 1880"s schooners re- 
sembling the Key West smacks were built in the 
Bahamas. 

Given by Commissioners for the Bahama Islands, 
International Fisheries Exposition, London, 1883. 

BAHAMA SPONGE-FISHING SCHOONER, 1883 
Rigged Model, usnm 160143 

This model represents a class of Bahama schooner 
formerly used in the sponge fishery and in the sea- 
turtle fishery. The schooners were clipper built 
and resembled the old Baltimore clipper type, from 
which they are supposed to have descended. 

The model shows a sharp schooner having a straight 
keel w^ith much drag, strongly cur\-ed and raking 
stem rabbet with a longhead, raking post and heart- 



286 




£^ .a,«M3-!i. — 



Plan of the Key West Smackee Jeff Brown built at Key West, Florida, 1883. Taken off the builder's half- 
model USNM 76086. Deck arrangement and spar dimensions from the rigged model USNM 76258. 



shaped transom of marked width, sharp convex 
entrance, long sharp run, medium sheer, low bul- 
warks, and flush deck. The midsection shows a 
sharply rising straight floor, high easy bilge, and 
flaring topside. The flare forward is moderate. 
A large trunk cabin is placed well aft; the model 
shows two sponging dinghies stowed bottom up on 
deck. The model is schooner rigged with three 
lower sails; the foresail is boomless. The.se boats 
usually had a large deck bo.\ in which there was a 
charcoal brazier or fireplace to serve as the galley. 
When sponge-fishing, the schooner usually worked 
two dinghies only; when in the turtle fishery, only 
one boat was usually carried. 

Scale of model is ^i inch to the foot; the schooner 
was 54 feet at rail, 14 feet 6 inches beam, 5 feet 
depth, bowsprit outside rabbet 10 feet 6 inches, fore- 
mast 43 feet 6 inches, mainmast 44 feet above deck, 
main topmast heel to truck 14 feet, fore gaff 12 feet, 
main boom 30 feet, main gaflflS feet 6 inches, dinghies 
13 feet long and 4 feet 6 inches beam, and sponge 
hooks shown 17 and 25 feet long. 

Given by commissioners for the Bahama Islands, 
International Fisheries Exposition, London, 1883. 

FLORIDA CAT-RIGGED SHARPIE OYSTER BOAT, 

about 1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 76272 

This model represents a sharpie, or "flattie," cat- 
rigged boat built about 1880 for the local oyster fish- 
ery at Cedar Keys, Florida. The sharpies built at 
Cedar Keys were of a wide range in size; from about 
18 feet to nearly 40 feet at gunwale; the smaller boats 



were 1 -masted and cat or sloop rigged; the larger 
sharpies were 2-masted sharpie rig or leg-of-mutton 
schooners. Generally, the sharpies built on the west 
coast of Florida were less well finished than those 
built elsewhere. 

The model shows a wide, sharpie hull having strong 
sheer, the greatest beam unusually far forward, the 
bottom cambered fore and aft, straight stem with a 
slight tumble-home, slightly raking transom, skeg 
fitted aft and rudder hung outboard, and moderate 
flare to sides. There is a deck forward and wide 
washboards with coamings along the sides, one thwart 
amidships, and a large centerboard amidships. The 
boat is fitted to row. Although the sloop rig, usually 
with a jib and gaff-mainsail, was most common in 
these boats in the 1890"s, it is rigged catboat fashion 
with single boomed gaff'-sail. The model represents 
an unusually ugly boat of the type. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, producing a 
sharpie 20 feet on the gunwales, 11 feet beam, 21 
inches depth, mast 17 feet 4 inches above the gun- 
wales, boom 19 feet 6 inches, gaff" 10 feet, and oars 
12 feet 3 inches. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FLORIDA SLOOP-RIGGED FISHING SHARPIE, 

1880 
Rigged Model, usnm 76273 

This model is of one of a class of sharpies once com- 
mon in the Florida Gulf Coast fisheries in the vicinity 
of St. Andrews and Panama City. These boats ranged 
in length from about 16 to 22 feet on the gunwale and 
were either open or half decked. They were unusual 



287 



in having a fore-gripe, or bow skeg, as well as a skeg 
aft. As a result they were very steady on the helm. 
When a fi.sherman was taking up his gear he often 
had to attend this rather than the helm, so the fore- 
gripe proved useful in these boats. 

The model shows an open skifT-like sharpie having 
a fiat bottom and straight, flaring sides, the flare very 
great at stern, strong camber fore-and-aft with 
moderate round forward and more aft, strong 
sheer, large centerboard, a nearly vertical straight 
stem, a raking transom of marked width, the rudder 
hung outboard, a bow (or breast) thwart, a wide mast 
thwart, one thwart aft of the centerboard case, and 
stern sheets. There is a skeg at stern, and a 
smaller skeg, or fore-gripe, at stem; the bow is long 
and sharp with a short but rising and flat run. These 
boats were characterized by the marked twist in their 
side planks; the flare of the sides gradually increasing 
as the stern was approached. 

The rig consists of a loose-footed sprit-mainsail and 
jib, the latter tacked to the stemhead. The model is 
fitted to row; a pair of oars and a steering sweep are 
stowed. 

Scale of model is 1 inch to the foot, producing a 
boat 20 feet 9 inches on the gunwale, 5 feet 7 inches 
beam, 22}^ inches depth, mast 14 feet 8 inches above 
gunwales, sprit 18 feet 6 inches, and oars 12 feet 2 
inches. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

CEDAR KEYS SEINE SKIFF, about 1890 
Rigged Model, usnm 76270 

This model is of a wide, shoal, sharpie skiff of the 
"flat iron" model that was once employed in the 
alongshore seine fishery at Cedar Keys, Florida. 
These boats were commonly fitted to row only, two 
oars to a side, using double thole pins at each oar. 



As illustrated by the model, the skiff had its greatest 
beam well aft, abaft the second thwart from the 
stem, and carried the seine at the stern, on a net 
deck a few inches below the gunwale. The stem 
was straight and nearly upright; the sides flared, the 
amount increasing from bow to stern. The sheer 
was slight and the rocker of the bottom moderate, 
coming from the heel of the stem in a straight line 
for about a fourth the bottom length and then ciu'ving 
very gently amidships to well aft, where the short 
run was formed. The entrance was rather sharp, 
considering the great beam. The boat was arranged 
with a foredeck at thwart height, two rowing thwarts, 
and a net deck about 4 feet long about 3 inches 
below the gunwale. The bottom was cross-planked 
and there was a very shallow skeg, or fore-gripe, at 
the stem and a small skeg at the stern. The transom 
was wide and set at a moderate rake. Floor boards 
were fitted inside to protect the bottom. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a skifl' 
20 feet 7 inches long overall, 8 feet 3 inches beam, about 
18 inches deep, stern 6 feet 4 inches wide at gunwale 
with a vertical depth of about 13 inches, foredeck 
reaching aft 4 feet 6 inches from face of stem, and 
net deck carried forward 4 feet 3 inches from top 
of transom. Oars sho^\■n lashed to thwarts, 12 feet 
long. 

Given by U. S. Fish Commission. 

FLORIDA GILL-NET ROWING SKIFF, 1893 
Rigged Model, usnm 76271 



This type of rowing skiff was once used at Cedar 
Keys, Florida, for gill-net mullet fishing. These 
boats were burdensome and did not have to be 
rowed long distances or maneu\'ered quickly. 

This model shows a large, open, flat-bottomed 
sharpie rowing skiff having strong sheer; a short. 




Bvilf of Timpm f/«n^o 



fa-f 
1 ui- 






Lines of a Florid.a Sharpie Schoo.ner, Built at Tampa, Florida, about 1891-92. Taken ofl" builder's halt- 
model USNM 76292. 



288 



straight, and upright stem; sharp entrance and short 
run; straight sides with moderate flare; a wide stern 
with a flat and raking transom; and the bottom much 
cambered fore-and-aft and fitted with bow and stern 
skegs, the former large. On the stern is mounted a 
platform for the nets. Fitted with two thwarts and 
tholes. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
20 feet 6 inches at gunwale, 7 feet 9 inches beam, and 
19^2 inches deep amidships. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FLORIDA SHARPIE SCHOONER, 1892 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 76292 

A large schooner-rigged sharpie was built from this 
half-model at Tampa, Florida, in 1891-92. This 
vessel was to be employed in the Gulf fisheries of that 
port, serving as a "run boat" to carry the catch from 
the "fishing ranches" to the Tampa market. Similar 
schooners were employed on the Florida east coast, 
in the Spanish mackerel fishery. The type was 
swift and could carry heavy loads on a light draft. 
The bottom was planked athwartships, and many of 
these sharpie schooners had clipper bows and round 
sterns or had flat, raking transoins. They were us- 
ually lofty in rig; sorne had gaff-sails and others had 
leg-of-mutton sails. Sharpies having no headsail 
and onlv two leg-of-mutton sails, with hulls up to 
45 feet length, were also employed at Tampa in the 
fisheries; these usually had round sterns and straight, 
upright stems. 

The half-model is of a schooner-rigged sharpie, 
having marked sheer and a long, sharp forebody with 
the greatest beam well aft of amidships. The run is 



short but easy and somewhat full near the stern. The 
bottom is cambered heavily fore-and-aft, the camber 
being greatest toward the stern, which is round and 
slightly flaring. The stem rabbet is straight and 
slightly raking. The midsection has flat floor carried 
straight across, an angular bilge, and a straight and 
.slightly flaring topside. Scale of the model is ]■, inch 
to the foot, for a vessel about 50 feet 5 inches on gun- 
wale, 12 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and 3 feet 11 J^ 
inches moulded depth. 

Somewhat similar schooners were built for the 
oyster fishery on the North Carolina Sounds in the 
period 1890 to 1910. These schooners usually had a 
short trunk cabin aft and a large hatch between the 
masts. 

Given by \V. S. Sweat, Tampa, Florida, 1892. 

FLORIDA SPONGE SLOOP, about 1906 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311525 

Emily 

The centerboard sponge sloop Emily was built from 
this half-model at Tarpon Springs, Florida, for the 
Florida sponge fishery. 

The model represents a centerboard sloop having 
some dead flat amidships and rather straight sheer; 
the keel is straight and its rabbet curves up aft to 
the V-shaped raking transom, where a skeg is fitted; 
the stem rabbet is nearly upright; and the entrance 
is sharp but short and the run short and full. The 
midsection shows a rising floor, hard bilge, and 
vertical topsides. 

Scale of the half-model is % inch to the foot, pro- 
ducing a sloop 26 feet 8 inches moulded length at 







Plan of a Sharpie Fishing Schooner Built at West Palm Beach, Florida, in 1899 for the Spanish mackerel 
fishery along the Florida reef. As taken off the vessel by the author. 



289 



deck, 8 feet moulded beam, and about 3 feet moulded 
depth. 

Given by E. P. MacrenarLs, Tarpon Springs, 
Florida. 

V-BOTTOM FISHING SCHOONER, about 1908 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311265 

This model of a fishina; and freighting schooner was 
built by Samuel Johnson, at Apalachicola, Florida, 
about 1908, the half-model represents a V-bottom 
hull having a keel rabbet that is straight forward 
and rises aft to the bottom of the transom, so as to 
be fitted with a skeg and centerboard. The transom 
rakes and is flat athwartships; the stem rabbet is 
rather straight and upright; the entrance is short but 
sharp and the run short but rather straight in the 
buttocks. The midsection shows a gently rising 
straight floor carried out to the chine, which is 
rounded off slightly; the topside flares out a little 
and is straight. The sheer is marked. The model 
somewhat resembles that of the Chesapeake Bay 
V-bottom hulls. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, for a vessel 
measuring 46 feet 6 inches length on deck, 13 feet 
6 inches moulded beam, and about 4 feet moulded 
depth. 

Given bv Samuel Johnson, shipbuilder, Apa- 
lachicola, Florida. 

FLORIDA FISHING BOAT, 1912 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311261 

This model is of a fishing craft stated by the donor 
to have been built at Apalachicola, Florida, about 
1912, and fitted with sail. However, judging by its 
form, this model is of a launch and not of a sailing 
hull. 

The half-model has a sharp, short entrance with the 
greatest beam well terward of midlength; a long, 
flat run; a straight keel with skeg aft, the keel rabbet 
rising aft to the Ijottom of the flat and raking transom 
but straight forward; a nearly straight and upright 
stem rabbet; and a rather straight sheer. The mid- 
section is formed with a moderately rising floor, a 
hard turn of bilge, and a nearly upright topsides. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 31 feet 10)^ inches moulded length at rail, 
10 feet 3 inches moulded beam, and about 3 feet 
moulded depth. 

Given by Samuel Johnson, shipbuilder, Apalach- 
cola, Florida. 



FLORIDA SPONGE BOAT, 1931 
Rigged Modfl, usnm 311882 

Century oj Progress 

This model represents a modern "Greek sponge 
boat," the Century of Progress. Built in 1931, she was 
rigged as a yawl and auxiliary-powered with a gasoline 
engine, and was employed on the west coast of 
Florida in the vicinity of Tarpon Springs. 

The half-model shows a cara\-el-planked keel sail- 
ing hull having a rather short, straight keel with some 
drag, a raking and strongly curved stem with the head 
carried high above deck, a raking sternpost; and a 
deep, heavy flat transom with rudder hung outboard 
and its blade partly cut away for the propeller 
aperttire. 

The entrance is short and convex, the rim short 
and full; the sheer is great; and the midsection is 
formed with a rising floor, very slack bilge, and flaring 
topside. 

She is rigged with a short mainmast having a gaff 
sail with loose foot and boom; the headstays come 
down to the stemhead and are capable of carrying a 
jib, though none is shown. The short jigger mast is 
stepped on the transom rail; its sail is a loo.se-footed 
leg-of-mutton sheeted to a swinging boom or outrigger, 
with the heel fixed on the transom. 

The deck arrangement shows at the bow a short 
raised deck with a cathead to port and at the break 
of this deck a timberhead carried high above the rail 
to starboard. Also to starboard and abaft the timber- 
head is a ladder for a diver, and abaft this and on the 
centerline is a high mooring bitt. Next abaft is the 
mainmast, followed by a diver's pump in a deck box, 
a low trunk cabin, a short deck space, a small after 
trunk cabin, small hatch, tiller, and transom with the 
jigger stepped on it. 

The model is painted white topsides, with a red 
copper bottom, and red and yellow moulding at and 
above the plank-sheer. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, for a JDoat 
43 feet 5 inches long at rail, 14 feet 10 inches beam, 
and drawing 5 feet 3 inches at post. 

Made and given by Ray F. Henry. 

FLORIDA SPONGE BOAT, about 1935 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311524 

A yawl-rigged auxiliary-powered sponge-fishing 
boat was liuilt from this half-model on the west coast 
of Florida near Tarpon Springs about 1935. This 
class of sponge boat is represented by a rigged model 
in the Watercraft Collection. 



290 



Greek Sponge Boat from Tarpon 
Springs, Florida, showing typical 
hull at the time, about 1920, when 
the type was being "modernized." 
{Smithsojiian photo 3242^.) 




The half-model represents a caravel-planked keel 
hull having a straight keel with some drag, a strongly 
curved stem rabbet and stem, a raking sternpost, flat 
transom with rudder hung outboard, an almost 
straight sheer, and the midsection formed with a 
straight rising floor, very slack bilge, and flaring top- 
side. The entrance and run are unusually full and 
short. 

The scale of the half-model is % inch to the foot, 
for a boat measuring 37 feet moulded length at rail, 

13 feet 7 inches moulded beam, and about 6 feet 6 
inches moulded depth. 

Given by A.. Kaminis, Tarpon Springs, Florida. 

FLORIDA SPONGE BOAT, 1943 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312756 

A yawl-rigged au.xiliary-powered sponge boat was 
built from this half-model on the west coast of Florida 
at Tarpon .Springs in 1943 by Leo Faskalitis. These 
boats were used by sponge divers of Greek descent, 
using di\ing hoods. A boat of this type is represented 
by a rigged model in the Watercraft Collection. 

Scale of the model is ^{^ inch to the foot, and repre- 
sents a boat about 37 feet 9 inches moulded length, 

14 feet 3 inches moulded beam, and about 6 feet 6 
inches moulded depth. 



The half-model is for a keel, sailing hull having a 
straight keel with some drag, raking post, flat and 
rather deep transom with rudder hung outboard, 
curved and raking stem rabbet, moderate sheer, short 
and full entrance, short but clean run, and a midsec- 
tion formed with slighdy rising straight floor, slack 
well-rounded bilge, and slighdy flaring topside. 

These boats were very seaworthy but not fast under 
sail or power. They replaced an older form of rowing 
and sailing double-ended boat ha\ing a single large 
square-headed spritsail; much sheer; a high stem and 
sternpost, both curved; short straight keel; and steeply 
rising floor and very slack bilge, with flaring topsides. 
They are similar in almost all particulars, to the 
"Sacoleve," of the Greek Archipelago. 

Given by Philip A. Sawyer, St. Augustine, Florida, 
1943. 

MENHADEN PURSE-SEINE BOAT, 1921 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311250 

Purse seineboats were built from this half-model for 
the menhaden fishery at Millville, Florida, in 1921. 
The half-model represents an open, double-ended 
caravel-planked boat having curved and rather 
upright stem and stern rabbets fairing into a straight 



291 



keel rabbet, moderate sheer, rather sharp and convex 
ends, and a midsection formed with a slightly rising 
straight floor, hard round bila;e, and shghtly flaring; 
topside. 

Scale of half-model is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 31 feet moulded length at gunwale, 8 feet 
moulded beam, and about 2 feet 8 inches moulded 
depth. These boats resembled the Gloucester seine 
boats in both form and arrangement, but are slightly 
more burden.some than those used in the mackerel 
fishery in New England. 

Given by Alexander Ceruti. Millville. Florida. 

FLORIDA SHRIMP BOAT, 1933 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 312757 

A shrimping boat was built from this model in 
1933 at Tarpon Springs, on the west coast of Florida, 
and 40 or 50 boats are said to have been built on it 
before 1943. Powered with automobile engines, and 
good carriers for their length, these boats usually 
have a small trunk cabin forward. 

The half-model represents a launch-type fishing boat 
having a long, sharp entrance and a short full run 
rather straight sheer, an upright and somewhat 
curved stem rabbet, a flat and slightly raking transom, 
and a midsection showing a rising straight floor, 
slack bilge, and rather upright topside. 

Scale of the model is 1 inch to the foot. The boat 
was 34 feet 3 inches moulded length at gunwale, and 
10 feet beam. 

Given by Philip A. Sawyer, St. Augustine, Florida. 

NEW ORLEANS LUGGER, about 1890 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311218 

A lugger was built from this half-model, about 
1890, by Henry Frentz at Bilo.xi, Mississippi, to 
engage in the shrimp and other shore fisheries. This 
type of centerboard, shoal-draft boat, rigged with 
one mast and a large dipping lug sail, was popularly 
known as the "New Orleans lugger." This type is 
also represented by a rigged model (usnm 76267) in the 
Watercraft Collection. The boats had a great local 
reputation for speed and seaworthiness, and could 
sail very close to the wind. 

The half-model shows a shoal, centerboard hull 
having a straight keel with slight drag, bold, sweeping 
sheer, upright and slightly curved stem, and a slightly 
raking post and transom, with rudder hung outboard. 
The stern is broad and the beam is carried well 
forward, so the bow at deck is rather round and full; 
the greatest beam at rail is forward of midlength. 



The entrance is short, slightly hollow, and sharp 
The run is rather long and easy. The plank keel was 
wide at the centerboard slot and tapered to bow and 
stern. The midsection shows slightly rising floors 
carried out straight and an easy bilge, coming plumb 
in the topsides. The bow sections are convex and 
without hollow; the run is hollow just forward of the 
post; and the transom is heart-shaped. The vessel 
is caravel planked. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, for a vessel 
about 33 feet 3 inches on deck, 1 1 feet 4 inches moulded 
ijeam, 3 feet 2 inches moulded depth, and drawing 
about 2 feet 3 inches at post. 

Given by George Frentz, Biloxi, Mississippi, 1936. 

NEW ORLEANS LUGGER, about 1893 
Rigged Model, usnm 76267 

This model represents the type of lug-rigged fishing 
boat, having a centerboard hull; once employed at 
and near New Orleans and commonly called the 
"New Orleans lugger"; it is the only known type of 
American fishing boat that had a dipping lug sail in 
the 19th century. A half-model (usnm 311218) of 
one of these luggers, in the Watercraft Collection, 
is for a smaller boat than this one. These boats were 
very weatherly and swift. The range of length was 
18 to 45 feet long. 

The rigged model is of a caravel-planked center- 
board hull, partially decked and having a large 
oval-shaped cockpit with a cuddy under a flush deck 
forward, entered through a slide companionway. 
The cockpit is partly covered with hatch covers and 
partitioned with pen boards. The entrance is rather 
full, with the sides at deck level rather straight fore- 
and-aft, in plan. The run is long and easy; the keel, 
a wide plank, is straight with some drag; the stern is 
nearly upright and is finished with a wide, heart- 
shaped transom, with the rudder hung outboard; 
and the stem is nearly straight and upright. The 
midsection shows a rising, straight floor, firm bilge, 
and upright topside. 

The mast stands well abaft the stem; to it a single 
large, loose-footed dipping lug is fitted. The tack 
travels on an iron horse across the bow and the sheet 
travels on another iron horse across the stern (by 
belaying the sheet and tack to windward it was not 
necessary to dip the lug in making short tacks in 
confined waters). 

Scale of the model, which represents a large boat of 
the type, is 1 inch to the foot, for a boat 40 feet 6 
inches at gunwale, 12 feet 6 inches beam, 4 feet 9 



292 



inches moulded depth, 2 feet 9 inches draft at post, 
mast 45 feet heel to truck, and yard 38 feet 6 inches. 
Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

LOUISIANA OYSTER SLOOP, about 1900 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311188 

Spectre 

This model was employed in the construction of the 
sloop Spectre at Morgan City, Louisiana, about 1900, 
for the oyster fishery. 

The half-model shows a centerboard sloop hull 
having a straight, upright stem rabbet, the keel 
rabbet straight forward but sweeping up aft to the 
bottom of a V-shaped raking transom. A small skeg 
is shown and the shoe of the keel is straight, with 
some drag. The entrance is short and rather sharp; 
the run is short and full in the buttocks. The mid- 
section is formed with a rising floor, a hard round 
bilge, and nearly upright topside. The sides amid- 
ships are nearly straight fore-and-aft and in general 
the hull is full-ended and burdensome. The sheer 
is very great. 

Scale of the model is apparently Yi inch to the 
foot, for a boat measuring 36 feet moulded length 
at gunwale, 13 feet moulded beam, and about 5 
feet moulded depth, .■\lthough for a much more 
burdensome vessel, this half-model resembles some- 
what the old New York and Long Island Sound 
centerboard working sloops of 1845-1900, which 
had a single large jib, gaff-mainsail, and a long 
bowsprit. 

Given by R.J. Terrebonne, Morgan City, Louisiana. 

BILOXI CATBOAT, about 1911 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311225 

This model represents a centerboard catboat built 
by Anson Holley at Biloxi, Mississippi about 1911. 
These boats were used in the shrimp fishery to some 
extent before launches were employed. They carried 
the single gaff-sail of the cat rig and differed from 
pleasure catboats only in being more burdensome and 
having fuller ends. They usually had a cuddy for- 
ward. 

The half-model shows a 24-foot centerboard cat- 
boat having moderate sheer, a rockered keel rabbet 
with skeg, producing a straight keel shoe with some 
drag, a raking flat transom, and a rather upright 
curved stem rabbet. The midsection has a rising 
straight floor, a hard turn of bilge, and upright top- 
sides. The entrance is short and sharp; the run is 
rather full and short. 



Scale of the model is ]{ inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 24 feet moulded length at gunwale, 9 feet 
moulded beam, and about 2 feet 4 inches moulded 
depth. 

Given by .\nson Holley, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 



FISHING SLOOP, about 1912 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 31 1237 



Annie 



The fishing sloop Annie was built from this 
half-model at Corpus Christi, Texas, about 1912 for 
the local fisheries. 

The half-model shows a keel sloop of yacht-like 
form having a short, straight keel with some drag, a 
raking post, a long counter ending in a sharply 
raking V-shaped transom. The stem rabbet is 
curved and fairs into the keel rabbet well aft, giving 
a marked forward overhang. The entrance is sharp 
but short; the run is rather long and easy. The 
sheer is rather straight. The midsection shows a 
rising straight floor and a very slack bilge, with a 
shallow upright topside. The greatest beam is 
about at midlenglh. 

Scale of the model is )■> inch to the foot; the model 
scales about 35 feet 9 inches length at rail, 11 feet 
moulded beam, and 5 feet 9 inches moulded depth. 
Given by Gustaf T. Nelson, shipbuilder, Corpus 
Christi, Texas. 

BILOXI SCHOONER-TYPE FISHING \^SSEL, 

about 1932 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311224 

A power fishing boat was built from this half- 
model, about 1932, at Biloxi, Mississippi, by Anson 
Holley. 

The half-model is of the proportions and general 
form of the centerboard schooners built earlier at 
Biloxi, but is slighth- modified at the stem; the out- 
line of the usual clipper bow rabbet is penciled on 
the back of the model, indicating the extent of the 
change from the old schooner form. It shows a 
vessel having a straight keel, a curved and rather 
upright stem rabbet, raking flat transom, a slightly 
hollow, sharp entrance and long flat run, moderate 
sheer, a straight side fore-and-aft amidships with 
greatest beam forward of midlength; the midsection 
shows a rising straight floor, hard turn of bilge, and 
an almost upright topside. 

Scale of the model is ]!, inch to the foot, to represent 
a vessel measuring about 60 feet 3 inches at gunwale 



293 



or rail, 14 feet 6 inches moulded beam, and about 
4 feet moulded depth. 

Model given by Anson Holley, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI FISHING LAUNCH, about 1900 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 3112.27 

A fishing launch was built from this half-model 
about 1900 or earlier by Willy Nels Johnson at 
Bilo.xi, Mississippi. It may be the model from which 
the launch Blue Ribbon was built about 1895. 

The half-model shows a narrow launch of the old 
type, having a straight and upright stem, keel rabbet 
straight forward and swept up aft to the fantail 
stern. Aft there is a skcg. The sheer is moderate; 
the entrance is long and sharp and the run rather 
short but well-formed; and the midsection shows a 
rising floor, a slack round bilge, and an upright 
topside. In general the form of this model resembles 
that of the old steam and naphtha launches of the 
1890's. 

Scale of model is probably % inch to the foot, to 
produce a boat about 27 feet 6 inches moulded 
length at gunwale, 7 feet 4 inches moulded beam, 
and about 3 feet moulded depth. 

Given by Jack Covacovich, shipbuilder, Bilo.xi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI FISHING LAUNCH, 1912-14 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311223 

Six fishing launches were built from this model at 
Biloxi, Mississippi, by Anson Holley about 1912- 
14. The model is of a type of Gulf coast fishing 
launch much used in the local shrimp fishery. 

The half-model shows a skeg-fitted hull, having a 
keel rabbet straight forward and swept up aft to the 
bottom of the transom, which is raking, flat, and 
wide. The straight keel shoe has some drag; the 
stem is straight and slightly raking; the entrance is 
short and sharp, and the run is also short but well- 
formed. The hull has a rather long straight side 
amidshijjs, and the midsection shows a rising floor, a 
hard round bilge, and a nearly upright topside. The 
hull of such launches as represented by this model 
was relati\ely shoal; the boats were suited only for 
work in protected waters. 

Scale of the model is fi inch to the foot, and it 
represents a launch about 29 feet 9 inches moulded 
length at gunwale, 8 feet 10 inches moulded beam, 
and drawing about 2 feet 4 inches at skeg. 

Given by Anson Holley, shipbuilder. Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 



BILOXI SHRIMP BOAT, 1905-10 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311219 

A launch for the shrimp fishery was built from this 
half-model at Biloxi, Mississippi, about 1905-10 by 
Anson Holley. The half-model is much damaged but 
represents a launch having rather straight sheer, the 
keel rabbet is nearly straight forward; but curves in 
a long sweep aft, where a skeg was to be fitted. The 
greatest depth of hull is well forward, the bow is long 
and sharp, and the run is straight and rather flat. 
The stem is curved at the rabbet and is rather up- 
right; the transom is wide, flat, and raking. 

Scale of the half-model is apparently ^^ inch to the 
foot, producing a vessel about 29 feet 6 inches long 
and perhaps 9 feet 6 inches beam. 

Model given by Anson Holley, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI SHRIMP BOAT, 1912-14 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311221 

This half-model is of a shrimp boat, built at Biloxi, 
Mississippi, in 1912-14 by Anson Holley. She was 
designed for a relatively low-powered gasoline engine. 

The half-iuodel represents a shoal launch having 
slight sheer, a rockered keel rabbet (there is the sug- 
gestion of a built-in skeg aft to give reverse curves in 
the sections in the wake of the built-in skeg), a straight 
keel shoe with some drag, a slightly raking and almost 
straight stem rabbet, and a wide and sharply raking 
transom. The midsection shows a moderately rising 
floor, a quick turn of bilge, and a rather upright top- 
side. The entrance is long and sharp and the run is 
well formed. 

Scale of the model is Y^ inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring 36 feet 6 inches moulded length at gun- 
wale, 9 feet 3 inches moulded beam, and about 4 feet 
moulded depth. 

Given by Anson Holley, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI SHRIMP BOAT, about 1915 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311220 

Twelve launches for the shrimp fishery were built 
from this model at Biloxi, Mississippi, before 1920 by 
Anson Holley. 

The half-model represents a long, shallow launch 
having slight sheer, a cambered keel rabbet sweeping 
up aft and intended to be fitted with a skeg, a wide 
square stern raking slightly, and a rather upright 
curved stem rabbet. The entrance is sharp and 
rather long, the rim long and straight in the buttocks. 
The greatest depth of hull is near the bow. The mid- 



294 



I 



section shows a rising floor, rather hard Isilge, and an 
upright topside. The bow is rather high and bold. 

Scale of the model is ji inch to the foot, for a boat 
measuring about 37 feet 4 inches moulded length at 
gunwale, 9 feet moulded beam, and about 3 feet 
draft at skeg. 

Given by Anson Holiey, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

BILOXI SHRIMP BOAT, 1920-22 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311233 

A launch for the shrimp fishery was built from this 
model at Bilo.xi, Mississippi, in 1920-22 bv Henry 
Brasher. 

The half-model shows a round-bottomed launch 
with its gi'eatest depth well forward and having a 
sharp entrance and rather long and flat run, a 
straight upright stem rabbet, a vertical square stern 
with a broad transom, a cambered keel rabbet, to 
which a skeg is intended to be fitted aft, and little 
sheer. The midsection shows a slightly rising floor, 
hard bilge, and upright topside. 

.Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, to produce 
a launch about 34 feet 2 inches moulded length at 
gunwale, 9 feet 8 inches moulded bean^, and drawing 
about 3 feet at skeg. 

Given by Henry Brasher, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

PASCAGOULA SHRIMP BOAT, 1925 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311248 

Lucille 

The shrimp boat Lucille was built from this model at 
Pascagoula, Mississippi, in 1925 by Portevin Brothers. 
She was a gasoline-engine powered launch, with the 
cuddy in a small trunk cabin. 

The half-model shows a launch-type hull having 
a wide square stern, a long run, a short sharp en- 
trance, an upright curved stem, and a raking flat 
transom. The midsection shows a rising floor with 
a rather slack round bilge. 

Scale of the model is '^ inch to the foot; the launch 
was 38 feet long, 12 feet beam, and about 4 feet 
moulded depth. 

Given by Portevin Brothers, boatbuilders, Pas- 
cagoula, Mississippi. 

TEXAS COAST FISHING LAUNCH, about 1928-30 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311251 

A fishing launch was to be built from this model at 
Palacios, Texas, by Rowland Hicks about 1928-30, 
but was not laid down. 



The half-model shows a launch-t\pe hull to be 
fitted with skeg and straight shoe with some drag; the 
keel rabbet is straight forward and sweeps up aft to 
a fantail stern, the stem is nearly straight and upright, 
and the sheer is quite straight. The midsection 
shows a rising floor, slack round bilge, and flaring 
topsides. The entrance is sharp and the run rather 
full. 

The model is on the scale of % inch to the foot, to 
represent a launch 38 feet moulded length at gunwale, 
12 feet moulded beam, and about 6 feet depth of side. 

Given b>' Rowland Hicks, boatbuilder, Palacios, 
Texas. 

MOTOR FISHING BOAT, 1929 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311251 

This model is of a design for a fishing vessel pro- 
posed by Rowland Hicks, of Palacios, Texas, but 
never built. 

The half-model shows a very full-ended and 
burdensome motor vessel having a fantail stern, 
straight sheer, keel rab'bet straight forward and 
curved up aft to the stern (a small skeg is shown), stem 
nearly straight and upright, entrance short and full, 
as is the run. The midsection shows a rounding and 
rising floor, a very slack bilge, and a flaring topside. 
The greatest beam is forward of midlength. 

Scale of the model is ]^ inch to the foot, for a vessel 
about 53 feet moulded length on deck, 21 feet moulded 
beam, and about 7 feet moulded depth. 

Given bv Rowland Hicks, boatbuilder. Palacios, 
Texas. 

BILOXI TRAWL BOAT, 1930 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 311229 

From this model a trawl boat was built in 1930 at 
Biloxi, Mississippi, by Jack Co\-aco\-ich. Altogether, 
four boats were built from it. 

The half-model is for a launch having an upright 
stem rabbet, upright flat transom, small sheer, and 
the keel rabbet straight forward but rising aft to the 
bottom of the transom and intended to be fitted 
with a skeg. The entrance is short but sharp, the 
run long and flat, the stern is wide, the greatest beam 
is well forward of midlength, and the midsection is 
formed with a rising floor, slack rounded bilge, and 
an upright topside. 

Scale of the model is % inch to the foot, for a vessel 
33 feet 3 inches moulded length, 10 feet 4 inches 
moulded beam, and about 5 feet moulded depth. 

Given bv Jack Covacovich, shipbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 



29.5 




Columbia River Salmon Boat of 
tlie type developed about 1885. 
Rigged model USNM 285033. 

(Smithsonian photo 4^606.) 



BILOXI FISHING LAUNCH, 193337 
Builder's Half-Model, usnm 211230 

Seacoast No. 1, Dr. Ki/lgis, 'Kemuui B. 

A number of fishing launches were built at Biloxi. 
Mississippi, from this model by W. H. Bowen between 
1933 and 1937. Among these were Seacoast No. 7, 
Dr. h'ulgis, and Rcmma B. This class of fishing launch 
worked in sheltered waters. 

The half-model shows a common type of fishing 
launch having a caravel-planked hull the keel rabbet 
in a long sweep, with a skeg fitted aft to give a straight 
keel having some drag, a raking curved stem, and 
a raking flat transom of marked width. The hull is 
rather wide and shoal; the midsection shows a rising 
straight floor, a hard turn of bilge, and a nearly 
upright topside. The entrance is short but sharp; 
the run is also short, with the dead rise amidships 
carried at a nearly constant angle to the transom. 
The sheer is marked. 

Scale of the model is apparently % inch to the foot, 



to produce a huinclt 25 feet 3 inches long, 12 feet 
beam, and about 2 feet draft. 

Given by W. H. Bowen, boatbuilder, Biloxi, 
Mi-ssissippi. 

LOUISIANA PIROGUE, 1882 
Rigged Model, usnm 55820 

This type of canoe, or pirogue, was dug out of a 
single large cypress log and was usually rather boatlike 
in form. 

The model represents an open log canoe having 
a sharp bow curved at the forefoot and nearly upright 
above, a sharp entrance and a short but easy run. 
a nearly upright heart-shaped transom, rather straight 
sheer and straight keel, and the midsection showing a 
nearly flat floor, round easy bilge, and flaring topside. 

The model is fitted with two thwarts, stern sheets, 
and four oars. These canoes were rowed, paddled, 
or poled, and a few were sailed with a small spritsail: 
in these there was often a rather deep keel nailed 
to the bottom about amidships. 



296 



Scale of model is 2 inches to the foot, giving a 
length of 17 feet, beam 3 feet l}i inches, depth inside 
16 inches, and oars 6 feet 2 inches long. 

Given by U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

LO